Working within an Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) framework: Consultant practice and athlete reflections on refining emotion regulation skills

Charlotte Woodcock, Jennifer Cumming, Joan. L. Duda, Lee-Ann Sharp

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    13 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Objective: To examine how working within Hanin’s (2000a) Individual Zone of Optimal Functioningtheoretical model (IZOF) informs intervention development for enhancing athletes’ emotion regulation skills.Design: A single case study design was adopted to examine the applied process of facilitating a female university cross-country runner’s emotion regulation skills.Method: Consultant reflections followed Boud’s (2001) reflective learning model for immediate anddelayed reflection that informed an action research narrative organized round Kellmann and Beckmann’s (2003) action research cycle. A social validation interview was conducted following program completion to examine the athlete’s responses to the emotion regulation intervention.Results: Consultant’s professional practice decisions and action taken to support the intervention are highlighted. Specifically, the employment and extension of Hanin’s (2000c) IZOF profiling process to inform the development of athlete skills in emotion regulation are described. Moreover, how the content and intensity of performance related subjective emotion, physiological symptom, and cognitive zone profiles for optimal performance guided the identification and enhancement of techniques contributing to effective emotion regulation is illustrated. Athlete interview responses support the overall efficacy of the intervention program.Conclusion: The present case study supports the efficacy of working within an IZOF framework from a consultant perspective. Furthermore, athlete reflections suggest enhanced skills in emotion regulation were perceived to result from the intervention.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages291-302
    JournalPsychology of Sport and Exercise
    Volume13
    Publication statusPublished - 2012

    Fingerprint

    Consultants
    Athletes
    Emotions
    Health Services Research
    Interviews
    Neurobehavioral Manifestations
    Professional Practice
    Learning

    Keywords

    • Sport psychology
    • IZOF
    • professional practice
    • emotion regulation
    • applied practice

    Cite this

    @article{511551f4e2a8456680971a241189030d,
    title = "Working within an Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) framework: Consultant practice and athlete reflections on refining emotion regulation skills",
    abstract = "Objective: To examine how working within Hanin’s (2000a) Individual Zone of Optimal Functioningtheoretical model (IZOF) informs intervention development for enhancing athletes’ emotion regulation skills.Design: A single case study design was adopted to examine the applied process of facilitating a female university cross-country runner’s emotion regulation skills.Method: Consultant reflections followed Boud’s (2001) reflective learning model for immediate anddelayed reflection that informed an action research narrative organized round Kellmann and Beckmann’s (2003) action research cycle. A social validation interview was conducted following program completion to examine the athlete’s responses to the emotion regulation intervention.Results: Consultant’s professional practice decisions and action taken to support the intervention are highlighted. Specifically, the employment and extension of Hanin’s (2000c) IZOF profiling process to inform the development of athlete skills in emotion regulation are described. Moreover, how the content and intensity of performance related subjective emotion, physiological symptom, and cognitive zone profiles for optimal performance guided the identification and enhancement of techniques contributing to effective emotion regulation is illustrated. Athlete interview responses support the overall efficacy of the intervention program.Conclusion: The present case study supports the efficacy of working within an IZOF framework from a consultant perspective. Furthermore, athlete reflections suggest enhanced skills in emotion regulation were perceived to result from the intervention.",
    keywords = "Sport psychology, IZOF, professional practice, emotion regulation, applied practice",
    author = "Charlotte Woodcock and Jennifer Cumming and Duda, {Joan. L.} and Lee-Ann Sharp",
    note = "Reference text: Andersen, M. B. (2000). Beginnings: intakes and the initiation of relationships. In M. B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing sport psychology (pp. 3e16). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Annesi, J. J. (1998). Applications of the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning model for the multimodal treatment of precompetitive anxiety. The Sport Psychologist, 12, 300e316. Beckmann, J., & Kellmann, M. (2003). Procedures and principles of sport psychological assessment. The Sport Psychologist, 17, 338e350. Borg, G. (1998). Borg’s perceived exertion and pain scales. Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Bortoli, L., & Robazza, C. (2002). Idiosyncratic performance affect in volleyball referees: an extension of the IZOF-emotion model profiling. Journal of Sport Behavior, 25, 115e133. Boud, D. (2001). Using journal writing to enhance reflective practice. In L. A. English, & M. A. Gillen (Eds.), Promoting journal writing in adult education, Vol. 90 (pp. 9e18). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Bull, S. J. (1991). Personal and situational influences on adherence to mental skills training. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 13, 121e132. Burton, D., & Weiss, C. (2008). The fundamental goal concept: the path to process and performance success. In T. S. Horn (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology (pp. 339e375). Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics. Evans, L., Fleming, S., & Hardy, L. (2000). Situating action research: a response to Gilbourne. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 206e303. Filby, W. C. D., Maynard, I. W., & Graydon, J. K. (1999). The effect of multiple-goal strategies on performance outcomes in training and competition. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11, 230e246. doi:10.1080/10413209908404202. Fischer, A., Manstead, A. S. R., Evers, C., Timmers, M., & Valk, G. (2004). Motives and norms underlying emotion regulation. In P. Philippot, & R. S. Feldman (Eds.), The regulation of emotion (pp. 189e214). London, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Giges, B. (2000). Removing psychological barriers: clearing the way. In M. B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing sport psychology (pp. 17e31). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: conceptual foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 3e24). New York: Guildford Press. Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin, & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 105e117). London, UK: Sage. Hanin, Y. L. (2000a). Individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF) model. In Y. L. Hanin (Ed.), Emotions in sport (pp. 65e89). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Hanin, Y. L. (2000b). Successful and poor performance and emotions. In Y. L. Hanin (Ed.), Emotions in sport (pp. 157e187). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Hanin, Y. L. (2000c). IZOF-based emotion-profiling: step-wise procedures and forms. In Y. L. Hanin (Ed.), Emotions in sport (pp. 303e313). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Hanin, Y. L. (2003). Performance related emotional states in sport: a qualitative analysis [48 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum. Qualitative Social Research, 4. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs030151. Hanin, Y. L. (2007). Emotions in sport: current issues and perspectives. In G.Tenenbaum., & R. C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (3rd ed.). (pp. 31e58) Hobolen, NJ: Wiley & Sons. Hanin, Y. L. (2010). Coping with anxiety in sport. In A. R. Nicholls (Ed.), Coping in sport: Theory, methods, and related constructs (pp. 159e175). New York, NY: Nova Science. Hanin, Y., & Hanina, M. (2009). Optimization of performance in top-level athletes: an action-focused coping approach. International Journal of Sport Science & Coaching, 4, 47e91. doi:10.1260/1747-9541.4.1.47. Hanin, Y., & Stambulova, N. B. (2002). Metaphoric description of performance states: an application of the IZOF model. The Sport Psychologist, 16, 396e415. Hanin, Y., & Syrj{\"a}, P. (1995). Performance affect in junior ice hockey players: an application of the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning model. The Sport Psychologist, 9, 169e187. Hardy, J., Roberts, R., & Hardy, L. (2009). Awareness and motivation to change negative self-talk. The Sport Psychologist, 23, 435e450. Harmison, R. J. (2006). Peak performance in sport: identifying ideal performance states and developing athletes’ psychological skills. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37, 233e243. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.37.3.233. Huang, H. B. (2010). What is good action research?: why the resurgent interest? Action Research, 8, 93e109. doi:10.1177/1476750310362435. Jackson, S. A. (2000). Joy, fun, and flow state in sport. In Y. L. Hanin (Ed.), Emotions in sport (pp. 135e155). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Jones, G. (1995). More than just a game: research developments and issues in competitive state anxiety in sport. British Journal of Psychology, 86, 449e478. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1995.tb02565.x. Jones, M. V. (2003). Controlling emotions in sport. The Sport Psychologist, 17, 471e486. Jones, G., Hanton, S., & Swain, A. (1994). Intensity and interpretation of anxiety symptoms in elite and non-elite sports performers. Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 657e663. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(94)90138-4. Jones, M. V., Mace, R. D., & Williams, S. (2000). Relationship between emotional state and performance during international field hockey matches. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 90, 691e701. doi:10.2466/PMS.90.2.691-701. Kellmann, M., & Beckmann, J. (2003). Research and intervention in sport psychology: new perspectives on an inherent conflict. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1, 13e26. Kingston, K. M., & Hardy, L. (1997). Effects of different types of goals on processes that support performance. The Sport Psychologist, 11, 277e293. Kiresuk, T. J., & Sherman, R. E. (1968). Goal attainment scaling: a general method for evaluating comprehensive community mental health programs. Community Mental Health Journal, 4, 443e453. doi:10.1007/BF01530764. Krauss, S. E. (2005). Research paradigms and meaning making: a primer. The Qualitative Report, 758e770. Lang, P. J. (1979). A bio-informational theory of emotional imagery. Psychophysiology, 16, 495e512. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1979.tb01511.x. Lang, P. J., Kozak, M. J., Miller, G. A., Levin, D. N., & McLean, A., Jr. (1980). Emotional imagery: conceptual structure and pattern of somato-visceral response. Psychophysiology, 17, 179e192. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1980.tb00133.x. Lazarus, R. S. (2000). How emotions influence performance in competitive sports. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 229e252. Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Martin, G., & Hrycaiko, D. (1983). Effective behavioral coaching: what’s it all about? Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 5, 8e20. Mellalieu, S. D., Hanton, S., & Fletcher, D. (2006). A competitive anxiety review: recent directions in sport psychology research. In S. Hanton, & S. D. Mellalieu (Eds.), Literature reviews in sport psychology (pp. 1e45). New York, NY: Nova Science. Mellalieu, S. D., Hanton, S., & O’Brien, M. (2006). The effects of goal setting on rugby performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39, 257e261. doi:10.1901/ jaba.2006.36-05. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishers. 172e205. Moran, A. P. (1996). The psychology of concentration in sport performers: A cognitive analysis. Hove, UK: Psychology Press. Murphy, S. M. (2000). Afterword. In M. B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing sport psychology (pp. 275e279). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Nieuwenhuys, A., Hanin, Y. L., & Bakker, F. C. (2008). Performance-related experiences and coping during races: a case of an elite sailor. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9, 61e76. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.12.007. Nieuwenhuys, A., Vos, L., Pijpstra, S., & Bakker, F. C. (2011). Meta-experiences and coping effectiveness in sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 135e143. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.07.008. Noteboom, J. T., Fleshner, M., & Enoka, R. M. (2001). Activation of the arousal response can impair performance on a simple motor task. Journal of Applied Physiology, 91, 821e831. Petitpas, A. J., Giges, B., & Danish, S. J. (1999). The sport psychologisteathlete relationship: implications for training. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 344e357. Prapavessis, H., & Grove, J. R. (1991). Precompetitive emotions and shooting performance: the mental health and zone of optimal function models. The Sport Psychologist, 5, 223e234. Ravizza, K. (2006). Increasing awareness for sport performance. In J. M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (5th ed). (pp. 228e239). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Robazza, C. (2006). Emotion in sport: an IZOF perspective. In S. Hanton, & S. D. Mellalieu (Eds.), Literature reviews in sport psychology (pp. 127e158). New York, NY: Nova Science. Robazza, C., & Bortoli, L. (2003). Intensity, idiosyncratic content and functional impact of performance-related emotions in athletes. Journal of Sport Sciences, 21, 171e189. doi:10.1080/0264041031000071065. Robazza, C., Bortoli, L., & Nougier, V. (2000). Performance emotions in an elite archer: a case study. Journal of Sport Behavior, 23, 144e163. Robazza, C., Pellizzari, M., & Hanin, Y. (2004). Emotion self-regulation and athletic performance: an application of the IZOF model. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 5, 379e404. doi:10.1016/S1469-0292(03)00034-7. Ruiz, M., Hanin, Y. L., & Robazza, C. (2011, September). Assessment of Performance related Psychobiosocial (PBS) State: an exploratory study. A poster presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology conference, Honolulu, HI. Sharp, L., Woodcock, C., Holland, M. J. G., Duda, J. L., & Cumming, J. (2010, October). Youth athletes’ responses to a mental skills training program. Unpublished paper presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology conference, Providence, RI. Simons, J. P., & Andersen, M. B. (1995). The development of consulting practice in applied sport psychology: some personal perspectives. The Sport Psychologist, 9, 449e468. Tod, D., Iredale, F., & Gillet, N. (2003). ‘Psyching-up’ and muscular force production. Sports Medicine, 33, 47e58. doi:10.2165/00007256-200333010-00004. Uphill, M. A., McCarthy, P. J., & Jones, M. V. (2009). Getting to grip on emotion regulation in sport. In S. D. Mellalieu, & S. Hanton (Eds.), Advances in applied sport psychology (pp. 162e194). Oxon, UK: Routledge. Vallerand, R. J., & Blanchard, C. M. (2000). The study of emotion in sport and exercise: Historical, definitional, and conceptual perspectives. In Y. L. Hanin (Ed.), Emotions in sport (pp. 3e37). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Vealey, R. S., & Greenleaf, C. A. (2006). Seeing is believing: understanding and using imagery in sport. In J. M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (5th ed.). (pp. 306e348) New York, NY: McGrawHill. Woodcock, C., Richards, H., & Mugford, A. (2008). Quality counts: critical features for neophyte professional development. The Sport Psychologist, 22, 491e506.",
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    Working within an Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) framework: Consultant practice and athlete reflections on refining emotion regulation skills. / Woodcock, Charlotte; Cumming, Jennifer; Duda, Joan. L.; Sharp, Lee-Ann.

    Vol. 13, 2012, p. 291-302.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Working within an Individual Zone of Optimal Functioning (IZOF) framework: Consultant practice and athlete reflections on refining emotion regulation skills

    AU - Woodcock, Charlotte

    AU - Cumming, Jennifer

    AU - Duda, Joan. L.

    AU - Sharp, Lee-Ann

    N1 - Reference text: Andersen, M. B. (2000). Beginnings: intakes and the initiation of relationships. In M. B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing sport psychology (pp. 3e16). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Annesi, J. J. (1998). Applications of the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning model for the multimodal treatment of precompetitive anxiety. The Sport Psychologist, 12, 300e316. Beckmann, J., & Kellmann, M. (2003). Procedures and principles of sport psychological assessment. The Sport Psychologist, 17, 338e350. Borg, G. (1998). Borg’s perceived exertion and pain scales. Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Bortoli, L., & Robazza, C. (2002). Idiosyncratic performance affect in volleyball referees: an extension of the IZOF-emotion model profiling. Journal of Sport Behavior, 25, 115e133. Boud, D. (2001). Using journal writing to enhance reflective practice. In L. A. English, & M. A. Gillen (Eds.), Promoting journal writing in adult education, Vol. 90 (pp. 9e18). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Bull, S. J. (1991). Personal and situational influences on adherence to mental skills training. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 13, 121e132. Burton, D., & Weiss, C. (2008). The fundamental goal concept: the path to process and performance success. In T. S. Horn (Ed.), Advances in sport psychology (pp. 339e375). Champaign, Il: Human Kinetics. Evans, L., Fleming, S., & Hardy, L. (2000). Situating action research: a response to Gilbourne. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 206e303. Filby, W. C. D., Maynard, I. W., & Graydon, J. K. (1999). The effect of multiple-goal strategies on performance outcomes in training and competition. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11, 230e246. doi:10.1080/10413209908404202. Fischer, A., Manstead, A. S. R., Evers, C., Timmers, M., & Valk, G. (2004). Motives and norms underlying emotion regulation. In P. Philippot, & R. S. Feldman (Eds.), The regulation of emotion (pp. 189e214). London, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Giges, B. (2000). Removing psychological barriers: clearing the way. In M. B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing sport psychology (pp. 17e31). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: conceptual foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 3e24). New York: Guildford Press. Guba, E. G., & Lincoln, Y. S. (1994). Competing paradigms in qualitative research. In N. K. Denzin, & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 105e117). London, UK: Sage. Hanin, Y. L. (2000a). Individual zones of optimal functioning (IZOF) model. In Y. L. Hanin (Ed.), Emotions in sport (pp. 65e89). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Hanin, Y. L. (2000b). Successful and poor performance and emotions. In Y. L. Hanin (Ed.), Emotions in sport (pp. 157e187). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Hanin, Y. L. (2000c). IZOF-based emotion-profiling: step-wise procedures and forms. In Y. L. Hanin (Ed.), Emotions in sport (pp. 303e313). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Hanin, Y. L. (2003). Performance related emotional states in sport: a qualitative analysis [48 paragraphs]. Forum Qualitative Sozialforschung/Forum. Qualitative Social Research, 4. http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs030151. Hanin, Y. L. (2007). Emotions in sport: current issues and perspectives. In G.Tenenbaum., & R. C. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (3rd ed.). (pp. 31e58) Hobolen, NJ: Wiley & Sons. Hanin, Y. L. (2010). Coping with anxiety in sport. In A. R. Nicholls (Ed.), Coping in sport: Theory, methods, and related constructs (pp. 159e175). New York, NY: Nova Science. Hanin, Y., & Hanina, M. (2009). Optimization of performance in top-level athletes: an action-focused coping approach. International Journal of Sport Science & Coaching, 4, 47e91. doi:10.1260/1747-9541.4.1.47. Hanin, Y., & Stambulova, N. B. (2002). Metaphoric description of performance states: an application of the IZOF model. The Sport Psychologist, 16, 396e415. Hanin, Y., & Syrjä, P. (1995). Performance affect in junior ice hockey players: an application of the Individual Zones of Optimal Functioning model. The Sport Psychologist, 9, 169e187. Hardy, J., Roberts, R., & Hardy, L. (2009). Awareness and motivation to change negative self-talk. The Sport Psychologist, 23, 435e450. Harmison, R. J. (2006). Peak performance in sport: identifying ideal performance states and developing athletes’ psychological skills. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 37, 233e243. doi:10.1037/0735-7028.37.3.233. Huang, H. B. (2010). What is good action research?: why the resurgent interest? Action Research, 8, 93e109. doi:10.1177/1476750310362435. Jackson, S. A. (2000). Joy, fun, and flow state in sport. In Y. L. Hanin (Ed.), Emotions in sport (pp. 135e155). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Jones, G. (1995). More than just a game: research developments and issues in competitive state anxiety in sport. British Journal of Psychology, 86, 449e478. doi:10.1111/j.2044-8295.1995.tb02565.x. Jones, M. V. (2003). Controlling emotions in sport. The Sport Psychologist, 17, 471e486. Jones, G., Hanton, S., & Swain, A. (1994). Intensity and interpretation of anxiety symptoms in elite and non-elite sports performers. Personality and Individual Differences, 17, 657e663. doi:10.1016/0191-8869(94)90138-4. Jones, M. V., Mace, R. D., & Williams, S. (2000). Relationship between emotional state and performance during international field hockey matches. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 90, 691e701. doi:10.2466/PMS.90.2.691-701. Kellmann, M., & Beckmann, J. (2003). Research and intervention in sport psychology: new perspectives on an inherent conflict. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 1, 13e26. Kingston, K. M., & Hardy, L. (1997). Effects of different types of goals on processes that support performance. The Sport Psychologist, 11, 277e293. Kiresuk, T. J., & Sherman, R. E. (1968). Goal attainment scaling: a general method for evaluating comprehensive community mental health programs. Community Mental Health Journal, 4, 443e453. doi:10.1007/BF01530764. Krauss, S. E. (2005). Research paradigms and meaning making: a primer. The Qualitative Report, 758e770. Lang, P. J. (1979). A bio-informational theory of emotional imagery. Psychophysiology, 16, 495e512. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1979.tb01511.x. Lang, P. J., Kozak, M. J., Miller, G. A., Levin, D. N., & McLean, A., Jr. (1980). Emotional imagery: conceptual structure and pattern of somato-visceral response. Psychophysiology, 17, 179e192. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8986.1980.tb00133.x. Lazarus, R. S. (2000). How emotions influence performance in competitive sports. The Sport Psychologist, 14, 229e252. Lincoln, Y. S., & Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Martin, G., & Hrycaiko, D. (1983). Effective behavioral coaching: what’s it all about? Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 5, 8e20. Mellalieu, S. D., Hanton, S., & Fletcher, D. (2006). A competitive anxiety review: recent directions in sport psychology research. In S. Hanton, & S. D. Mellalieu (Eds.), Literature reviews in sport psychology (pp. 1e45). New York, NY: Nova Science. Mellalieu, S. D., Hanton, S., & O’Brien, M. (2006). The effects of goal setting on rugby performance. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 39, 257e261. doi:10.1901/ jaba.2006.36-05. Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publishers. 172e205. Moran, A. P. (1996). The psychology of concentration in sport performers: A cognitive analysis. Hove, UK: Psychology Press. Murphy, S. M. (2000). Afterword. In M. B. Andersen (Ed.), Doing sport psychology (pp. 275e279). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Nieuwenhuys, A., Hanin, Y. L., & Bakker, F. C. (2008). Performance-related experiences and coping during races: a case of an elite sailor. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9, 61e76. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.12.007. Nieuwenhuys, A., Vos, L., Pijpstra, S., & Bakker, F. C. (2011). Meta-experiences and coping effectiveness in sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 135e143. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.07.008. Noteboom, J. T., Fleshner, M., & Enoka, R. M. (2001). Activation of the arousal response can impair performance on a simple motor task. Journal of Applied Physiology, 91, 821e831. Petitpas, A. J., Giges, B., & Danish, S. J. (1999). The sport psychologisteathlete relationship: implications for training. The Sport Psychologist, 13, 344e357. Prapavessis, H., & Grove, J. R. (1991). Precompetitive emotions and shooting performance: the mental health and zone of optimal function models. The Sport Psychologist, 5, 223e234. Ravizza, K. (2006). Increasing awareness for sport performance. In J. M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (5th ed). (pp. 228e239). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Robazza, C. (2006). Emotion in sport: an IZOF perspective. In S. Hanton, & S. D. Mellalieu (Eds.), Literature reviews in sport psychology (pp. 127e158). New York, NY: Nova Science. Robazza, C., & Bortoli, L. (2003). Intensity, idiosyncratic content and functional impact of performance-related emotions in athletes. Journal of Sport Sciences, 21, 171e189. doi:10.1080/0264041031000071065. Robazza, C., Bortoli, L., & Nougier, V. (2000). Performance emotions in an elite archer: a case study. Journal of Sport Behavior, 23, 144e163. Robazza, C., Pellizzari, M., & Hanin, Y. (2004). Emotion self-regulation and athletic performance: an application of the IZOF model. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 5, 379e404. doi:10.1016/S1469-0292(03)00034-7. Ruiz, M., Hanin, Y. L., & Robazza, C. (2011, September). Assessment of Performance related Psychobiosocial (PBS) State: an exploratory study. A poster presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology conference, Honolulu, HI. Sharp, L., Woodcock, C., Holland, M. J. G., Duda, J. L., & Cumming, J. (2010, October). Youth athletes’ responses to a mental skills training program. Unpublished paper presented at the Association for Applied Sport Psychology conference, Providence, RI. Simons, J. P., & Andersen, M. B. (1995). The development of consulting practice in applied sport psychology: some personal perspectives. The Sport Psychologist, 9, 449e468. Tod, D., Iredale, F., & Gillet, N. (2003). ‘Psyching-up’ and muscular force production. Sports Medicine, 33, 47e58. doi:10.2165/00007256-200333010-00004. Uphill, M. A., McCarthy, P. J., & Jones, M. V. (2009). Getting to grip on emotion regulation in sport. In S. D. Mellalieu, & S. Hanton (Eds.), Advances in applied sport psychology (pp. 162e194). Oxon, UK: Routledge. Vallerand, R. J., & Blanchard, C. M. (2000). The study of emotion in sport and exercise: Historical, definitional, and conceptual perspectives. In Y. L. Hanin (Ed.), Emotions in sport (pp. 3e37). Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Vealey, R. S., & Greenleaf, C. A. (2006). Seeing is believing: understanding and using imagery in sport. In J. M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance (5th ed.). (pp. 306e348) New York, NY: McGrawHill. Woodcock, C., Richards, H., & Mugford, A. (2008). Quality counts: critical features for neophyte professional development. The Sport Psychologist, 22, 491e506.

    PY - 2012

    Y1 - 2012

    N2 - Objective: To examine how working within Hanin’s (2000a) Individual Zone of Optimal Functioningtheoretical model (IZOF) informs intervention development for enhancing athletes’ emotion regulation skills.Design: A single case study design was adopted to examine the applied process of facilitating a female university cross-country runner’s emotion regulation skills.Method: Consultant reflections followed Boud’s (2001) reflective learning model for immediate anddelayed reflection that informed an action research narrative organized round Kellmann and Beckmann’s (2003) action research cycle. A social validation interview was conducted following program completion to examine the athlete’s responses to the emotion regulation intervention.Results: Consultant’s professional practice decisions and action taken to support the intervention are highlighted. Specifically, the employment and extension of Hanin’s (2000c) IZOF profiling process to inform the development of athlete skills in emotion regulation are described. Moreover, how the content and intensity of performance related subjective emotion, physiological symptom, and cognitive zone profiles for optimal performance guided the identification and enhancement of techniques contributing to effective emotion regulation is illustrated. Athlete interview responses support the overall efficacy of the intervention program.Conclusion: The present case study supports the efficacy of working within an IZOF framework from a consultant perspective. Furthermore, athlete reflections suggest enhanced skills in emotion regulation were perceived to result from the intervention.

    AB - Objective: To examine how working within Hanin’s (2000a) Individual Zone of Optimal Functioningtheoretical model (IZOF) informs intervention development for enhancing athletes’ emotion regulation skills.Design: A single case study design was adopted to examine the applied process of facilitating a female university cross-country runner’s emotion regulation skills.Method: Consultant reflections followed Boud’s (2001) reflective learning model for immediate anddelayed reflection that informed an action research narrative organized round Kellmann and Beckmann’s (2003) action research cycle. A social validation interview was conducted following program completion to examine the athlete’s responses to the emotion regulation intervention.Results: Consultant’s professional practice decisions and action taken to support the intervention are highlighted. Specifically, the employment and extension of Hanin’s (2000c) IZOF profiling process to inform the development of athlete skills in emotion regulation are described. Moreover, how the content and intensity of performance related subjective emotion, physiological symptom, and cognitive zone profiles for optimal performance guided the identification and enhancement of techniques contributing to effective emotion regulation is illustrated. Athlete interview responses support the overall efficacy of the intervention program.Conclusion: The present case study supports the efficacy of working within an IZOF framework from a consultant perspective. Furthermore, athlete reflections suggest enhanced skills in emotion regulation were perceived to result from the intervention.

    KW - Sport psychology

    KW - IZOF

    KW - professional practice

    KW - emotion regulation

    KW - applied practice

    M3 - Article

    VL - 13

    SP - 291

    EP - 302

    ER -