Welfare State Reform, compacts and restructuring relations between the state and the voluntary sector: reflections on Northern Ireland experience

Nicholas Acheson

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    Abstract

    Policies that address the role and function of voluntary organisations horizontally across different government fields have been a feature of reforms in several welfare states to varying degrees since the end of the 1990s. This paper argues that the UK compact and its associated implementation measures have constituted a discourse that has enabled the state to radically reconstitute the role of the voluntary sector while holding out an unfulfilled promise of a broader shared understanding of the sector’s role in society. Drawing on an analysis of policy development in Northern Ireland, the paper shows how well-developed horizontal policy structures have served to redefine and narrow the field of engagement between the sector and government.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages175-192
    JournalVoluntary Sector Review
    Volume1
    Issue number2
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2010

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    welfare state
    restructuring
    reform
    development policy
    experience
    discourse
    Society

    Cite this

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    title = "Welfare State Reform, compacts and restructuring relations between the state and the voluntary sector: reflections on Northern Ireland experience",
    abstract = "Policies that address the role and function of voluntary organisations horizontally across different government fields have been a feature of reforms in several welfare states to varying degrees since the end of the 1990s. This paper argues that the UK compact and its associated implementation measures have constituted a discourse that has enabled the state to radically reconstitute the role of the voluntary sector while holding out an unfulfilled promise of a broader shared understanding of the sector’s role in society. Drawing on an analysis of policy development in Northern Ireland, the paper shows how well-developed horizontal policy structures have served to redefine and narrow the field of engagement between the sector and government.",
    author = "Nicholas Acheson",
    note = "Reference text: Acheson, N., B. Harvey, J. Kearney, A. Williamson (2004) Two Paths One Purpose: Voluntary Action in Ireland North and South, Dublin, Institute for Public Administration Acheson, N., A. Williamson (2007) ‘Civil Society in Multi-Level Public Policy: the Case of Ireland’s Two Jurisdictions’, Policy and Politics 35 (1) 25-44 Acheson, N., C. Milofsky (2008) ‘Peace Building and Participation in Northern Ireland: Local Social Movements and the Policy Process since the “Good Friday” Agreement’ Ethnopolitics 7 (1) 63-80 Acheson, N., B. Harvey (2008) Social Policy, Ageing and Voluntary Action, Dublin: Institute for Public Administration Alcock, P. and D. Scott (2002) ‘Partnerships with the voluntary sector: Can compacts work?’ in C. Glendinning, M. Powell and K. Rummery (eds) Partnerships, New Labour and the Governance of Welfare, Bristol: the Policy Press Anheier, H. (2004) ‘Third Sector – Third Way: Comparative Perspectives and Policy Reflections’ in J. Lewis and R. Surender (Ed) Welfare State Change: Towards a Third Way?, Oxford: Oxford University Press ARK. Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, 2007 [computer file]. ARK www.ark.ac.uk/nilt [distributor], June 2008, accessed 12/09/09 Bell, V. (2004) In Pursuit of Civic Participation: the early experiences of the Northern Ireland Civic Forum 2000 – 2002 Political Studies 52, 565-584 Birrell, D. (2009) The Impact of Devolution on Social Policy, Bristol: the Policy Press Birrell, D., A. Williamson (2001) ‘The Voluntary–Community Sector and Political Development in Northern Ireland, Since 1972’, Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organisations, 12 (3) 205-220 Carmel, E. (2005) ‘Governance and the constitution of a European social’ in J. Newman (ed) Remaking Governance: Peoples, Politics and the Public Sphere, Bristol, the Policy Press Carmel. E., J. Harlock (2008) ‘Instituting the third sector as a governable terrain: procurement and performance in the UK’, Policy & Politics, 36, 2. Casey, J., B. Dalton, R. Melville, J. Onyx (2010) ‘Strengthening Government-Nonprofit Relations: International Experiences with Compacts’, Voluntary Sector Review, 1 (1) 59-76 Clarke, J. and C. Glendinning (2002) ‘Partnerships and the remaking of welfare governance’ in C. Glendinning, M. Powell and K. Rummery (eds) Partnerships, New Labour and the Governance of Welfare, Bristol: the Policy Press Clarke, J., J. Dobs, D. Kane, K. Wilding (2009) The State and the Voluntary Sector: Recent Trends in Government Funding and Public Service Delivery, London: National Council of Voluntary Organisations Craig, G., M. Taylor, C. Szanto, M. Wilkinson (2001) Contract or Trust? The role of compacts in local governance, Bristol, the Policy Press Craig, G., M. Taylor, N. Carlton, R. Garbutt, R. Kimberlee, E. Lepine and A. Syed (2005) The Paradox of Compacts: Monitoring the Impact of Compacts, London: Home Office online report 02/05 Deakin, N., J. Kershaw (1996) Meeting the Challenge of Change: Voluntary action into the 21st century: The Report of the Commission on the Future of the Voluntary Sector. London: NCVO DHSS (1993) Strategy for Support of the Voluntary Sector and for Community Development, Belfast: Department of Health and Social Services DHSS, NIO (1998) Building Real Partnership; Compact between Government and the Voluntary and Community Sector in Northern Ireland, Belfast and London: Department of Health and Social Services and the Northern Ireland Office DSD (2001) Partners for Change: Government’s Strategy for Support of the Voluntary and Community Sector, Belfast: Department for Social Development DSD (2003) Pathways for Change: a report of the Task Force on Resourcing the Voluntary and Community Sector, Belfast: Department for Social Development DSD (2004) Investing Together: Report of the Task Force on Resourcing the Voluntary and Community Sector, Belfast: Department for Social Development DSD (2005) Positive Steps: Belfast: Department for Social Development DSD (2006) Partners for Change: Government’s Strategy for Support of the Voluntary and Community Sector, Belfast: Department for Social Development DSD (2008) Updating Progress: Government’s Report on the Implementation of ‘Positive Steps’, Belfast: Department for Social Development Edgar, G. (2008) Agreeing to disagree: maintaining dissent in the NGO sector, Canberra: the Australia Institute Hayes, B., I. McAllister (2004) ‘Who Backs the Bombers?’ Belfast: Fortnight: 11-12. HM Treasury (2002) The Cross-Cutting Review on The Role of the Voluntary and Community Sector in Public Service Delivery, London: HM Treasury HM Treasury (2004) Releasing Resources to the Frontline: Independent Review of Public Sector Efficiency, London: HM Treasury Home Office HM Treasury (1990) Efficiency Scrutiny of Government Funding of the Voluntary Sector, London: Home Office HM Treasury Home Office (2005) Strengthening Partnerships: Next Steps for Compact – The Relationship between Government and the Voluntary and Community Sector, London: the Home Office http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/documents/2005-strengthening-partnerships/ Horgan, G. (2006) ‘Devolution, Direct Rule and the Neoliberal Reconstruction in Northern Ireland’, Critical Social Policy 26 (3) 656-668 Kendall, J. (2003) The Voluntary Sector: Comparative Perspectives in the UK, London: Routledge Kendall, J. (2005) ‘The third sector and the policy process in the UK: ingredients in a hyper- active horizontal policy environment’, London: TSEP Working Paper 5, Centre for Civil Society, London School of Economics. Kendall, J. (2009) ‘Losing Political Influence? Finding a Place for Ideology in Understanding Recent English Third Sector Policy’ Third Sector Research Centre Working Paper 13, Birmingham and Southampton: Third Sector Research Centre, www.tsrc.ac.uk/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=4Suno23TJfw{\%}3d&tabid=500 Knight B. and S. Robson (2007) The Value and Independence of the Voluntary and Community Sector, Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Centris Knox, C. (2003) ‘Democratic Renewal in Fragmented Communities: the Northern Ireland Case’, Local Governance 29 (1) 14 – 37. Knox, C. and Carmichael, P. (2007), ‘The Review of Public Administration’ in P. Carmichael, C. Knox and R. Osborne (eds), Devolution and Constitutional Change in Northern Ireland, Manchester: Manchester University Press Kooiman, J. (1993) ‘Governance and governability: using complexity, dynamics and diversity’ in J. Kooiman (ed) Modern Governance: New Government Society Interactions, London: Sage Publications Kooiman, J. (2003) Governing as Governance, London: Sage Publications Laforest, R. (2005) The Politics of Governance in Canada: Building New Relationships between the State and the Voluntary Sector across scales, unpublished PhD thesis, Ottawa: Carleton University Laforest, R. and S. Phillips (2001) Rethinking Civil Society - State Relationships: Quebec and Canada at the Crossroads, Ottawa: Centre for Voluntary Sector Research and Development Lewis, J. (1999) ‘Reviewing the Relationship between the Voluntary Sector and the State in Britain in the 1990s’, Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organisations 10 (3) 255-270 Lewis, J. (2004) ‘What is New Labour? Can it Deliver on Social Policy?’, in J. Lewis and R. Surender (eds) Welfare State Change: Towards a Third Way?, Oxford: Oxford University Press Lewis, J. (2005) ‘New Labour’s Approach to the Voluntary Sector: Independence and the Meaning of Partnership’ Social Policy and Society 4 (2) 121-132 Lister, R. (2004) ‘the Third Way’s Social Investment State’ in J. Lewis, R. Surender (eds) Welfare State Change: Towards the Third Way?, Oxford: Oxford University Press Marshall, T. (1950, 2006) ‘Citizenship and Social Class’ in C. Pierson, F.G. Castles (eds): the Welfare State Reader, Cambridge: Polity Press McCabe, A., J. Phillimore (2009) Exploring Below the Radar: Issues of Themes and Focus, Birmingham and Southampton: Third Sector Research Centre working paper 8. McCarron, J.J., S. Reynolds (2004) Drifting off Course? A study into public service delivery between government and the voluntary and community sector in Northern Ireland, Belfast: Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action Newman, J. (2001). Modernising Governance: New Labour, Policy and Society. London, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Newman, J. (2005) ‘Introduction’ in J. Newman (ed) Remaking Governance: Peoples, Politics and the Public Sphere, Bristol: the Policy Press Newman, J., J. Clarke (2009) Publics, Politics and Power: Remaking the Public in Public Services, London, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications NCVO (2004) United Kingdom Voluntary Sector Almanac, London: National Council for Voluntary Organisations NICVA (2002) The State of the Sector III, Belfast: Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action NICVA (2005) The State of the Sector IV, Belfast: Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action NICVA (2007) Delivering Public Services through the Voluntary and Community Sector: a Report for the Northern Ireland Audit Office, Belfast: Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action NICVA (2008) Positive Steps: Final Monitoring Report, Belfast: Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action NICVA (2009) The State of the Sector V: Northern Ireland Voluntary and Community Sector Almanac, Belfast: Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action Peters, B.G., J. Pierrre (1998) ‘Governance without Governing? Rethinking Public Administration’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 8 (2) 223-243 Pierre, J. (2000) Debating Governance: Authority, Steering and Democracy, Oxford: Oxford University Press Pierson, P. (2001) The New Politics of the Welfare State, Oxford: Oxford University Press Phillips, S. (2006) The Intersection of Governance and Citizenship in Canada: Not Quite the Third Way, Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy Rhodes, R. (1997) Understanding Governance: Policy Networks, Reflexivity and Accountability, Buckingham: Open University Press Rhodes, R. (2007) ‘Understanding Governance Ten Years On’ Organization Studies, 28 (8): 1243-1264 Scope (April, 2007) Footprints of Positive Steps Getting Lost in the Sand, Belfast, Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action Scott, D., L. Russell (2001) “Contracting: the Experience of Service Delivery Agencies” in M. Harris and C. Rochester (eds) Voluntary Organisations and Social Policy in Britain: Perspectives on Change and Choice. Basingstoke: Palgrave SEUPB (2008) EU Programme for Peace and Reconciliation in Northern Ireland and the Border Region of Ireland 2008 – 2013, Monaghan and Belfast: Special European Union Programmes Body Smith, D.H. (1997) ‘The Rest of the Non-Profit Sector: Grassroots Associations as Dark Matter Ignored in Prevailing “Flat Earth” maps of the Sector’ Non-Profit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 26 (2) 114 – 131 Surender, R. (2004). ‘Modern Challenges to the Welfare State and the Antecedents of the Third Way’ in Welfare State Change: Towards a Third Way? R. Surender, J. Lewis (Ed). Oxford, Oxford University Press. White, D (2003)’Social Policy and Solidarity, Orphans of the New Model of Social Cohesion’, Canadian Journal of Sociology (28) 51-76 White, D (2006) ‘State-third sector partnership frameworks: from administration to participation’ in P. Henman and M. Fenger (eds) Administering Welfare Reform: International Transformations in Welfare Governance, Bristol: the Policy Press",
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    Welfare State Reform, compacts and restructuring relations between the state and the voluntary sector: reflections on Northern Ireland experience. / Acheson, Nicholas.

    In: Voluntary Sector Review, Vol. 1, No. 2, 01.07.2010, p. 175-192.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Welfare State Reform, compacts and restructuring relations between the state and the voluntary sector: reflections on Northern Ireland experience

    AU - Acheson, Nicholas

    N1 - Reference text: Acheson, N., B. Harvey, J. Kearney, A. Williamson (2004) Two Paths One Purpose: Voluntary Action in Ireland North and South, Dublin, Institute for Public Administration Acheson, N., A. Williamson (2007) ‘Civil Society in Multi-Level Public Policy: the Case of Ireland’s Two Jurisdictions’, Policy and Politics 35 (1) 25-44 Acheson, N., C. Milofsky (2008) ‘Peace Building and Participation in Northern Ireland: Local Social Movements and the Policy Process since the “Good Friday” Agreement’ Ethnopolitics 7 (1) 63-80 Acheson, N., B. Harvey (2008) Social Policy, Ageing and Voluntary Action, Dublin: Institute for Public Administration Alcock, P. and D. Scott (2002) ‘Partnerships with the voluntary sector: Can compacts work?’ in C. Glendinning, M. Powell and K. Rummery (eds) Partnerships, New Labour and the Governance of Welfare, Bristol: the Policy Press Anheier, H. (2004) ‘Third Sector – Third Way: Comparative Perspectives and Policy Reflections’ in J. Lewis and R. Surender (Ed) Welfare State Change: Towards a Third Way?, Oxford: Oxford University Press ARK. Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, 2007 [computer file]. ARK www.ark.ac.uk/nilt [distributor], June 2008, accessed 12/09/09 Bell, V. (2004) In Pursuit of Civic Participation: the early experiences of the Northern Ireland Civic Forum 2000 – 2002 Political Studies 52, 565-584 Birrell, D. (2009) The Impact of Devolution on Social Policy, Bristol: the Policy Press Birrell, D., A. Williamson (2001) ‘The Voluntary–Community Sector and Political Development in Northern Ireland, Since 1972’, Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organisations, 12 (3) 205-220 Carmel, E. (2005) ‘Governance and the constitution of a European social’ in J. Newman (ed) Remaking Governance: Peoples, Politics and the Public Sphere, Bristol, the Policy Press Carmel. E., J. Harlock (2008) ‘Instituting the third sector as a governable terrain: procurement and performance in the UK’, Policy & Politics, 36, 2. Casey, J., B. Dalton, R. Melville, J. Onyx (2010) ‘Strengthening Government-Nonprofit Relations: International Experiences with Compacts’, Voluntary Sector Review, 1 (1) 59-76 Clarke, J. and C. Glendinning (2002) ‘Partnerships and the remaking of welfare governance’ in C. Glendinning, M. Powell and K. Rummery (eds) Partnerships, New Labour and the Governance of Welfare, Bristol: the Policy Press Clarke, J., J. Dobs, D. Kane, K. Wilding (2009) The State and the Voluntary Sector: Recent Trends in Government Funding and Public Service Delivery, London: National Council of Voluntary Organisations Craig, G., M. Taylor, C. Szanto, M. Wilkinson (2001) Contract or Trust? The role of compacts in local governance, Bristol, the Policy Press Craig, G., M. Taylor, N. Carlton, R. Garbutt, R. Kimberlee, E. Lepine and A. Syed (2005) The Paradox of Compacts: Monitoring the Impact of Compacts, London: Home Office online report 02/05 Deakin, N., J. Kershaw (1996) Meeting the Challenge of Change: Voluntary action into the 21st century: The Report of the Commission on the Future of the Voluntary Sector. London: NCVO DHSS (1993) Strategy for Support of the Voluntary Sector and for Community Development, Belfast: Department of Health and Social Services DHSS, NIO (1998) Building Real Partnership; Compact between Government and the Voluntary and Community Sector in Northern Ireland, Belfast and London: Department of Health and Social Services and the Northern Ireland Office DSD (2001) Partners for Change: Government’s Strategy for Support of the Voluntary and Community Sector, Belfast: Department for Social Development DSD (2003) Pathways for Change: a report of the Task Force on Resourcing the Voluntary and Community Sector, Belfast: Department for Social Development DSD (2004) Investing Together: Report of the Task Force on Resourcing the Voluntary and Community Sector, Belfast: Department for Social Development DSD (2005) Positive Steps: Belfast: Department for Social Development DSD (2006) Partners for Change: Government’s Strategy for Support of the Voluntary and Community Sector, Belfast: Department for Social Development DSD (2008) Updating Progress: Government’s Report on the Implementation of ‘Positive Steps’, Belfast: Department for Social Development Edgar, G. (2008) Agreeing to disagree: maintaining dissent in the NGO sector, Canberra: the Australia Institute Hayes, B., I. McAllister (2004) ‘Who Backs the Bombers?’ Belfast: Fortnight: 11-12. HM Treasury (2002) The Cross-Cutting Review on The Role of the Voluntary and Community Sector in Public Service Delivery, London: HM Treasury HM Treasury (2004) Releasing Resources to the Frontline: Independent Review of Public Sector Efficiency, London: HM Treasury Home Office HM Treasury (1990) Efficiency Scrutiny of Government Funding of the Voluntary Sector, London: Home Office HM Treasury Home Office (2005) Strengthening Partnerships: Next Steps for Compact – The Relationship between Government and the Voluntary and Community Sector, London: the Home Office http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/documents/2005-strengthening-partnerships/ Horgan, G. (2006) ‘Devolution, Direct Rule and the Neoliberal Reconstruction in Northern Ireland’, Critical Social Policy 26 (3) 656-668 Kendall, J. (2003) The Voluntary Sector: Comparative Perspectives in the UK, London: Routledge Kendall, J. (2005) ‘The third sector and the policy process in the UK: ingredients in a hyper- active horizontal policy environment’, London: TSEP Working Paper 5, Centre for Civil Society, London School of Economics. Kendall, J. (2009) ‘Losing Political Influence? Finding a Place for Ideology in Understanding Recent English Third Sector Policy’ Third Sector Research Centre Working Paper 13, Birmingham and Southampton: Third Sector Research Centre, www.tsrc.ac.uk/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=4Suno23TJfw%3d&tabid=500 Knight B. and S. Robson (2007) The Value and Independence of the Voluntary and Community Sector, Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Centris Knox, C. (2003) ‘Democratic Renewal in Fragmented Communities: the Northern Ireland Case’, Local Governance 29 (1) 14 – 37. Knox, C. and Carmichael, P. (2007), ‘The Review of Public Administration’ in P. Carmichael, C. Knox and R. Osborne (eds), Devolution and Constitutional Change in Northern Ireland, Manchester: Manchester University Press Kooiman, J. (1993) ‘Governance and governability: using complexity, dynamics and diversity’ in J. Kooiman (ed) Modern Governance: New Government Society Interactions, London: Sage Publications Kooiman, J. (2003) Governing as Governance, London: Sage Publications Laforest, R. (2005) The Politics of Governance in Canada: Building New Relationships between the State and the Voluntary Sector across scales, unpublished PhD thesis, Ottawa: Carleton University Laforest, R. and S. Phillips (2001) Rethinking Civil Society - State Relationships: Quebec and Canada at the Crossroads, Ottawa: Centre for Voluntary Sector Research and Development Lewis, J. (1999) ‘Reviewing the Relationship between the Voluntary Sector and the State in Britain in the 1990s’, Voluntas: International Journal of Voluntary and Nonprofit Organisations 10 (3) 255-270 Lewis, J. (2004) ‘What is New Labour? Can it Deliver on Social Policy?’, in J. Lewis and R. Surender (eds) Welfare State Change: Towards a Third Way?, Oxford: Oxford University Press Lewis, J. (2005) ‘New Labour’s Approach to the Voluntary Sector: Independence and the Meaning of Partnership’ Social Policy and Society 4 (2) 121-132 Lister, R. (2004) ‘the Third Way’s Social Investment State’ in J. Lewis, R. Surender (eds) Welfare State Change: Towards the Third Way?, Oxford: Oxford University Press Marshall, T. (1950, 2006) ‘Citizenship and Social Class’ in C. Pierson, F.G. Castles (eds): the Welfare State Reader, Cambridge: Polity Press McCabe, A., J. Phillimore (2009) Exploring Below the Radar: Issues of Themes and Focus, Birmingham and Southampton: Third Sector Research Centre working paper 8. McCarron, J.J., S. Reynolds (2004) Drifting off Course? A study into public service delivery between government and the voluntary and community sector in Northern Ireland, Belfast: Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action Newman, J. (2001). Modernising Governance: New Labour, Policy and Society. London, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. Newman, J. (2005) ‘Introduction’ in J. Newman (ed) Remaking Governance: Peoples, Politics and the Public Sphere, Bristol: the Policy Press Newman, J., J. Clarke (2009) Publics, Politics and Power: Remaking the Public in Public Services, London, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications NCVO (2004) United Kingdom Voluntary Sector Almanac, London: National Council for Voluntary Organisations NICVA (2002) The State of the Sector III, Belfast: Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action NICVA (2005) The State of the Sector IV, Belfast: Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action NICVA (2007) Delivering Public Services through the Voluntary and Community Sector: a Report for the Northern Ireland Audit Office, Belfast: Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action NICVA (2008) Positive Steps: Final Monitoring Report, Belfast: Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action NICVA (2009) The State of the Sector V: Northern Ireland Voluntary and Community Sector Almanac, Belfast: Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action Peters, B.G., J. Pierrre (1998) ‘Governance without Governing? Rethinking Public Administration’, Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 8 (2) 223-243 Pierre, J. (2000) Debating Governance: Authority, Steering and Democracy, Oxford: Oxford University Press Pierson, P. (2001) The New Politics of the Welfare State, Oxford: Oxford University Press Phillips, S. (2006) The Intersection of Governance and Citizenship in Canada: Not Quite the Third Way, Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy Rhodes, R. (1997) Understanding Governance: Policy Networks, Reflexivity and Accountability, Buckingham: Open University Press Rhodes, R. (2007) ‘Understanding Governance Ten Years On’ Organization Studies, 28 (8): 1243-1264 Scope (April, 2007) Footprints of Positive Steps Getting Lost in the Sand, Belfast, Northern Ireland Council for Voluntary Action Scott, D., L. Russell (2001) “Contracting: the Experience of Service Delivery Agencies” in M. Harris and C. Rochester (eds) Voluntary Organisations and Social Policy in Britain: Perspectives on Change and Choice. Basingstoke: Palgrave SEUPB (2008) EU Programme for Peace and Reconciliation in Northern Ireland and the Border Region of Ireland 2008 – 2013, Monaghan and Belfast: Special European Union Programmes Body Smith, D.H. (1997) ‘The Rest of the Non-Profit Sector: Grassroots Associations as Dark Matter Ignored in Prevailing “Flat Earth” maps of the Sector’ Non-Profit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 26 (2) 114 – 131 Surender, R. (2004). ‘Modern Challenges to the Welfare State and the Antecedents of the Third Way’ in Welfare State Change: Towards a Third Way? R. Surender, J. Lewis (Ed). Oxford, Oxford University Press. White, D (2003)’Social Policy and Solidarity, Orphans of the New Model of Social Cohesion’, Canadian Journal of Sociology (28) 51-76 White, D (2006) ‘State-third sector partnership frameworks: from administration to participation’ in P. Henman and M. Fenger (eds) Administering Welfare Reform: International Transformations in Welfare Governance, Bristol: the Policy Press

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    AB - Policies that address the role and function of voluntary organisations horizontally across different government fields have been a feature of reforms in several welfare states to varying degrees since the end of the 1990s. This paper argues that the UK compact and its associated implementation measures have constituted a discourse that has enabled the state to radically reconstitute the role of the voluntary sector while holding out an unfulfilled promise of a broader shared understanding of the sector’s role in society. Drawing on an analysis of policy development in Northern Ireland, the paper shows how well-developed horizontal policy structures have served to redefine and narrow the field of engagement between the sector and government.

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