Vitamin D3 supplementation using an oral spray solution resolves deficiency but has no effect on VO2 max in Gaelic footballers: results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Joshua J. Todd, Emeir M McSorley, L. Kirsty Pourshahidi, Sharon M. Madigan, Eamon Laird, Martin Healy, Pamela Magee

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Abstract

Purpose Vitamin D inadequacy is a global health concern in athletes as well as the general population. Whilst the role of vitamin D in skeletal health is well defined, there remains uncertainty over whether vitamin D supplementation has an added benefit beyond bone health. Methods This randomised placebo-controlled trial in healthy male and female Gaelic footballers (n = 42) investigated the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation [3000 IU (75 µg) daily for 12 weeks, via an oral spray solution] on VO2 max which was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included skeletal muscle and lung function. Results Supplementation significantly increased total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations compared to the placebo group (mean ± SD change from baseline, 36.31 ± 32.34 vs. 6.11 ± 23.93 nmol/L, respectively; P = 0.006). At baseline, 50 and 22 % of footballers presented with vitamin D insufficiency (31–49 nmol/L) and deficiency (<30 nmol/L), respectively. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration did not significantly correlate with any measure of physical performance. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation over 12 weeks had no significant effect on VO2 max (P = 0.375), vertical jump height (P = 0.797), left and right handgrip strength (P = 0.146 and P = 0.266, respectively), forced vital capacity (P = 0.573) or forced expiratory volume at 1 s (P = 0.665), after adjusting for confounders. The high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy observed in this cohort of collegiate Gaelic footballers supports the need for vitamin D supplementation during wintertime to avoid being at risk of poor bone health. Conclusions Twelve-week daily supplementation with 3000 IU (75 µg) vitamin D3 successfully resolved deficiency but did not have any significant effect on VO2 max, skeletal muscle or lung function.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1577-1587
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume56
Issue number4
Early online date25 Mar 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2017

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Oral Sprays
Cholecalciferol
Vitamin D
Placebos
Health
Skeletal Muscle
Bone and Bones
Lung
Vital Capacity
Forced Expiratory Volume
Athletes
Uncertainty
Randomized Controlled Trials
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)

Keywords

  • Athletes
  • Football
  • Randomised controlled trial
  • VO2 max
  • Vitamin D

Cite this

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title = "Vitamin D3 supplementation using an oral spray solution resolves deficiency but has no effect on VO2 max in Gaelic footballers: results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial",
abstract = "Purpose Vitamin D inadequacy is a global health concern in athletes as well as the general population. Whilst the role of vitamin D in skeletal health is well defined, there remains uncertainty over whether vitamin D supplementation has an added benefit beyond bone health. Methods This randomised placebo-controlled trial in healthy male and female Gaelic footballers (n = 42) investigated the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation [3000 IU (75 µg) daily for 12 weeks, via an oral spray solution] on VO2 max which was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included skeletal muscle and lung function. Results Supplementation significantly increased total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations compared to the placebo group (mean ± SD change from baseline, 36.31 ± 32.34 vs. 6.11 ± 23.93 nmol/L, respectively; P = 0.006). At baseline, 50 and 22 {\%} of footballers presented with vitamin D insufficiency (31–49 nmol/L) and deficiency (<30 nmol/L), respectively. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration did not significantly correlate with any measure of physical performance. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation over 12 weeks had no significant effect on VO2 max (P = 0.375), vertical jump height (P = 0.797), left and right handgrip strength (P = 0.146 and P = 0.266, respectively), forced vital capacity (P = 0.573) or forced expiratory volume at 1 s (P = 0.665), after adjusting for confounders. The high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy observed in this cohort of collegiate Gaelic footballers supports the need for vitamin D supplementation during wintertime to avoid being at risk of poor bone health. Conclusions Twelve-week daily supplementation with 3000 IU (75 µg) vitamin D3 successfully resolved deficiency but did not have any significant effect on VO2 max, skeletal muscle or lung function.",
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T1 - Vitamin D3 supplementation using an oral spray solution resolves deficiency but has no effect on VO2 max in Gaelic footballers: results from a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

AU - Todd, Joshua J.

AU - McSorley, Emeir M

AU - Pourshahidi, L. Kirsty

AU - Madigan, Sharon M.

AU - Laird, Eamon

AU - Healy, Martin

AU - Magee, Pamela

PY - 2017/6/30

Y1 - 2017/6/30

N2 - Purpose Vitamin D inadequacy is a global health concern in athletes as well as the general population. Whilst the role of vitamin D in skeletal health is well defined, there remains uncertainty over whether vitamin D supplementation has an added benefit beyond bone health. Methods This randomised placebo-controlled trial in healthy male and female Gaelic footballers (n = 42) investigated the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation [3000 IU (75 µg) daily for 12 weeks, via an oral spray solution] on VO2 max which was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included skeletal muscle and lung function. Results Supplementation significantly increased total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations compared to the placebo group (mean ± SD change from baseline, 36.31 ± 32.34 vs. 6.11 ± 23.93 nmol/L, respectively; P = 0.006). At baseline, 50 and 22 % of footballers presented with vitamin D insufficiency (31–49 nmol/L) and deficiency (<30 nmol/L), respectively. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration did not significantly correlate with any measure of physical performance. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation over 12 weeks had no significant effect on VO2 max (P = 0.375), vertical jump height (P = 0.797), left and right handgrip strength (P = 0.146 and P = 0.266, respectively), forced vital capacity (P = 0.573) or forced expiratory volume at 1 s (P = 0.665), after adjusting for confounders. The high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy observed in this cohort of collegiate Gaelic footballers supports the need for vitamin D supplementation during wintertime to avoid being at risk of poor bone health. Conclusions Twelve-week daily supplementation with 3000 IU (75 µg) vitamin D3 successfully resolved deficiency but did not have any significant effect on VO2 max, skeletal muscle or lung function.

AB - Purpose Vitamin D inadequacy is a global health concern in athletes as well as the general population. Whilst the role of vitamin D in skeletal health is well defined, there remains uncertainty over whether vitamin D supplementation has an added benefit beyond bone health. Methods This randomised placebo-controlled trial in healthy male and female Gaelic footballers (n = 42) investigated the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation [3000 IU (75 µg) daily for 12 weeks, via an oral spray solution] on VO2 max which was the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes included skeletal muscle and lung function. Results Supplementation significantly increased total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations compared to the placebo group (mean ± SD change from baseline, 36.31 ± 32.34 vs. 6.11 ± 23.93 nmol/L, respectively; P = 0.006). At baseline, 50 and 22 % of footballers presented with vitamin D insufficiency (31–49 nmol/L) and deficiency (<30 nmol/L), respectively. Total 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration did not significantly correlate with any measure of physical performance. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models demonstrated that vitamin D supplementation over 12 weeks had no significant effect on VO2 max (P = 0.375), vertical jump height (P = 0.797), left and right handgrip strength (P = 0.146 and P = 0.266, respectively), forced vital capacity (P = 0.573) or forced expiratory volume at 1 s (P = 0.665), after adjusting for confounders. The high prevalence of vitamin D inadequacy observed in this cohort of collegiate Gaelic footballers supports the need for vitamin D supplementation during wintertime to avoid being at risk of poor bone health. Conclusions Twelve-week daily supplementation with 3000 IU (75 µg) vitamin D3 successfully resolved deficiency but did not have any significant effect on VO2 max, skeletal muscle or lung function.

KW - Athletes

KW - Football

KW - Randomised controlled trial

KW - VO2 max

KW - Vitamin D

UR - https://pure.ulster.ac.uk/en/publications/vitamin-d3-supplementation-using-an-oral-spray-solution-resolves--3

UR - https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs00394-016-1202-4

U2 - 10.1007/s00394-016-1202-4

DO - 10.1007/s00394-016-1202-4

M3 - Article

VL - 56

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JO - European Journal of Nutrition

T2 - European Journal of Nutrition

JF - European Journal of Nutrition

SN - 1436-6207

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