Cows’ milk is a relatively poor source of vitamin D but figures listed in UK food composition tables may be outdated. Samples of milk were collected for 1-year and vitamin D3 concentrations analysed using HPLC. Milk consumption data were obtained from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (Years 1-4). A theoretical model applied vitamin D3 fortifications of 1μg, 1.5μg and 2μg/100g to simulate improvements in vitamin D intakes. Mean±SD vitamin D3 in whole milk was 0.06±0.02μg/100g. No seasonal differences were apparent. Fortification of cows’ milks with 1μg, 1.5μg and 2.0μg/100g, theoretically increased median vitamin D intakes from 2.0μg/day to 4.2μg, 5.1μg and 5.9μg/day, respectively. Higher vitamin D3 in milk from this study than that currently in food composition tables, suggests further analysis is warranted. This model suggests vitamin D fortification of cows’ milk is an effective strategy to help more of the population achieve recently revised RNIs for vitamin D.
|Journal||International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition|
|Publication status||Accepted/In press - 7 Oct 2020|
- Vitamin D
- Cows milk
- Food consumption
- Dietary intake
Weir, R., Johnston, M., Lowis, C., Fearon, A. M., Stewart, S., Strain, S., & Pourshahidi, L. K. (Accepted/In press). Vitamin D3 content of cows’ milk produced in Northern Ireland and its efficacy as a vehicle for vitamin D fortification: a UK model. International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition.