Understanding number line estimation in Williams Syndrome and Down Syndrome

Victoria Simms, Annette Karmiloff-Smith, Elena Ranzato, Jo Van herwergen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)
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Previous studies suggest that tasks dependent on the mental number line may be difficult for Williams Syndrome (WS) and Down Syndrome (DS) groups. However, few have directly assessed number line estimation in these groups. The current study assessed 28 WS, 25 DS and 25 typically developing (TD) participants in non-verbal intelligence, number familiarity, visuo-spatial skills and number line estimation. Group comparisons indicated no differences in number line estimation. However, the WS group displayed difficulties with visuo-spatial skills and the DS group displayed difficulties with number familiarity. Differential relationships between number line estimation and visuo-spatial/ number familiarity skills were observed across groups. Data is discussed in the context of assessment of skills in neurodevelopmental disorders.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)583-591
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Issue number2
Early online date8 Nov 2019
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 1 Feb 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We would like to thank all of the children and adults for taking part in this project. This project was supported by a grant from the British Academy (SG151035).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019, The Author(s).

Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Williams Syndrome
  • Down Syndrome
  • number familiarity
  • number line estimation
  • visuo-spatial skills
  • Number line estimation
  • Visuo-spatial skills
  • Number familiarity


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