Vitamin D3 content of cows’ milk produced in Northern Ireland and its efficacy as a vehicle for vitamin D fortification: a UK model.

Ruth Weir, Mike Johnston, Carole Lowis, Ann M. Fearon, Sharon Stewart, Sean Strain, L. Kirsty Pourshahidi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Cows’ milk is a relatively poor source of vitamin D but figures listed in UK food composition tables may be outdated. Samples of milk were collected for 1-year and vitamin D3 concentrations analysed using HPLC. Milk consumption data were obtained from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (Years 1-4). A theoretical model applied vitamin D3 fortifications of 1μg, 1.5μg and 2μg/100g to simulate improvements in vitamin D intakes. Mean±SD vitamin D3 in whole milk was 0.06±0.02μg/100g. No seasonal differences were apparent. Fortification of cows’ milks with 1μg, 1.5μg and 2.0μg/100g, theoretically increased median vitamin D intakes from 2.0μg/day to 4.2μg, 5.1μg and 5.9μg/day, respectively. Higher vitamin D3 in milk from this study than that currently in food composition tables, suggests further analysis is warranted. This model suggests vitamin D fortification of cows’ milk is an effective strategy to help more of the population achieve recently revised RNIs for vitamin D.
Original languageEnglish
JournalInternational Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 7 Oct 2020

Keywords

  • Vitamin D
  • Fortification
  • Cows milk
  • Food consumption
  • Dietary intake
  • Model
  • NDNS

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