Xenin and Related Peptides: Potential Therapeutic Role in Diabetes and Related Metabolic Disorders

Sarah L Craig, Nigel Irwin, Victor A Gault

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)
36 Downloads (Pure)


Xenin bioactivity and its role in normal physiology has been investigated by several research groups since its discovery in 1992. The 25 amino acid peptide hormone is secreted from the same enteroendocrine K-cells as the incretin hormone glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), with early studies highlighting the biological significance of xenin in the gastrointestinal tract, along with effects on satiety. Recently there has been more focus directed towards the role of xenin in insulin secretion and potential for diabetes therapies, especially through its ability to potentiate the insulinotropic actions of GIP as well as utilisation in dual/triple acting gut hormone therapeutic approaches. Currently, there is a lack of clinically approved therapies aimed at restoring GIP bioactivity in type 2 diabetes mellitus, thus xenin could hold real promise as a diabetes therapy. The biological actions of xenin, including its ability to augment insulin secretion, induce satiety effects, as well as restoring GIP sensitivity, earmark this peptide as an attractive antidiabetic candidate. This minireview will focus on the multiple biological actions of xenin, together with its proposed mechanism of action and potential benefits for the treatment of metabolic diseases such as diabetes.
Original languageEnglish
Article number11795514211043868
Pages (from-to)117955142110438
Number of pages1
JournalClinical Medicine Insights: Endocrinology and Diabetes
Early online date22 Sept 2021
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© The Author(s) 2021.

© The Author(s) 2021.


  • Review Article
  • Xenin-25
  • glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide
  • insulin secretion
  • satiety
  • hybrid peptides
  • diabetes
  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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