Watercress supplementation in diet reduces lymphocyte DNA damage and alters blood antioxidant status in healthy adults

Chris Gill, Sumanto Haldar, Lindsay A. Boyd, Richard Bennett, Joy Whiteford, Michelle Butler, Jenny R. Pearson, Ian Bradbury, Ian R. Rowland

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

102 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Cruciferous vegetable (CV) consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several cancers in epidemiologic studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of watercress (a CV) supplementation on biomarkers related to cancer risk in healthy adults. Design: A single-blind, randomized, crossover study was conducted in 30 men and 30 women (30 smokers and 30 nonsmokers) with a mean age of 33 y (range: 19-55 y). The subjects were fed 85 g raw watercress daily for 8 wk in addition to their habitual diet. The effect of supplementation was measured on a range of endpoints, including DNA damage in lymphocytes (with the comet assay), activity of detoxifying enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) in erythrocytes, plasma antioxidants (retinol, ascorbic acid, a-tocopherol, lutein, and beta-carotene), plasma total antioxidant status with the use of the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay, and plasma lipid profile. Results: Watercress supplementation (active compared with control phase) was associated with reductions in basal DNA damage (by 17%; P = 0.03), in basal plus oxidative purine DNA damage (by 23.9%; P = 0.002), and in basal DNA damage in response to ex vivo hydrogen peroxide challenge (by 9.4%; P = 0.07). Beneficial changes seen after watercress intervention were greater and more significant in smokers than in nonsmokers. Plasma lutein and P-carotene increased significantly by 100% and 33% (P < 0.001), respectively, after watercress supplementation. Conclusion: The results support the theory that consumption of watercress can be linked to a reduced risk of cancer via decreased damage to DNA and possible modulation of antioxidant status by increasing carotenoid concentrations.
LanguageEnglish
Pages504-510
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume85
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2007

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DNA Damage
Antioxidants
Lymphocytes
Diet
Lutein
Carotenoids
Vegetables
Neoplasms
Comet Assay
Tocopherols
beta Carotene
Glutathione Peroxidase
Vitamin A
Cross-Over Studies
Hydrogen Peroxide
Ascorbic Acid
Superoxide Dismutase
Epidemiologic Studies
Erythrocytes
Biomarkers

Cite this

Gill, C., Haldar, S., Boyd, L. A., Bennett, R., Whiteford, J., Butler, M., ... Rowland, I. R. (2007). Watercress supplementation in diet reduces lymphocyte DNA damage and alters blood antioxidant status in healthy adults. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 85(2), 504-510.
Gill, Chris ; Haldar, Sumanto ; Boyd, Lindsay A. ; Bennett, Richard ; Whiteford, Joy ; Butler, Michelle ; Pearson, Jenny R. ; Bradbury, Ian ; Rowland, Ian R. / Watercress supplementation in diet reduces lymphocyte DNA damage and alters blood antioxidant status in healthy adults. In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2007 ; Vol. 85, No. 2. pp. 504-510.
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abstract = "Background: Cruciferous vegetable (CV) consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several cancers in epidemiologic studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of watercress (a CV) supplementation on biomarkers related to cancer risk in healthy adults. Design: A single-blind, randomized, crossover study was conducted in 30 men and 30 women (30 smokers and 30 nonsmokers) with a mean age of 33 y (range: 19-55 y). The subjects were fed 85 g raw watercress daily for 8 wk in addition to their habitual diet. The effect of supplementation was measured on a range of endpoints, including DNA damage in lymphocytes (with the comet assay), activity of detoxifying enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) in erythrocytes, plasma antioxidants (retinol, ascorbic acid, a-tocopherol, lutein, and beta-carotene), plasma total antioxidant status with the use of the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay, and plasma lipid profile. Results: Watercress supplementation (active compared with control phase) was associated with reductions in basal DNA damage (by 17{\%}; P = 0.03), in basal plus oxidative purine DNA damage (by 23.9{\%}; P = 0.002), and in basal DNA damage in response to ex vivo hydrogen peroxide challenge (by 9.4{\%}; P = 0.07). Beneficial changes seen after watercress intervention were greater and more significant in smokers than in nonsmokers. Plasma lutein and P-carotene increased significantly by 100{\%} and 33{\%} (P < 0.001), respectively, after watercress supplementation. Conclusion: The results support the theory that consumption of watercress can be linked to a reduced risk of cancer via decreased damage to DNA and possible modulation of antioxidant status by increasing carotenoid concentrations.",
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Gill, C, Haldar, S, Boyd, LA, Bennett, R, Whiteford, J, Butler, M, Pearson, JR, Bradbury, I & Rowland, IR 2007, 'Watercress supplementation in diet reduces lymphocyte DNA damage and alters blood antioxidant status in healthy adults', American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 504-510.

Watercress supplementation in diet reduces lymphocyte DNA damage and alters blood antioxidant status in healthy adults. / Gill, Chris; Haldar, Sumanto; Boyd, Lindsay A.; Bennett, Richard; Whiteford, Joy; Butler, Michelle; Pearson, Jenny R.; Bradbury, Ian; Rowland, Ian R.

In: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 85, No. 2, 02.2007, p. 504-510.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Watercress supplementation in diet reduces lymphocyte DNA damage and alters blood antioxidant status in healthy adults

AU - Gill, Chris

AU - Haldar, Sumanto

AU - Boyd, Lindsay A.

AU - Bennett, Richard

AU - Whiteford, Joy

AU - Butler, Michelle

AU - Pearson, Jenny R.

AU - Bradbury, Ian

AU - Rowland, Ian R.

PY - 2007/2

Y1 - 2007/2

N2 - Background: Cruciferous vegetable (CV) consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several cancers in epidemiologic studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of watercress (a CV) supplementation on biomarkers related to cancer risk in healthy adults. Design: A single-blind, randomized, crossover study was conducted in 30 men and 30 women (30 smokers and 30 nonsmokers) with a mean age of 33 y (range: 19-55 y). The subjects were fed 85 g raw watercress daily for 8 wk in addition to their habitual diet. The effect of supplementation was measured on a range of endpoints, including DNA damage in lymphocytes (with the comet assay), activity of detoxifying enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) in erythrocytes, plasma antioxidants (retinol, ascorbic acid, a-tocopherol, lutein, and beta-carotene), plasma total antioxidant status with the use of the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay, and plasma lipid profile. Results: Watercress supplementation (active compared with control phase) was associated with reductions in basal DNA damage (by 17%; P = 0.03), in basal plus oxidative purine DNA damage (by 23.9%; P = 0.002), and in basal DNA damage in response to ex vivo hydrogen peroxide challenge (by 9.4%; P = 0.07). Beneficial changes seen after watercress intervention were greater and more significant in smokers than in nonsmokers. Plasma lutein and P-carotene increased significantly by 100% and 33% (P < 0.001), respectively, after watercress supplementation. Conclusion: The results support the theory that consumption of watercress can be linked to a reduced risk of cancer via decreased damage to DNA and possible modulation of antioxidant status by increasing carotenoid concentrations.

AB - Background: Cruciferous vegetable (CV) consumption is associated with a reduced risk of several cancers in epidemiologic studies. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effects of watercress (a CV) supplementation on biomarkers related to cancer risk in healthy adults. Design: A single-blind, randomized, crossover study was conducted in 30 men and 30 women (30 smokers and 30 nonsmokers) with a mean age of 33 y (range: 19-55 y). The subjects were fed 85 g raw watercress daily for 8 wk in addition to their habitual diet. The effect of supplementation was measured on a range of endpoints, including DNA damage in lymphocytes (with the comet assay), activity of detoxifying enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase) in erythrocytes, plasma antioxidants (retinol, ascorbic acid, a-tocopherol, lutein, and beta-carotene), plasma total antioxidant status with the use of the ferric reducing ability of plasma assay, and plasma lipid profile. Results: Watercress supplementation (active compared with control phase) was associated with reductions in basal DNA damage (by 17%; P = 0.03), in basal plus oxidative purine DNA damage (by 23.9%; P = 0.002), and in basal DNA damage in response to ex vivo hydrogen peroxide challenge (by 9.4%; P = 0.07). Beneficial changes seen after watercress intervention were greater and more significant in smokers than in nonsmokers. Plasma lutein and P-carotene increased significantly by 100% and 33% (P < 0.001), respectively, after watercress supplementation. Conclusion: The results support the theory that consumption of watercress can be linked to a reduced risk of cancer via decreased damage to DNA and possible modulation of antioxidant status by increasing carotenoid concentrations.

M3 - Article

VL - 85

SP - 504

EP - 510

JO - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

T2 - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

JF - American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

SN - 0002-9165

IS - 2

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