Workplace culture in psychiatric nursing described by nurses

Kaisa Kurjenluoma, A Rantanen, Brendan McCormack, P Slater, N Hahtela, T Suominen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aim: This study looks to describe the workplace culture from the viewpoints of stress, job satisfaction and practice environment. Methods: Data were collected from nurses (n=109) using a web-based survey, The Person Centred Nursing Index, from two purposefully selected hospital districts in Finland. Data were statistically analyzed. Results: Nurses described their workplace culture in slightly positive terms. Nurses only occasionally experienced stress (mean 2.56, SD 0.55),and were fairly satisfied with their job (mean 4.75, SD 0.66) and their practice environment (mean 4.42, SD 0.81). Demographic variables such as the nurses’ age, length of time in nursing, time at their present hospital, working shifts, and their use of patient restriction were more frequently associated with their perceived workplace culture.Conclusion: Older nurses and those with a longer work history in the nursing profession tended to be more satisfied with their workplace culture in psychiatric nursing. Young and/or newly graduated nurses felt more negatively on their workplace culture; this issue should be recognized and addressed with appropriate support and mentoring. Nurses who used restrictive measures were more often less satisfied with their workplace culture. Continuous efforts are needed to reduce the use of coercive measures, which challenge also the managers to support nursing practice to be more person-centred
LanguageEnglish
Pages1048-1058
Number of pages11
JournalScandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Volume31
Issue number4
Early online date24 Apr 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2017

Fingerprint

Psychiatric Nursing
Workplace
Nurses
Nursing
History of Nursing
District Hospitals
Job Satisfaction
Finland
Demography

Keywords

  • job satisfaction
  • job stress
  • psychiatric nursing
  • practice environment
  • workplace culture

Cite this

Kurjenluoma, K., Rantanen, A., McCormack, B., Slater, P., Hahtela, N., & Suominen, T. (2017). Workplace culture in psychiatric nursing described by nurses. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 31(4), 1048-1058. https://doi.org/10.1111/scs.12430
Kurjenluoma, Kaisa ; Rantanen, A ; McCormack, Brendan ; Slater, P ; Hahtela, N ; Suominen, T. / Workplace culture in psychiatric nursing described by nurses. In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences. 2017 ; Vol. 31, No. 4. pp. 1048-1058.
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note = "Reference text: References 1. Oulton J. A. The global nursing shortage: An overview of issues and actions. Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice 2006; 7(3): 345–395. 2. Buchan J., O´May F. & Dussault G. Nursing workforce policy and the economic crisis: A global overview. Journal of Nursing Scholarship 2013; 45(3): 298–307. Doi: 10.1111/jnu.12028 3. Chan Z. C. Y., Tam W. S., Lung M. K. Y., Wong W. Y. & Chau C. W. A systematic literature review of nurse shortage and the intention to leave. Journal of Nursing Management 2013; 21: 605–613. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.2012.01437.x 4. Flinkman M. Young registered nurses’ intent to leave the profession in Finland – A mixedmethod study. Doctoral Thesis: University of Turku; Annales Universitatis Turkuensis D 1107 2014. 5. Slater P. & McCormack B. An exploration of the factor structure of the nursing work index. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing 2007; 4(1): 30–39. Doi: 10.1111/j.1741- 6787.2007.00076.x 6. Hyv{\"o}nen J. The Finnish psychiatric health services in the 1990’s from the point of view of historical continuity. Kuopio University Publications D. Medical Sciences 440 2008 7. Hanrahan N. P. & Aiken L. H. Psychiatric nurse reports on the quality of psychiatric care in general hospitals. Quality Management in Health Care 2008; 17(3): 210–217. Doi: 10.1097/01.QMH.0000326725.55460.af 8. Farmakas A., Papastavrou E., Siskou O., Karayiannas G. & Theodorou M. Challenges in mental health nursing: working in institutional or community settings? Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 2014; 21: 39–45. Doi: 10.1111/jpm.12045 9. Johansson C., {\AA}str{\"o}m S., Kauffeldt A., Helldin L. & Carlstr{\"o}m W. Culture as a predictor of resistance to change: A study of competing values in a psychiatric nursing context. Health Policy 2014; 114: 156–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2013.07.014 10. Happell B. & Koehn S. Seclusion as a necessary intervention: the relationship between burnout, job satisfaction and therapeutic optimism and justification for the use of seclusion. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2011; 67(6): 1222–1231. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365- 2648.2010.05570.x 11. Happell B., Dares G., Russell A., Cokell S., Platania-Phung C. & Gaskin C. J. The relationship between attitudes toward seclusion and levels of burnout, staff satisfaction, and therapeutic optimism in a district health service. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 2012; 33: 329–336. Doi: 10.3109/01612840.2011.644028 12. Paterson B., McIntosh I., Wilkinson D., McComish S. & Smith I. Corrupted cultures in mental health inpatient settings. Is restraint reduction the answer? Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 2013; 20(3): 228–235. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2850.2012.01918.x 13. Manley K. Organisational culture and consultant nurse outcomes: Part 1 – Organisational culture. Nursing in Critical Care 2000; 5(4): 179–184. 14. Scott-Findlay S. & Estabrooks C.A. Mapping the organizational culture research in nursing: a literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2006; 56 (5): 498–513. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.04044.x. 15. Schein E. H. Organizational culture and leadership. 4th edition. 2010, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. 16. Sullivan E.J. & Decker P.J. Effective Leadership and Management in Nursing. 7th edition. 2009, Pearson International Edition, New Jersey. 17. Nardi D. A. & Gyurko C. C. The global nursing faculty shortage: status and solutions for change. Journal of Nursing Scholarship 2013; 45(3): 317–326. Doi: 10.1111/jnu.12030 18. Goodnite P. M. Stress: A concept analysis. Nursing Forum 2013; 49(1): 71–74. Doi:10.1111/nuf.12044 19. S{\o}rgaard K. W., Ryan P., Hill R., Dawson I. & the OSCAR group. Sources of stress and burnout in acute psychiatric care: inpatient vs. community staff. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology 2007; 42: 794–802. Doi: 10.1007/s00127-007-0228-6 20. Hamdan-Mansour A. M., Al-Gaal E., Puskar K., Yacoub M. & Marini A. Mental health nursing in Jordan: An investigation into experience, work stress and organizational support. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing 2011; 20: 86–94. Doi: 10.1111/j.1447- 0349.2010.00716.x. 21. Dallender J. & Nolan P. Mental health work observed: a comparison of the perceptions of psychiatrists and mental health nurses. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 2002; 9(2): 131–137. Doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2850.2002.00414.x 22. Slater P., McCormack B. & Bunting B. The development and pilot testing of an instrument to measure nurses’ working environment: The nursing context index. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing 2009; 6(3): 173–182. Doi:10.1111/j.1741-6787.2009.00159.x 23. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health [Internet]. Helsinki: Act on Specialized Medical Care 1062/1989; 1989 [cited 2015 January 14]. Available from: http://finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1989/en19891062?search[type]=pika&search[pika]=speci alized 24. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health [Internet]. Helsinki: Mental Health Act 1116/1990; 1990 [Cited 2015 January 14]. Available from: http://finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1990/en19901116?search[type]=pika&search[pika]=ment al{\%}20health 25. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health [Internet]. Helsinki: Health Care Act 1326/2010; 2010 [Cited 2015 January 14]. Available from: http://finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/2010/en20101326?search[type]=pika&search[pika]=healt h{\%}20care 26. Hahtela N., Paavilainen E., McCormack B., Slater P., Helminen M. & Suominen T. Influence of workplace culture on nursing-sensitive nurse outcomes in municipal primary health care. Journal of Nursing Management 2014. Doi: 10.1111/jonm.12237. 27. Eskola S., Roos M., McCormack B., Slater P., Hahtela N. & Suominen T. (2016). Workplace culture among operating room nurses. Journal of Nursing Management 2016; Accepted. 28. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health [Internet]. Helsinki: Medical Research Act 488/1999; 1999 [Cited 2016 October 30]. Available from: http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990488.pdf 29. IBM Corp. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. 2013, IBM Corp, Armonk, NY. 30. Jansen R. & Venter I. Psychiatric nursing: an unpopular choice. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 2015; 22(2): 142–148. Doi: 10.1111/jpm.12138 31. CPT European committee for the prevention of torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (CPT) [Internet]. Strasbourg: CPT standards (“Substantive” sections of the CPT’s General Reports); 2015 [Cited 2016 April 9]. Available from:",
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Kurjenluoma, K, Rantanen, A, McCormack, B, Slater, P, Hahtela, N & Suominen, T 2017, 'Workplace culture in psychiatric nursing described by nurses', Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 1048-1058. https://doi.org/10.1111/scs.12430

Workplace culture in psychiatric nursing described by nurses. / Kurjenluoma, Kaisa; Rantanen, A; McCormack, Brendan; Slater, P; Hahtela, N; Suominen, T.

In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, Vol. 31, No. 4, 12.2017, p. 1048-1058.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Workplace culture in psychiatric nursing described by nurses

AU - Kurjenluoma, Kaisa

AU - Rantanen, A

AU - McCormack, Brendan

AU - Slater, P

AU - Hahtela, N

AU - Suominen, T

N1 - Reference text: References 1. Oulton J. A. The global nursing shortage: An overview of issues and actions. Policy, Politics & Nursing Practice 2006; 7(3): 345–395. 2. Buchan J., O´May F. & Dussault G. Nursing workforce policy and the economic crisis: A global overview. Journal of Nursing Scholarship 2013; 45(3): 298–307. Doi: 10.1111/jnu.12028 3. Chan Z. C. Y., Tam W. S., Lung M. K. Y., Wong W. Y. & Chau C. W. A systematic literature review of nurse shortage and the intention to leave. Journal of Nursing Management 2013; 21: 605–613. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2834.2012.01437.x 4. Flinkman M. Young registered nurses’ intent to leave the profession in Finland – A mixedmethod study. Doctoral Thesis: University of Turku; Annales Universitatis Turkuensis D 1107 2014. 5. Slater P. & McCormack B. An exploration of the factor structure of the nursing work index. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing 2007; 4(1): 30–39. Doi: 10.1111/j.1741- 6787.2007.00076.x 6. Hyvönen J. The Finnish psychiatric health services in the 1990’s from the point of view of historical continuity. Kuopio University Publications D. Medical Sciences 440 2008 7. Hanrahan N. P. & Aiken L. H. Psychiatric nurse reports on the quality of psychiatric care in general hospitals. Quality Management in Health Care 2008; 17(3): 210–217. Doi: 10.1097/01.QMH.0000326725.55460.af 8. Farmakas A., Papastavrou E., Siskou O., Karayiannas G. & Theodorou M. Challenges in mental health nursing: working in institutional or community settings? Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 2014; 21: 39–45. Doi: 10.1111/jpm.12045 9. Johansson C., Åström S., Kauffeldt A., Helldin L. & Carlström W. Culture as a predictor of resistance to change: A study of competing values in a psychiatric nursing context. Health Policy 2014; 114: 156–162. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.healthpol.2013.07.014 10. Happell B. & Koehn S. Seclusion as a necessary intervention: the relationship between burnout, job satisfaction and therapeutic optimism and justification for the use of seclusion. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2011; 67(6): 1222–1231. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365- 2648.2010.05570.x 11. Happell B., Dares G., Russell A., Cokell S., Platania-Phung C. & Gaskin C. J. The relationship between attitudes toward seclusion and levels of burnout, staff satisfaction, and therapeutic optimism in a district health service. Issues in Mental Health Nursing 2012; 33: 329–336. Doi: 10.3109/01612840.2011.644028 12. Paterson B., McIntosh I., Wilkinson D., McComish S. & Smith I. Corrupted cultures in mental health inpatient settings. Is restraint reduction the answer? Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 2013; 20(3): 228–235. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2850.2012.01918.x 13. Manley K. Organisational culture and consultant nurse outcomes: Part 1 – Organisational culture. Nursing in Critical Care 2000; 5(4): 179–184. 14. Scott-Findlay S. & Estabrooks C.A. Mapping the organizational culture research in nursing: a literature review. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2006; 56 (5): 498–513. Doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2006.04044.x. 15. Schein E. H. Organizational culture and leadership. 4th edition. 2010, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. 16. Sullivan E.J. & Decker P.J. Effective Leadership and Management in Nursing. 7th edition. 2009, Pearson International Edition, New Jersey. 17. Nardi D. A. & Gyurko C. C. The global nursing faculty shortage: status and solutions for change. Journal of Nursing Scholarship 2013; 45(3): 317–326. Doi: 10.1111/jnu.12030 18. Goodnite P. M. Stress: A concept analysis. Nursing Forum 2013; 49(1): 71–74. Doi:10.1111/nuf.12044 19. Sørgaard K. W., Ryan P., Hill R., Dawson I. & the OSCAR group. Sources of stress and burnout in acute psychiatric care: inpatient vs. community staff. Social Psychiatry & Psychiatric Epidemiology 2007; 42: 794–802. Doi: 10.1007/s00127-007-0228-6 20. Hamdan-Mansour A. M., Al-Gaal E., Puskar K., Yacoub M. & Marini A. Mental health nursing in Jordan: An investigation into experience, work stress and organizational support. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing 2011; 20: 86–94. Doi: 10.1111/j.1447- 0349.2010.00716.x. 21. Dallender J. & Nolan P. Mental health work observed: a comparison of the perceptions of psychiatrists and mental health nurses. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 2002; 9(2): 131–137. Doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2850.2002.00414.x 22. Slater P., McCormack B. & Bunting B. The development and pilot testing of an instrument to measure nurses’ working environment: The nursing context index. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing 2009; 6(3): 173–182. Doi:10.1111/j.1741-6787.2009.00159.x 23. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health [Internet]. Helsinki: Act on Specialized Medical Care 1062/1989; 1989 [cited 2015 January 14]. Available from: http://finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1989/en19891062?search[type]=pika&search[pika]=speci alized 24. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health [Internet]. Helsinki: Mental Health Act 1116/1990; 1990 [Cited 2015 January 14]. Available from: http://finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/1990/en19901116?search[type]=pika&search[pika]=ment al%20health 25. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health [Internet]. Helsinki: Health Care Act 1326/2010; 2010 [Cited 2015 January 14]. Available from: http://finlex.fi/en/laki/kaannokset/2010/en20101326?search[type]=pika&search[pika]=healt h%20care 26. Hahtela N., Paavilainen E., McCormack B., Slater P., Helminen M. & Suominen T. Influence of workplace culture on nursing-sensitive nurse outcomes in municipal primary health care. Journal of Nursing Management 2014. Doi: 10.1111/jonm.12237. 27. Eskola S., Roos M., McCormack B., Slater P., Hahtela N. & Suominen T. (2016). Workplace culture among operating room nurses. Journal of Nursing Management 2016; Accepted. 28. Ministry of Social Affairs and Health [Internet]. Helsinki: Medical Research Act 488/1999; 1999 [Cited 2016 October 30]. Available from: http://www.finlex.fi/fi/laki/kaannokset/1999/en19990488.pdf 29. IBM Corp. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 22.0. 2013, IBM Corp, Armonk, NY. 30. Jansen R. & Venter I. Psychiatric nursing: an unpopular choice. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing 2015; 22(2): 142–148. Doi: 10.1111/jpm.12138 31. CPT European committee for the prevention of torture and inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment (CPT) [Internet]. Strasbourg: CPT standards (“Substantive” sections of the CPT’s General Reports); 2015 [Cited 2016 April 9]. Available from:

PY - 2017/12

Y1 - 2017/12

N2 - Aim: This study looks to describe the workplace culture from the viewpoints of stress, job satisfaction and practice environment. Methods: Data were collected from nurses (n=109) using a web-based survey, The Person Centred Nursing Index, from two purposefully selected hospital districts in Finland. Data were statistically analyzed. Results: Nurses described their workplace culture in slightly positive terms. Nurses only occasionally experienced stress (mean 2.56, SD 0.55),and were fairly satisfied with their job (mean 4.75, SD 0.66) and their practice environment (mean 4.42, SD 0.81). Demographic variables such as the nurses’ age, length of time in nursing, time at their present hospital, working shifts, and their use of patient restriction were more frequently associated with their perceived workplace culture.Conclusion: Older nurses and those with a longer work history in the nursing profession tended to be more satisfied with their workplace culture in psychiatric nursing. Young and/or newly graduated nurses felt more negatively on their workplace culture; this issue should be recognized and addressed with appropriate support and mentoring. Nurses who used restrictive measures were more often less satisfied with their workplace culture. Continuous efforts are needed to reduce the use of coercive measures, which challenge also the managers to support nursing practice to be more person-centred

AB - Aim: This study looks to describe the workplace culture from the viewpoints of stress, job satisfaction and practice environment. Methods: Data were collected from nurses (n=109) using a web-based survey, The Person Centred Nursing Index, from two purposefully selected hospital districts in Finland. Data were statistically analyzed. Results: Nurses described their workplace culture in slightly positive terms. Nurses only occasionally experienced stress (mean 2.56, SD 0.55),and were fairly satisfied with their job (mean 4.75, SD 0.66) and their practice environment (mean 4.42, SD 0.81). Demographic variables such as the nurses’ age, length of time in nursing, time at their present hospital, working shifts, and their use of patient restriction were more frequently associated with their perceived workplace culture.Conclusion: Older nurses and those with a longer work history in the nursing profession tended to be more satisfied with their workplace culture in psychiatric nursing. Young and/or newly graduated nurses felt more negatively on their workplace culture; this issue should be recognized and addressed with appropriate support and mentoring. Nurses who used restrictive measures were more often less satisfied with their workplace culture. Continuous efforts are needed to reduce the use of coercive measures, which challenge also the managers to support nursing practice to be more person-centred

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KW - job stress

KW - psychiatric nursing

KW - practice environment

KW - workplace culture

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DO - 10.1111/scs.12430

M3 - Article

VL - 31

SP - 1048

EP - 1058

JO - Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences

T2 - Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences

JF - Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences

SN - 0283-9318

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ER -