Understanding which dimensions of organisational capacity support the vertical integration of disability football clubs

Paul James Kitchin, Aaron Crossin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Disabled people continue to face exclusion from full participation in community sports. Efforts to include disabled people in sports organisations have favoured structural solutions to make sport accessible. Our purpose was to understand which dimensions of a football club’s organisational capacity assisted the vertical integration of disability football clubs. A theoretical framework combining organisational capacity and acculturation informed an exploratory and qualitative research design using semi-structured interviews. Findings indicate that the brand and the size of the organisation assisted the generation of integrative capacity. Following the acquisition of integrative capacity, two types of integration – assimilation and accommodation appeared. This study contributes to the extant literature on the vertical integration of disability sport and the management and organisation of disability football. Recommendations for policy makers and practitioners seeking to implement the vertical integration process as this study provides a theoretical and empirical perspective on how mergers can create inclusive organisations.
LanguageEnglish
JournalManaging Sport and Leisure
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Fingerprint

vertical integration
disability
clubs
sport
Sports
organizational framework
acculturation
merger
club
assimilation
accommodation
research planning
qualitative research
exclusion
participation
Football
Clubs
Organizational capacity
Vertical integration
interview

Keywords

  • vertical integration
  • inclusion
  • disability sport
  • organisational capacity
  • community sport

Cite this

@article{1bd07d84dd5c4d29988f68b03ef8dbb2,
title = "Understanding which dimensions of organisational capacity support the vertical integration of disability football clubs",
abstract = "Disabled people continue to face exclusion from full participation in community sports. Efforts to include disabled people in sports organisations have favoured structural solutions to make sport accessible. Our purpose was to understand which dimensions of a football club’s organisational capacity assisted the vertical integration of disability football clubs. A theoretical framework combining organisational capacity and acculturation informed an exploratory and qualitative research design using semi-structured interviews. Findings indicate that the brand and the size of the organisation assisted the generation of integrative capacity. Following the acquisition of integrative capacity, two types of integration – assimilation and accommodation appeared. This study contributes to the extant literature on the vertical integration of disability sport and the management and organisation of disability football. Recommendations for policy makers and practitioners seeking to implement the vertical integration process as this study provides a theoretical and empirical perspective on how mergers can create inclusive organisations.",
keywords = "vertical integration, inclusion, disability sport, organisational capacity, community sport",
author = "Kitchin, {Paul James} and Aaron Crossin",
note = "Allison, M. (2001). Sports clubs in Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland: Sport Scotland. Atherton, M., Russell, D. & Turner, G. H. (2001). More than a match: The role of football in Britain’s deaf community. Soccer and Society 2(3), 22–43. Barr, O. (2011). What is ‘mainstream’? Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 15(3), 155-156. Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation and adaption. Applied Psychology,46, 5–34. Braun, V. Clarke, V., & Weate, P. (2016). Using thematic analysis in sport and exercise research. In B. Smith and A.C. Sparkes (Eds). Routledge handbook of qualitative research in sport and exercise (pp. 191-205). Oxon: Routledge. Brittain, I. (2004). Perceptions of disability and their impact upon Involvement in sport for people with disabilities at all levels. Journal for Sport and Social Issues, 28(4), 429-452. Bouttet, F. (2016). Inclusion as a norm. Multi−scalar influences on the recognition of people with disabilities in French national sports organisations. Loisir et Soci{\'e}t{\'e} / Society and Leisure, 39(2),.274-289. Chappelet, J.L. (2011). Strategic management and planning. In L. Robinson and D. Palmer (Eds.). Managing voluntary sport organisations (pp. 51-69). Oxon: Routledge. Clark, B. & Mesch, J. (2018) A global perspective on disparity of gender and disability for deaf female athletes. Sport in Society, (21)1, 64-75. Collins, M., & Kay, T. (2003). Sport and social exclusion. Oxon: Routledge. Cordery, C.J., Sim, D., Baskerville, R.F. (2013). Three models, one goal: Assessing financial vulnerability in New Zealand amateur sports clubs. Sport Management Review, 16, 186-199. Crawford, J. L., & Stodolska, M. (2009). Constraints experienced by elite athletes with disabilities in Kenya, with implications for the development of a new hierarchical model of constraints at the societal level. Journal of Leisure Research, 40(1), 128-156. Cunningham, G. (2016). Diversity and inclusion in sports organisations, 3rd edition. Oxon: Routledge. Darcy, S., & Dowse, L. (2012). In search of a level playing field – the constraints and benefits of sport participation for people with intellectual disability. Disability & Society, 28(3), 393–497. Darcy, S. Lock, D., & Taylor, T. (2017). Enabling inclusive sport participation: effects of disability and support needs on constraints to sport participation. Leisure Sciences, 39(1), 20-41. Doherty, A. Misener, K., & Cuskelly, G., (2014). Toward a multidimensional framework of capacity in community sport clubs. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 43(2), 124S-142S. Elling, A., De Knop, P., & Knoppers, A. (2001). The social integrative meaning of sport: a critical and comparative analysis of policy and practice in the Netherlands. Sociology of Sport Journal, 18, 414-434. European Commission (2007). White Paper on Sport. European Commission. Accessed 23rd February 2018 at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX{\%}3A52007DC0391 Fitzgerald, H. (2012). ‘Drawing’ on disabled students’ experiences of physical education and stakeholder responses. Sport, Education and Society, 17(4), 443-462. French, D., & Hainsworth, J. (2001). ‘There aren’t any buses and the swimming pool is always cold!’: Obstacles and opportunities in the provision of sport for disabled people. Managing Leisure, 6(1), 35-49. Hall, M. H., Andrukow, A., Barr, C., Brock, K., de Wit, M., Embuldeniya, D., Jolin, L., Lasby, D., Malinsky, E., Stowe, S., & Vallaincourt, Y. (2003). The capacity to serve: A qualitative study of the challenges facing Canada’s nonprofit and voluntary organisations. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Centre for Philanthropy. Hennink, M., Hutter, I., & Bailey, A. (2015). Qualitative research methods. London: SAGE. Howe, P. D. (2007). Integration of Paralympic athletes into athletics Canada. International Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue internationale d’{\'e}tudes canadiennes, (35),133-149. Hudson, N.A., Mrozik, J.H. White, R., Northend, K., Moore, S., Lister, K. & Rayner, K. (2017). Community football teams for people with intellectual disabilities in secure settings: “They take you off the ward, it was like a nice day, and then you get medals at the end”. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 31, 213-225. Hughes, B., & Patterson, K. (1997). The social model of disability and the disappearing body: Towards a sociology of impairment. Disability & Society, 12, 325-340. Hums, M.A., Moorman, A.M. and Wolff, E.A. (2003). The inclusion of the Paralympics in the Olympic and amateur sports act: Legal and policy implications for integration of athletes with disabilities into the United States Olympic Committee and national governing bodies Journal of Sport and Social Issues 27(3), 261-275. Hylton, K. (2013). Sport and social integration. In B. Houlihan and M. Green (Eds). Routledge Handbook of Sports Development (pp 100-113). Oxon: Routledge. Irish Football Association (2016). IFA Disability Football Strategic Plan (2016-2020). Belfast: IFA, pp.1-12. Jeanes. R., Spaaij, R., Magee, J., Farquharson, K., Gorman, S., & Lusher, D. (2018). ‘Yes we are inclusive’: Examining provision for young people with disabilities in community sport clubs. Sport Management Review, (21)1, 38-50. Jones, D. B. (2003). “Denied from a lot of places” barriers to participation in community recreation programs: Perspectives of parents. Leisure/Loisr, 28(1-2), 49-69. Kitchin, P. J. and Howe, P. D. (2014). The mainstreaming of disability cricket in England and Wales: Integration 'One game' at a time. Sport Management Review, 17(1), 65-77. Macbeth, J. (2008). Equality issues within partially sighted football in England. In C. Hallinan & S. Jackson (Eds.), Social and cultural diversity in a sporting world (pp. 65–80). Bingley: Emerald. Macbeth, J. L. (2009) Restrictions of activity in partially sighted football: experiences of grassroots players. Leisure Studies, 28(4), 455-467. Macbeth , J. & Magee, J. (2006) ‘Captain England? Maybe one day I will’: Career paths of elite partially sighted footballers. Sport in Society, 9(3), 444-462. McConkey, R., Dowling, S., & Hassan, D. (2014). Sport, coaching and intellectual disability. Oxon: Routledge. Misener, K., & Doherty, A. (2009). A case study of organisational capacity in non-profit community sport. Journal of Sport Management, 23(4), 457-482. Misener, L., & Darcy, S. (2014). Managing disability sport: From athletes with disabilities to inclusive organisational perspectives. Sport Management Review, 17, 1-7. Oliver, M., & Barnes, C. (2012). The new politics of disablement. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. Paramio-Salcines, J.L., & Kitchin, P.J. (2013). Institutional perspectives on the implementation of disability legislation and services for spectators with disabilities in European professional football. Sport Management Review, 16, 365-377. Piso, Z., O’Rouke, M., & Weathers, K.C. (2016). Out of the fog: Catalysing integrative capacity in interdisciplinary research. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 56, 84-94. Ruffi{\'e}, S., Ferez, E., & Lantz, E. (2014). From the institutionalisation of ‘All Disabilities’ to comprehensive sports integration: France joining the Paralympic movement (1954–2012). The International Journal of the History of Sport, 31(17), 2245-2265. Salazar, M.R., Lant, T.K., Fiore, S.M. & Salas, E. (2012). Facilitating innovation in diverse science teams through integrative capacity. Small Group Research, 43, 527-558. Scope (2018). The social model of disability. What is it and why is it important. Accessed on 4th January 2018 at https://www.scope.org.uk/about-us/our-brand/social-model-of-disability Shakespeare, N. (2006). Disability rights and wrongs. Oxon: Routledge Sharpe, E. (2006). Resources at the grassroots of recreation: Organisational capacity and quality of experience in a community sport organisation. Leisure Sciences, 28(4), 385-401. Smith, B., & Bundon, A. (2018). Disability models: Explaining and understanding disability sport in different ways. In I. Brittain and A. Beacom (Eds.). The Palgrave Handbook of Paralympic Studies (pp. 15-34). Basingstoke: Palgrave. S{\o}rensen, M., & Khars, N. (2006). Integration of disability sport in the Norwegian sport organisations: Lessons learned. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 23(2), 184-202. Sotiriadou, P., & Wicker, P. (2014). Examining the participation patterns of an ageing population with disabilities in Australia. Sport Management Review, 17(1), 35-48. Stewart, D. (1993). Deaf Sports: The Impact of Sports within the Deaf Community. Washington: Gallaudet University Press. Stride, A. & Fitzgerald, H. F. (2011). Girls with learning disabilities and ‘football on the brain’. Soccer & Society, 12(3), 457-470. Swierzy, P., Wicker, P., & Breuer, C. (2018). The impact of organisational capacity on voluntary engagement in sport clubs: A multi-level analysis. Sport Management Review, 21(3), 307-320. Terzi, L. (2004) The social model of disability: A philosophical critique. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 21(2), 141-157. Thibault, L. Frisby, W. & Kikulis, L. (1999). Interorganisational linkages in the delivery of local leisure services in Canada: Responding to economic, political and social pressures. Managing Leisure, 4(3), 125-151. Thibault, L., & Harvey, (1997). Fostering interorganisational linkages in the Canadian sport delivery system. Journal of Sport Management, 11(1), 45-68. Thomas, N., & Smith, A. (2009). Disability, sport and society: An introduction. Oxon: Routledge. Townsend, R.C., Smith, B. and Cushion, C. (2015). Disability sports coaching: Towards a critical understanding. Sports Coaching Review, 4, 80-98. Valet, A. (2018). About inclusive participation in sport: Cultural desirability and technical obstacles. Sport in Society, 21(1), 137-151. Vail, S. (2007). Community development and sport participation. Journal of Sport Management, 21(4), 571–596 Wicker, P., & Breuer, C. (2013). Understanding the importance of organisational resources to explain organisational problems: Evidence from non-profit sport clubs in Germany. Voluntas, 24(2), 461-484. Wicker, P., Feiler, S., & Breuer, C. (2013). Organizational mission and revenue diversification among non-profit sports clubs. International Journal of Financial Studies, 1, 119-136. Wicker, P., & Breuer, C. (2014). Exploring the organisational capacity and organisational problems of disability sport clubs in Germany using matched pairs analysis. Sport Management Review, 17(1), 23-34.",
year = "2018",
language = "English",
journal = "Managing Sport and Leisure",
issn = "2375-0472",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Understanding which dimensions of organisational capacity support the vertical integration of disability football clubs

AU - Kitchin, Paul James

AU - Crossin, Aaron

N1 - Allison, M. (2001). Sports clubs in Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland: Sport Scotland. Atherton, M., Russell, D. & Turner, G. H. (2001). More than a match: The role of football in Britain’s deaf community. Soccer and Society 2(3), 22–43. Barr, O. (2011). What is ‘mainstream’? Journal of Intellectual Disabilities, 15(3), 155-156. Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation and adaption. Applied Psychology,46, 5–34. Braun, V. Clarke, V., & Weate, P. (2016). Using thematic analysis in sport and exercise research. In B. Smith and A.C. Sparkes (Eds). Routledge handbook of qualitative research in sport and exercise (pp. 191-205). Oxon: Routledge. Brittain, I. (2004). Perceptions of disability and their impact upon Involvement in sport for people with disabilities at all levels. Journal for Sport and Social Issues, 28(4), 429-452. Bouttet, F. (2016). Inclusion as a norm. Multi−scalar influences on the recognition of people with disabilities in French national sports organisations. Loisir et Société / Society and Leisure, 39(2),.274-289. Chappelet, J.L. (2011). Strategic management and planning. In L. Robinson and D. Palmer (Eds.). Managing voluntary sport organisations (pp. 51-69). Oxon: Routledge. Clark, B. & Mesch, J. (2018) A global perspective on disparity of gender and disability for deaf female athletes. Sport in Society, (21)1, 64-75. Collins, M., & Kay, T. (2003). Sport and social exclusion. Oxon: Routledge. Cordery, C.J., Sim, D., Baskerville, R.F. (2013). Three models, one goal: Assessing financial vulnerability in New Zealand amateur sports clubs. Sport Management Review, 16, 186-199. Crawford, J. L., & Stodolska, M. (2009). Constraints experienced by elite athletes with disabilities in Kenya, with implications for the development of a new hierarchical model of constraints at the societal level. Journal of Leisure Research, 40(1), 128-156. Cunningham, G. (2016). Diversity and inclusion in sports organisations, 3rd edition. Oxon: Routledge. Darcy, S., & Dowse, L. (2012). In search of a level playing field – the constraints and benefits of sport participation for people with intellectual disability. Disability & Society, 28(3), 393–497. Darcy, S. Lock, D., & Taylor, T. (2017). Enabling inclusive sport participation: effects of disability and support needs on constraints to sport participation. Leisure Sciences, 39(1), 20-41. Doherty, A. Misener, K., & Cuskelly, G., (2014). Toward a multidimensional framework of capacity in community sport clubs. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 43(2), 124S-142S. Elling, A., De Knop, P., & Knoppers, A. (2001). The social integrative meaning of sport: a critical and comparative analysis of policy and practice in the Netherlands. Sociology of Sport Journal, 18, 414-434. European Commission (2007). White Paper on Sport. European Commission. Accessed 23rd February 2018 at https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52007DC0391 Fitzgerald, H. (2012). ‘Drawing’ on disabled students’ experiences of physical education and stakeholder responses. Sport, Education and Society, 17(4), 443-462. French, D., & Hainsworth, J. (2001). ‘There aren’t any buses and the swimming pool is always cold!’: Obstacles and opportunities in the provision of sport for disabled people. Managing Leisure, 6(1), 35-49. Hall, M. H., Andrukow, A., Barr, C., Brock, K., de Wit, M., Embuldeniya, D., Jolin, L., Lasby, D., Malinsky, E., Stowe, S., & Vallaincourt, Y. (2003). The capacity to serve: A qualitative study of the challenges facing Canada’s nonprofit and voluntary organisations. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Centre for Philanthropy. Hennink, M., Hutter, I., & Bailey, A. (2015). Qualitative research methods. London: SAGE. Howe, P. D. (2007). Integration of Paralympic athletes into athletics Canada. International Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue internationale d’études canadiennes, (35),133-149. Hudson, N.A., Mrozik, J.H. White, R., Northend, K., Moore, S., Lister, K. & Rayner, K. (2017). Community football teams for people with intellectual disabilities in secure settings: “They take you off the ward, it was like a nice day, and then you get medals at the end”. Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities, 31, 213-225. Hughes, B., & Patterson, K. (1997). The social model of disability and the disappearing body: Towards a sociology of impairment. Disability & Society, 12, 325-340. Hums, M.A., Moorman, A.M. and Wolff, E.A. (2003). The inclusion of the Paralympics in the Olympic and amateur sports act: Legal and policy implications for integration of athletes with disabilities into the United States Olympic Committee and national governing bodies Journal of Sport and Social Issues 27(3), 261-275. Hylton, K. (2013). Sport and social integration. In B. Houlihan and M. Green (Eds). Routledge Handbook of Sports Development (pp 100-113). Oxon: Routledge. Irish Football Association (2016). IFA Disability Football Strategic Plan (2016-2020). Belfast: IFA, pp.1-12. Jeanes. R., Spaaij, R., Magee, J., Farquharson, K., Gorman, S., & Lusher, D. (2018). ‘Yes we are inclusive’: Examining provision for young people with disabilities in community sport clubs. Sport Management Review, (21)1, 38-50. Jones, D. B. (2003). “Denied from a lot of places” barriers to participation in community recreation programs: Perspectives of parents. Leisure/Loisr, 28(1-2), 49-69. Kitchin, P. J. and Howe, P. D. (2014). The mainstreaming of disability cricket in England and Wales: Integration 'One game' at a time. Sport Management Review, 17(1), 65-77. Macbeth, J. (2008). Equality issues within partially sighted football in England. In C. Hallinan & S. Jackson (Eds.), Social and cultural diversity in a sporting world (pp. 65–80). Bingley: Emerald. Macbeth, J. L. (2009) Restrictions of activity in partially sighted football: experiences of grassroots players. Leisure Studies, 28(4), 455-467. Macbeth , J. & Magee, J. (2006) ‘Captain England? Maybe one day I will’: Career paths of elite partially sighted footballers. Sport in Society, 9(3), 444-462. McConkey, R., Dowling, S., & Hassan, D. (2014). Sport, coaching and intellectual disability. Oxon: Routledge. Misener, K., & Doherty, A. (2009). A case study of organisational capacity in non-profit community sport. Journal of Sport Management, 23(4), 457-482. Misener, L., & Darcy, S. (2014). Managing disability sport: From athletes with disabilities to inclusive organisational perspectives. Sport Management Review, 17, 1-7. Oliver, M., & Barnes, C. (2012). The new politics of disablement. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan. Paramio-Salcines, J.L., & Kitchin, P.J. (2013). Institutional perspectives on the implementation of disability legislation and services for spectators with disabilities in European professional football. Sport Management Review, 16, 365-377. Piso, Z., O’Rouke, M., & Weathers, K.C. (2016). Out of the fog: Catalysing integrative capacity in interdisciplinary research. Studies in History and Philosophy of Science, 56, 84-94. Ruffié, S., Ferez, E., & Lantz, E. (2014). From the institutionalisation of ‘All Disabilities’ to comprehensive sports integration: France joining the Paralympic movement (1954–2012). The International Journal of the History of Sport, 31(17), 2245-2265. Salazar, M.R., Lant, T.K., Fiore, S.M. & Salas, E. (2012). Facilitating innovation in diverse science teams through integrative capacity. Small Group Research, 43, 527-558. Scope (2018). The social model of disability. What is it and why is it important. Accessed on 4th January 2018 at https://www.scope.org.uk/about-us/our-brand/social-model-of-disability Shakespeare, N. (2006). Disability rights and wrongs. Oxon: Routledge Sharpe, E. (2006). Resources at the grassroots of recreation: Organisational capacity and quality of experience in a community sport organisation. Leisure Sciences, 28(4), 385-401. Smith, B., & Bundon, A. (2018). Disability models: Explaining and understanding disability sport in different ways. In I. Brittain and A. Beacom (Eds.). The Palgrave Handbook of Paralympic Studies (pp. 15-34). Basingstoke: Palgrave. Sørensen, M., & Khars, N. (2006). Integration of disability sport in the Norwegian sport organisations: Lessons learned. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 23(2), 184-202. Sotiriadou, P., & Wicker, P. (2014). Examining the participation patterns of an ageing population with disabilities in Australia. Sport Management Review, 17(1), 35-48. Stewart, D. (1993). Deaf Sports: The Impact of Sports within the Deaf Community. Washington: Gallaudet University Press. Stride, A. & Fitzgerald, H. F. (2011). Girls with learning disabilities and ‘football on the brain’. Soccer & Society, 12(3), 457-470. Swierzy, P., Wicker, P., & Breuer, C. (2018). The impact of organisational capacity on voluntary engagement in sport clubs: A multi-level analysis. Sport Management Review, 21(3), 307-320. Terzi, L. (2004) The social model of disability: A philosophical critique. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 21(2), 141-157. Thibault, L. Frisby, W. & Kikulis, L. (1999). Interorganisational linkages in the delivery of local leisure services in Canada: Responding to economic, political and social pressures. Managing Leisure, 4(3), 125-151. Thibault, L., & Harvey, (1997). Fostering interorganisational linkages in the Canadian sport delivery system. Journal of Sport Management, 11(1), 45-68. Thomas, N., & Smith, A. (2009). Disability, sport and society: An introduction. Oxon: Routledge. Townsend, R.C., Smith, B. and Cushion, C. (2015). Disability sports coaching: Towards a critical understanding. Sports Coaching Review, 4, 80-98. Valet, A. (2018). About inclusive participation in sport: Cultural desirability and technical obstacles. Sport in Society, 21(1), 137-151. Vail, S. (2007). Community development and sport participation. Journal of Sport Management, 21(4), 571–596 Wicker, P., & Breuer, C. (2013). Understanding the importance of organisational resources to explain organisational problems: Evidence from non-profit sport clubs in Germany. Voluntas, 24(2), 461-484. Wicker, P., Feiler, S., & Breuer, C. (2013). Organizational mission and revenue diversification among non-profit sports clubs. International Journal of Financial Studies, 1, 119-136. Wicker, P., & Breuer, C. (2014). Exploring the organisational capacity and organisational problems of disability sport clubs in Germany using matched pairs analysis. Sport Management Review, 17(1), 23-34.

PY - 2018

Y1 - 2018

N2 - Disabled people continue to face exclusion from full participation in community sports. Efforts to include disabled people in sports organisations have favoured structural solutions to make sport accessible. Our purpose was to understand which dimensions of a football club’s organisational capacity assisted the vertical integration of disability football clubs. A theoretical framework combining organisational capacity and acculturation informed an exploratory and qualitative research design using semi-structured interviews. Findings indicate that the brand and the size of the organisation assisted the generation of integrative capacity. Following the acquisition of integrative capacity, two types of integration – assimilation and accommodation appeared. This study contributes to the extant literature on the vertical integration of disability sport and the management and organisation of disability football. Recommendations for policy makers and practitioners seeking to implement the vertical integration process as this study provides a theoretical and empirical perspective on how mergers can create inclusive organisations.

AB - Disabled people continue to face exclusion from full participation in community sports. Efforts to include disabled people in sports organisations have favoured structural solutions to make sport accessible. Our purpose was to understand which dimensions of a football club’s organisational capacity assisted the vertical integration of disability football clubs. A theoretical framework combining organisational capacity and acculturation informed an exploratory and qualitative research design using semi-structured interviews. Findings indicate that the brand and the size of the organisation assisted the generation of integrative capacity. Following the acquisition of integrative capacity, two types of integration – assimilation and accommodation appeared. This study contributes to the extant literature on the vertical integration of disability sport and the management and organisation of disability football. Recommendations for policy makers and practitioners seeking to implement the vertical integration process as this study provides a theoretical and empirical perspective on how mergers can create inclusive organisations.

KW - vertical integration

KW - inclusion

KW - disability sport

KW - organisational capacity

KW - community sport

M3 - Article

JO - Managing Sport and Leisure

T2 - Managing Sport and Leisure

JF - Managing Sport and Leisure

SN - 2375-0472

ER -