Vitamin D Biofortification of Pork May Offer a Food-Based Strategy to Increase Vitamin D Intakes in the UK Population

Holly R. Neill, Chris I. R. Gill, Emma J. McDonald, W. Colin McRoberts, L. Kirsty Pourshahidi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Downloads (Pure)


Hypovitaminosis D is prevalent worldwide, with many populations failing to achieve the recommended nutrient intake (RNI) for vitamin D (10–20 μg/day). Owing to low vitamin D intakes, limited exposure to ultraviolet-B (UVB) induced dermal synthesis, lack of mandatory fortification and poor uptake in supplement advice, additional food-based strategies are warranted to enable the UK population to achieve optimal vitamin D intakes, thus reducing musculoskeletal risks or suboptimal immune functioning. The aims of the current study were to (1) determine any changes to vitamin D intake and status over a 9-year period, and (2) apply dietary modeling to predict the impact of vitamin D biofortification of pork and pork products on population intakes. Data from the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey (Year 1–9; 2008/09–2016/17) were analyzed to explore nationally representative mean vitamin D intakes and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations (n = 13,350). Four theoretical dietary scenarios of vitamin D pork biofortification were computed (vitamin D content +50/100/150/200% vs. standard). Vitamin D intake in the UK population has not changed significantly from 2008 to 2017 and in 2016/17, across all age groups, 13.2% were considered deficient [25(OH)D
Original languageEnglish
Article number777364
Pages (from-to)1-12
Number of pages12
JournalFrontiers in nutrition
Early online date3 Dec 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 3 Dec 2021


  • Nutrition
  • cholecalciferol
  • 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D)
  • National Diet and Nutrition Survey
  • dietary modeling
  • bio-addition
  • meat
  • feed supplementation
  • UVB radiation


Dive into the research topics of 'Vitamin D Biofortification of Pork May Offer a Food-Based Strategy to Increase Vitamin D Intakes in the UK Population'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this