Using the Red Band Difference Algorithm to Detect and Monitor a Karenia spp. Bloom Off the South Coast of Ireland, June 2019

Catherine Jordan, Caroline Cusack, Michelle C. Tomlinson, Andrew Meredith, Ryan Mc Geady, Rafael Salas, Clynton Gregory, Peter L. Croot

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
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Abstract

During the months of May, June, July and August 2019 the Red Band Difference algorithm was tested over Irish waters to assess its suitability for the Irish harmful algal bloom alert system. Over the 4 weeks of June an extensive localised surface phytoplankton bloom formed in the Celtic Sea, south of Ireland. Satellite imagery from the Sentinel-3a’s Ocean and Land Colour Instrument, processed using the Red Band Difference algorithm detected the bloom in surface shelf waters and helped monitor its movement. Daily satellite images indicated that the bloom appeared at the sea surface on the 2nd June 2019 and peaked in size and surface abundance in offshore shelf waters within 4 weeks, remnants remained at the surface into July. A particle tracking approach was used to replicate oceanic circulation patterns in the vicinity of the observed algal bloom and estimate its trajectory. The initial horizontal distribution of particles in the tracking model were based on a satellite imagery polygon of the bloom when it first appeared in surface waters. Good agreement was observed between satellite imagery of the bloom and the particle tracking model. In situ sampling efforts from a research cruise and the national inshore phytoplankton monitoring programme confirmed that Karenia mikimotoi was the causative organism of the bloom. This pilot study shows great potential to use the Red Band Difference algorithm in the existing Irish harmful algal bloom alert system. In addition, satellite ocean colour data combined with particle tracking model estimates can be a useful tool to monitor high biomass harmful algal bloom forming species, such as Karenia mikimotoi, in surface coastal waters around Ireland and elsewhere.
Original languageEnglish
Article number638889
JournalFrontiers in Marine Science
Volume8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 30 Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank Richard Stumpf and his team at NCCOS, NOAA for their guidance that helped create this study. We thank the phytoplankton team at the Marine Institute for analysing the inshore samples made available for this study. We also thank Dr. Robin Raine (Chief Scientist), researchers and crew of CV19018 for the offshore phytoplankton data used in this study, Kieran Lyons from the Marine Institute for providing the data for the particle tracking model, and the reviewers for their comments and suggestions which have helped improve this manuscript. Funding. This project (Grant-aid Agreement No. CF/17/03/01) is carried out with the support of the Marine Institute and funded under the Marine Research Programme by the Irish Government. Further funding was provided by the Marine Institute Networking and Research Communication Awards, Networking and Travel Grant, and Ryan Institute Travel Awards for CJ visit to NCCOS, NOAA in October 2019. This work was partially supported by the INTERREG Atlantic Area Work Programme project PRIMROSE Project Number: EAPA_182/2016.

Funding Information:
This project (Grant-aid Agreement No. CF/17/03/01) is carried out with the support of the Marine Institute and funded under the Marine Research Programme by the Irish Government. Further funding was provided by the Marine Institute Networking and Research Communication Awards, Networking and Travel Grant, and Ryan Institute Travel Awards for CJ visit to NCCOS, NOAA in October 2019. This work was partially supported by the INTERREG Atlantic Area Work Programme project PRIMROSE Project Number: EAPA_182/2016.

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright © 2021 Jordan, Cusack, Tomlinson, Meredith, McGeady, Salas, Gregory and Croot.

Keywords

  • Harmful algal bloom
  • Red Band DIfference
  • OLCI
  • Remote sensing
  • Aquaculture
  • Ocean colour
  • Particle tracking
  • Monitoring programme
  • harmful algal bloom
  • ocean colour
  • Red Band Difference
  • particle tracking
  • remote sensing
  • monitoring programme
  • aquaculture

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