Vitamin D3 supplementation in healthy adults: a comparison of capsule and oral spray solution as a method of delivery in a wintertime randomised, open-label crossover study

Joshua J Todd, Emeir M McSorley, L. Kirsty Pourshahidi, Sharon Madigan, Eamon Laird, Martin Healy, Pamela Magee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)
12 Downloads (Pure)


Vitamin D is typically supplied in capsule form, both in trials and clinical practice. Yet little is known regarding the efficacy of vitamin D administered via oral spray; a method that primarily bypasses the gastrointestinal absorption route. This study aimed to compare the efficacy of vitamin D3 liquid capsules and oral spray solution, at increasing wintertime total 25-hydroxyvitamin D[25(OH)D] concentrations. In this randomised, open-label crossover trial, healthy adults (n=22)received 3000IU (75μg) vitamin D3 daily for 4 weeks in either capsule or oral spray form.Following a 10-week washout phase, participants received the opposite treatment for a final 4 weeks. Anthropometrics and fasted blood samples were obtained pre and post-supplementation,with samples analysed for total 25(OH)D, creatinine, intact parathyroid hormone and adjusted calcium concentrations. At baseline, vitamin D sufficiency [total 25(OH)D >50nmol/L],insufficiency (31-49nmol/L) and clinical deficiency (
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1402-1408
Number of pages4
Issue number8
Early online date11 Oct 2016
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 11 Oct 2016



  • oral spray
  • capsules
  • vitamin D supplementation
  • crossover
  • comparative effectiveness

Cite this