Using a dual-sited organizational ethnography to examine change within and between community sport organizations

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

An increasingly diverse range of theories have been used to examine organizational change in sport. The methodological techniques used have revealed much, but are increasingly routine. Here, a novel use of organizational ethnography is used to examine change, both within and between two partners within an inter-organizational partnership. A longitudinal, dual-sited, organizational ethnography was performed between 2008 and 2012. This internal perspective gathered data on the structures, practices and relationships impacted by a common external stimulus (national sport initiative). One organization's values moderated their responses to the implantation of quality control systems and their attitudes to program expansion. This resistance created tensions between the partners, resulting in the deterioration of organizational relationships. This paper provides both a case of organizational change in sport management, while demonstrating some opportunities and challenges for using this dual approach. Both theoretical and methodological implications for practice are discussed and further research opportunities presented.
LanguageEnglish
Pages1-16
JournalManaging Sport and Leisure
Volume0
Issue number0
Early online date5 Jan 2018
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 5 Jan 2018

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ethnography
Sports
organizational change
community
quality control
control system
stimulus
management
Values

Keywords

  • Organizational ethnography
  • organizational change
  • inter-organizational partnership
  • community sport
  • qualitative methodology

Cite this

@article{3eee7aa1040b4a3f8954b766f5307065,
title = "Using a dual-sited organizational ethnography to examine change within and between community sport organizations",
abstract = "An increasingly diverse range of theories have been used to examine organizational change in sport. The methodological techniques used have revealed much, but are increasingly routine. Here, a novel use of organizational ethnography is used to examine change, both within and between two partners within an inter-organizational partnership. A longitudinal, dual-sited, organizational ethnography was performed between 2008 and 2012. This internal perspective gathered data on the structures, practices and relationships impacted by a common external stimulus (national sport initiative). One organization's values moderated their responses to the implantation of quality control systems and their attitudes to program expansion. This resistance created tensions between the partners, resulting in the deterioration of organizational relationships. This paper provides both a case of organizational change in sport management, while demonstrating some opportunities and challenges for using this dual approach. Both theoretical and methodological implications for practice are discussed and further research opportunities presented.",
keywords = "Organizational ethnography, organizational change, inter-organizational partnership, community sport, qualitative methodology",
author = "Kitchin, {P J}",
note = "Reference text: Amis, J., Slack, T., and Hinings, C. R. (2002). Values and organizational change. The Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 38, 436-465. Amis, J., Slack, T., and Hinings, C. R. (2004). Strategic change and the role of interest, power and organizational capacity. Journal of Sport Management, 18, 158-198. Aull-Davies, C. (2008). Reflexive ethnography: A guide to researching selves and others. (2nd ed.) London: Routledge. Bloyce, D., Smith, A., Mead, R., and Morris, J. (2008). 'Playing the Game (Plan)': A Figurational Analysis of Organizational Change in Sports Development in England. European Sport Management Quarterly, 8, 359-378. Ciomaga, B. (2013) Sport management: a bibliographic study on central themes and trends. European Sport Management Quarterly, 13, 557-578. Clegg, S., Rhodes, C., and Kornberger, M. (2007). Desperately seeking legitimacy: organizational identity and emerging industries. Organization Studies, 28, 495-513. Coffey, A., and Atkinson, P. (1996). Making sense of qualitative data: Complementary research strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. Cousens, L. (1997). From diamonds to dollars: The dynamics of change in AAA baseball franchises. Journal of Sport Management, 11, 316-334. Cousens, L., and Slack, T. (2005). Field-level change: The case of North American major league professional sport. Journal of Sport Management, 19, 13-42. Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches (2nd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. Denzin, N. K. (1997) Interpretive Ethnography: Ethnographic Practices for the 21st Century. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. DiMaggio, P. J., and Powell, W.W. (1983) The iron cage revisited: institutional isomorphism and collective rationality. American Sociological Review, 48, 147–160. Edwards, A., and Skinner, J. (2009). Qualitative Research in Sport Management. Elsevier: Oxford. England and Wales Cricket Board - ECB (2005). Building partnerships: Cricket’s Strategic Plan 2005-2009: From playground to test arena. London: England and Wales Cricket Board. Fine, G. A., Morrill, C., and Surianarain, S. (2009). Ethnography in organizational settings, in D.A. Buchman and A. Bryman (eds.), The Sage Handbook of Organizational Research Methods (pp. 602-619). Los Angeles, CA.: Sage. Friedland, R., and Alford, R. R. (1991). Bringing society back in: Symbols, practices and institutional contradictions. In W.W. Powell and P. J. DiMaggio (Eds). The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis (pp 232-263). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Greenwood, R., and Hinings, C. R. (1996). Understanding radical organizational change: bringing together the old and new institutionalism. Academy of Management Review, 21, 1022-1054. Hammersley, M., and Atkinson, P. (2007). Ethnography: Principles in practice. (3rd ed.). London: Routledge. Harris, S., and Houlihan, B. (2016). Implementing the community sport legacy: The limits of partnerships, contracts and performance management. European Sport Management Quarterly, 16, 433-458. Hignell, A. (2004). England and its cricketscape: In decline or on the up? In B. Majumdar and J.A. Mangan (Eds.). Cricketing cultures in conflict: World Cup 2003 (pp. 33-50). Routledge: Oxon. Hoeber L., and Shaw, S. (2017). Contemporary qualitative research methods in sport management. Sport Management Review, 20, 4-7. Houlihan B., and White, A. (2002). The politics of sports development: Development of sport or development through sport? London: Routledge. Kikulis, L. M., Slack, T., and Hinings, C. R. (1995). Does decision-making make a difference? Patterns of change within Canadian national sporting organizations. Journal of Sport Management, 9, 135-153. Lincoln, Y. S., and Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Marcus, G. E. (1998). Ethnography through thick and thin. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., and Salda{\~n}a, J. (2013). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook (3rd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Morgan, G., and Spicer, A. (2009). Critical approaches to organizational change, in M. Alvesson, T. Bridgman, and H. Willmott (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Critical Management Studies, (pp. 251-266), Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mutch, A., Delbridge, R., and Ventresca, M. (2006). Situating organizational action: the relational sociology of organizations. Organization, 13, 607-625. O’Brien, D., and Slack, T. (1999). Deinstitutionalising the amateur ethic: an empirical examination of change in a rugby union football club. Sport Management Review, 2, 24-42. O’Brien, D., and Slack, T. (2003). An analysis of change in an organizational field: The professionalization of English rugby union. Journal of Sport Management, 17, 417-448. O’Brien, D., and Slack, T. (2004). The emergence of a professional logic in English rugby union: The role of isomorphic and diffusion processes. Journal of Sport Management, 18,1, 13-39. Parkhe, A. (1993). “Messy” research, methodological predispositions and theory development in international joint ventures. Academy of Management Review, 18,2, 227-268. Perck, J. Van Hoecke, J., Westerbeek, H., and Breesch, D. (2016). Organisational change in local sports clubs: The case of Flemish gymnastics clubs. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 6, 158-181. Reeves-Sandy, P. (1979). The ethnographic paradigm(s). Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 527-538. Salda{\~n}a, J. (2009). The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. Silverman, D. (2011). Interpreting qualitative data. (4th edition). London: Sage. Skille, E. {\AA}. (2011) Change and isomorphism: a case study of translation processes in a Norwegian sport club. Sport Management Review, 14, 79-88. Skinner, J., Stewart, B., and Edwards, A. (1999). Amateurism to professionalism: modelling organizational change in sporting organizations. Sport Management Review, 2, 173-192. Skinner, J., Stewart, B., and Edwards, A. (2004). Interpreting policy language and managing organisational change: The case of Queensland rugby union. European Sport Management Quarterly, 4, 77-94. Skirstad, B., and Chelladurai, P. (2011). For ‘love’ and money: A sports club’s innovative response to multiple logics. Journal of Sport Management, 25, 339-353. Slack, T. (1985) The bureaucratization of a voluntary sport organization. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 20, 145-166. Slack, T., and Hinings, B. (1992) Understanding change in national sport organizations: an integration of theoretical perspectives. Journal of Sport Management, 6, 114-132. Slack, T., and Hinings, C. R. (1994). Institutional pressures and isomorphic change: An empirical test. Organization Studies, 15, 803–827. Stenling, C. (2013). The introduction of drive-in sport in community sport organizations as an example of organizational non-change. Journal of Sport Management, 27, 497-509. Stenling, C. (2014). The emergence of a new logic? The theorizing of a new practice in the highly institutionalized context of Swedish voluntary sport. Sport Management Review, 17, 507–519. The Cricket Foundation. (2008). Annual Report and Financial Statements for the Year Ended 5 April 2008. The Cricket Foundation: London. The Cricket Foundation. (2017). Who we are. [Online]. Available at: https://www.chancetoshine.org/about-us/who-we-are Thibault L., and Harvey, J. (1997). Fostering interorganizational linkages in the Canadian Sport Delivery System. Journal of Sport Management, 11, 45-68. Van Maanen, J. (1979). The fact of fiction in organizational ethnography. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 539-550. Van Maanen, J. (2011). Ethnography as work: Some rules of engagement. Journal of Management Studies, 48, 218-234. Watson, T. J. (2012). Making organisational ethnography. Journal of Organizational Ethnography, 1, 15-22. Wright, A. L., and Zammuto, R. F. (2013). Wielding the willow: Processes of institutional change in English county cricket. Academy of Management Journal, 56, 308-330. Yanow, D., Ybema, S., and van Hulst, M. (2012). Practising organizational ethnography. In G. Symon, and C. Cassell (Eds.), The practice of qualitative organizational research: Core methods and current challenges (pp. 331-350). London: Sage. Zilber, T. B. (2014). Beyond a single organization: Challenges and opportunities in doing field-level ethnography. Journal of Organizational Ethnography, 3, 96-113.",
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N1 - Reference text: Amis, J., Slack, T., and Hinings, C. R. (2002). Values and organizational change. The Journal of Applied Behavioural Science, 38, 436-465. Amis, J., Slack, T., and Hinings, C. R. (2004). Strategic change and the role of interest, power and organizational capacity. Journal of Sport Management, 18, 158-198. Aull-Davies, C. (2008). Reflexive ethnography: A guide to researching selves and others. (2nd ed.) London: Routledge. Bloyce, D., Smith, A., Mead, R., and Morris, J. (2008). 'Playing the Game (Plan)': A Figurational Analysis of Organizational Change in Sports Development in England. European Sport Management Quarterly, 8, 359-378. Ciomaga, B. (2013) Sport management: a bibliographic study on central themes and trends. European Sport Management Quarterly, 13, 557-578. Clegg, S., Rhodes, C., and Kornberger, M. (2007). Desperately seeking legitimacy: organizational identity and emerging industries. Organization Studies, 28, 495-513. Coffey, A., and Atkinson, P. (1996). Making sense of qualitative data: Complementary research strategies. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. Cousens, L. (1997). From diamonds to dollars: The dynamics of change in AAA baseball franchises. Journal of Sport Management, 11, 316-334. Cousens, L., and Slack, T. (2005). Field-level change: The case of North American major league professional sport. Journal of Sport Management, 19, 13-42. Creswell, J. W. (2007). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches (2nd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. Denzin, N. K. (1997) Interpretive Ethnography: Ethnographic Practices for the 21st Century. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. DiMaggio, P. J., and Powell, W.W. (1983) The iron cage revisited: institutional isomorphism and collective rationality. American Sociological Review, 48, 147–160. Edwards, A., and Skinner, J. (2009). Qualitative Research in Sport Management. Elsevier: Oxford. England and Wales Cricket Board - ECB (2005). Building partnerships: Cricket’s Strategic Plan 2005-2009: From playground to test arena. London: England and Wales Cricket Board. Fine, G. A., Morrill, C., and Surianarain, S. (2009). Ethnography in organizational settings, in D.A. Buchman and A. Bryman (eds.), The Sage Handbook of Organizational Research Methods (pp. 602-619). Los Angeles, CA.: Sage. Friedland, R., and Alford, R. R. (1991). Bringing society back in: Symbols, practices and institutional contradictions. In W.W. Powell and P. J. DiMaggio (Eds). The New Institutionalism in Organizational Analysis (pp 232-263). Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Greenwood, R., and Hinings, C. R. (1996). Understanding radical organizational change: bringing together the old and new institutionalism. Academy of Management Review, 21, 1022-1054. Hammersley, M., and Atkinson, P. (2007). Ethnography: Principles in practice. (3rd ed.). London: Routledge. Harris, S., and Houlihan, B. (2016). Implementing the community sport legacy: The limits of partnerships, contracts and performance management. European Sport Management Quarterly, 16, 433-458. Hignell, A. (2004). England and its cricketscape: In decline or on the up? In B. Majumdar and J.A. Mangan (Eds.). Cricketing cultures in conflict: World Cup 2003 (pp. 33-50). Routledge: Oxon. Hoeber L., and Shaw, S. (2017). Contemporary qualitative research methods in sport management. Sport Management Review, 20, 4-7. Houlihan B., and White, A. (2002). The politics of sports development: Development of sport or development through sport? London: Routledge. Kikulis, L. M., Slack, T., and Hinings, C. R. (1995). Does decision-making make a difference? Patterns of change within Canadian national sporting organizations. Journal of Sport Management, 9, 135-153. Lincoln, Y. S., and Guba, E. G. (1985). Naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Marcus, G. E. (1998). Ethnography through thick and thin. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M., and Saldaña, J. (2013). Qualitative Data Analysis: A Methods Sourcebook (3rd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Morgan, G., and Spicer, A. (2009). Critical approaches to organizational change, in M. Alvesson, T. Bridgman, and H. Willmott (eds.). The Oxford Handbook of Critical Management Studies, (pp. 251-266), Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mutch, A., Delbridge, R., and Ventresca, M. (2006). Situating organizational action: the relational sociology of organizations. Organization, 13, 607-625. O’Brien, D., and Slack, T. (1999). Deinstitutionalising the amateur ethic: an empirical examination of change in a rugby union football club. Sport Management Review, 2, 24-42. O’Brien, D., and Slack, T. (2003). An analysis of change in an organizational field: The professionalization of English rugby union. Journal of Sport Management, 17, 417-448. O’Brien, D., and Slack, T. (2004). The emergence of a professional logic in English rugby union: The role of isomorphic and diffusion processes. Journal of Sport Management, 18,1, 13-39. Parkhe, A. (1993). “Messy” research, methodological predispositions and theory development in international joint ventures. Academy of Management Review, 18,2, 227-268. Perck, J. Van Hoecke, J., Westerbeek, H., and Breesch, D. (2016). Organisational change in local sports clubs: The case of Flemish gymnastics clubs. Sport, Business and Management: An International Journal, 6, 158-181. Reeves-Sandy, P. (1979). The ethnographic paradigm(s). Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 527-538. Saldaña, J. (2009). The Coding Manual for Qualitative Researchers. Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. Silverman, D. (2011). Interpreting qualitative data. (4th edition). London: Sage. Skille, E. Å. (2011) Change and isomorphism: a case study of translation processes in a Norwegian sport club. Sport Management Review, 14, 79-88. Skinner, J., Stewart, B., and Edwards, A. (1999). Amateurism to professionalism: modelling organizational change in sporting organizations. Sport Management Review, 2, 173-192. Skinner, J., Stewart, B., and Edwards, A. (2004). Interpreting policy language and managing organisational change: The case of Queensland rugby union. European Sport Management Quarterly, 4, 77-94. Skirstad, B., and Chelladurai, P. (2011). For ‘love’ and money: A sports club’s innovative response to multiple logics. Journal of Sport Management, 25, 339-353. Slack, T. (1985) The bureaucratization of a voluntary sport organization. International Review for the Sociology of Sport, 20, 145-166. Slack, T., and Hinings, B. (1992) Understanding change in national sport organizations: an integration of theoretical perspectives. Journal of Sport Management, 6, 114-132. Slack, T., and Hinings, C. R. (1994). Institutional pressures and isomorphic change: An empirical test. Organization Studies, 15, 803–827. Stenling, C. (2013). The introduction of drive-in sport in community sport organizations as an example of organizational non-change. Journal of Sport Management, 27, 497-509. Stenling, C. (2014). The emergence of a new logic? The theorizing of a new practice in the highly institutionalized context of Swedish voluntary sport. Sport Management Review, 17, 507–519. The Cricket Foundation. (2008). Annual Report and Financial Statements for the Year Ended 5 April 2008. The Cricket Foundation: London. The Cricket Foundation. (2017). Who we are. [Online]. Available at: https://www.chancetoshine.org/about-us/who-we-are Thibault L., and Harvey, J. (1997). Fostering interorganizational linkages in the Canadian Sport Delivery System. Journal of Sport Management, 11, 45-68. Van Maanen, J. (1979). The fact of fiction in organizational ethnography. Administrative Science Quarterly, 24, 539-550. Van Maanen, J. (2011). Ethnography as work: Some rules of engagement. Journal of Management Studies, 48, 218-234. Watson, T. J. (2012). Making organisational ethnography. Journal of Organizational Ethnography, 1, 15-22. Wright, A. L., and Zammuto, R. F. (2013). Wielding the willow: Processes of institutional change in English county cricket. Academy of Management Journal, 56, 308-330. Yanow, D., Ybema, S., and van Hulst, M. (2012). Practising organizational ethnography. In G. Symon, and C. Cassell (Eds.), The practice of qualitative organizational research: Core methods and current challenges (pp. 331-350). London: Sage. Zilber, T. B. (2014). Beyond a single organization: Challenges and opportunities in doing field-level ethnography. Journal of Organizational Ethnography, 3, 96-113.

PY - 2018/1/5

Y1 - 2018/1/5

N2 - An increasingly diverse range of theories have been used to examine organizational change in sport. The methodological techniques used have revealed much, but are increasingly routine. Here, a novel use of organizational ethnography is used to examine change, both within and between two partners within an inter-organizational partnership. A longitudinal, dual-sited, organizational ethnography was performed between 2008 and 2012. This internal perspective gathered data on the structures, practices and relationships impacted by a common external stimulus (national sport initiative). One organization's values moderated their responses to the implantation of quality control systems and their attitudes to program expansion. This resistance created tensions between the partners, resulting in the deterioration of organizational relationships. This paper provides both a case of organizational change in sport management, while demonstrating some opportunities and challenges for using this dual approach. Both theoretical and methodological implications for practice are discussed and further research opportunities presented.

AB - An increasingly diverse range of theories have been used to examine organizational change in sport. The methodological techniques used have revealed much, but are increasingly routine. Here, a novel use of organizational ethnography is used to examine change, both within and between two partners within an inter-organizational partnership. A longitudinal, dual-sited, organizational ethnography was performed between 2008 and 2012. This internal perspective gathered data on the structures, practices and relationships impacted by a common external stimulus (national sport initiative). One organization's values moderated their responses to the implantation of quality control systems and their attitudes to program expansion. This resistance created tensions between the partners, resulting in the deterioration of organizational relationships. This paper provides both a case of organizational change in sport management, while demonstrating some opportunities and challenges for using this dual approach. Both theoretical and methodological implications for practice are discussed and further research opportunities presented.

KW - Organizational ethnography

KW - organizational change

KW - inter-organizational partnership

KW - community sport

KW - qualitative methodology

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DO - 10.1080/23750472.2017.1417739

M3 - Article

VL - 0

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EP - 16

JO - Managing Sport and Leisure

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