CONTEXT: Vitamin D deficiency is a global public health issue, particularly in nursing home residents.
OBJECTIVE: This review critically summarizes the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in nursing home residents worldwide. In addition, it outlines the effect of vitamin D intervention, alone or in combination with other nutrients or therapies, on improving vitamin D status and associated health outcomes in nursing home residents.
DATA SOURCES, EXTRACTION, AND ANALYSIS: Searches were conducted of electronic databases for articles published from 2010 to May 2021. After screening of the 366 papers initially identified, 58 articles were included.
CONCLUSIONS: A paucity of observational studies in nursing homes suggests a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency ranging from 8% [25(OH)D <25 nmol/L], up to 94% [25(OH)D <50 nmol/L] in some cohorts where supplement use was low. Reported factors associated with deficiency and suboptimal vitamin D status include lack of sunlight exposure, poor dietary intake of vitamin D, limited vitamin D food fortification, frailty, poor renal function, and low use of vitamin D supplements. Residents who are severely deficient, deficient, or insufficient in vitamin D require remedial vitamin D supplementation prior to maintenance supplementation at doses >800 IU/day. High-dose vitamin D supplementation may reduce respiratory illness; however, supportive data are limited. Oral nutritional supplements, in combination with exercise, may benefit physical function and performance, whereas supplementation with vitamin D- and calcium-fortified foods has been associated with improved quality of life and reduced bone resorption. Globally, vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent in nursing home residents. There is an urgent need for standardized dietary and supplementation guidelines to prevent deficiency in this vulnerable group.
|Number of pages||19|
|Early online date||11 Nov 2022|
|Publication status||Published online - 11 Nov 2022|
Bibliographical note© The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.
- older adults
- aged ≥80 years
- musculoskeletal health
- nursing home
- vitamin D