Window-Adjusted Common Spatial Pattern for Detecting Error-Related Potentials in P300 BCI

Zhihua Huang, Minghong Li, Wenming Zheng, Yingjie Wu, Kun Jiang, Huiru Zheng

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Under certain task conditions, error-related potential (ErrP) will be elicited, meaning that the subject is perceiving an error, responding to an external error, or engaging in a cognitive process of reinforcement learning. The detection of ErrP on a single trial basis has been studied and applied to improve all kinds of brain–computer interfaces (BCIs). However, the performance of this kind of detection is not currently good enough. In the paper, we proposed a novel method, called window-adjusted common spatial pattern (WACSP), for detecting ErrP in P300 BCI. In this method, the coefficient of determination was introduced to measure the difference of Electroencephalogram (EEG) signals on a channel at a moment and to guide the search of time windows in which EEG differences are significant, and common spatial pattern (CSP) was further used to capture the stable spatial patterns of EEG differences between correct and incorrect responses in each time window. WACSP and the commonly used methods were tested on the data sets that were built using the EEG signals acquired during the P300 BCI experiments with different feedback. The comparisons of accuracy, area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) and F-measure show that WACSP significantly outperforms the commonly used methods. The proposed method can improve ErrP detection based on a single trial.
Original languageEnglish
JournalNeural Processing Letters
Early online date8 Aug 2023
Publication statusPublished online - 8 Aug 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work is supported by the Science and Technology Plan Project of Fujian Province, China (2023Y0009). Ting Li, Zhilei Lv and Faqiang Peng participated in this work when they studied at Fuzhou University. We thank them for their contributions.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023, The Author(s).


  • Brain–computer interfac
  • Error-related potential
  • Window-adjusted common spatial pattern


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