Ultra-Compact Retrodirective Antenna Arrays with Superdirective Radiation Patterns

Oleksandr Malyuskin, Vincent Fusco

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    8 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    It is shown that the Direction-of-Arrival (DoA)information carried by an incident electromagnetic wave can beencoded into the evanescent near field of an electrically smallantenna array with a spatial rate higher than that of the incidentfield oscillation rate in free space. Phase conjugation of thereceived signal leads to the retrodirection of the near field in theantenna array environment which in turn generates aretrodirected far-field beam towards the original DoA. Thiselectromagnetic phenomenon enables electrically smallretrodirective antenna arrays with superdirective, angular superresolution,auto-pointing properties for an arbitrary DoA.Theoretical explanation of the phenomenon based on firstprinciple observations is given and full-wave simulationsdemonstrate a realisability route for the proposed retrodirectiveterminal that is comprised of resonance dipole antenna elements.Specifically it is shown that a 3-element disk-loadedretrodirective dipole array with 0.15λ spacings can achieve3.4dBi maximal gain, 3dBi front-to-back ratio and 13% returnloss fractional bandwidth (at 10dB level). Next it is demonstratedthat the radiation gain of a 3-element array can be improved toapproximately 6dBi at expense of the return loss fractionalbandwidth reduction (2%).
    LanguageEnglish
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
    Volume64
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 17 Apr 2016

    Fingerprint

    antenna arrays
    arrivals
    radiation
    near fields
    dipole antennas
    phase conjugation
    far fields
    electromagnetic radiation
    routes
    spacing
    dipoles
    bandwidth
    oscillations

    Keywords

    • Dipole antennas
    • Antenna radiation patterns
    • Directive antennas
    • Phased arrays
    • Receiving antennas

    Cite this

    Malyuskin, Oleksandr ; Fusco, Vincent. / Ultra-Compact Retrodirective Antenna Arrays with Superdirective Radiation Patterns. 2016 ; Vol. 64.
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    abstract = "It is shown that the Direction-of-Arrival (DoA)information carried by an incident electromagnetic wave can beencoded into the evanescent near field of an electrically smallantenna array with a spatial rate higher than that of the incidentfield oscillation rate in free space. Phase conjugation of thereceived signal leads to the retrodirection of the near field in theantenna array environment which in turn generates aretrodirected far-field beam towards the original DoA. Thiselectromagnetic phenomenon enables electrically smallretrodirective antenna arrays with superdirective, angular superresolution,auto-pointing properties for an arbitrary DoA.Theoretical explanation of the phenomenon based on firstprinciple observations is given and full-wave simulationsdemonstrate a realisability route for the proposed retrodirectiveterminal that is comprised of resonance dipole antenna elements.Specifically it is shown that a 3-element disk-loadedretrodirective dipole array with 0.15λ spacings can achieve3.4dBi maximal gain, 3dBi front-to-back ratio and 13{\%} returnloss fractional bandwidth (at 10dB level). Next it is demonstratedthat the radiation gain of a 3-element array can be improved toapproximately 6dBi at expense of the return loss fractionalbandwidth reduction (2{\%}).",
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    author = "Oleksandr Malyuskin and Vincent Fusco",
    note = "From: tap.editor@ieee.org To: o.malyuskin@qub.ac.uk, malyuskin@yahoo.co.uk CC: Subject: Manuscript AP1509-1368.R1 has been accepted for publication Body: 17-Apr-2016 Dr. Oleksandr Malyuskin ECIT, Queens University Belfast Queens Rd Belfast Antrim United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland BT39DT Paper No.: AP1509-1368.R1 Paper Title: Ultra-Compact Retrodirective Antenna Arrays with Superdirective Radiation Patterns Dear Dr. Malyuskin, It is my pleasure to inform you that the Editorial Board has recommended that your manuscript be published in the IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation as a Paper. ***********FAILURE TO FOLLOW SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS WILL DELAY PUBLICATION********** • Please make minor changes to the manuscript if required. Check your final manuscript carefully for errors and consistency. Pay attention to dimensional units, standard definitions and quantities. For example, many authors confuse return loss (usually positive) with reflection coefficient (negative). • All final files are submitted through the ‘Awaiting Final Files’ queue in your Author Center on ScholarOne Manuscript. • Before you commence the final submission process, please make sure all author information in ScholarOne Manuscript is correct and complete. When this is confirmed, please upload: 1. A Latex or Microsoft Word application file. The final manuscript should be in the IEEE two-column template with figures and captions. (This template can be downloaded from the Transactions web site listed below). It should include keywords/index terms, along with bios and photos if you are including them. Failure to submit a source file may result in publishing delays. 2. A pdf of your entire manuscript. A pdf alone is NOT sufficient for publication. Please ensure the source file, as detailed in Step 1, is also submitted. Both files are essential. 3. A pdf of your covering letter responding to the final review. This should describe any changes that have been made. 4. (Not required for a Communication or Comment) Biosketch(es) (maximum 600 words per Bio) and photo(s). Biosketches should be uploaded at the same time as the other final files. These can be included at the end of your Microsoft Word or Latex source file, or submitted as a separate upload. For author photos jpeg files are accepted. 5. Separate figure files. The acceptable formats are Postscript (PS), Encapsulated Postscript (EPS), Tagged Image File Format (TIFF), Microsoft Word, Microsoft Power Point, Microsoft Excel, or Portable Document Format (PDF). IEEE does NOT accept files prepared as GIF, JPEG, WMF, PNG, and BMP (or any other formats not included in the list of acceptable files). IEEE now offers the option to print figures in grayscale but post online free of charge. Any color figures submitted will be automatically processed by IEEE for online color. Figures may also be printed in color for a charge of $1045.00 (set-up) plus an additional $62.50 per color figure. 6. (Optional) If you would like figures to be printed in color, please attach a cover letter detailing which figures should appear in print color. *NOTE: make sure that all files have unique file names in order for them to export successfully to ScholarOne* Once you have completed the submission of your final files, you will not be able to make changes until you have received page proofs from the IEEE. By submitting your final files through Manuscript Central, you are acknowledging and agreeing to any applicable page charges this paper may incur. Overlength page charges are mandatory and are not negotiable. If you have any questions about these charges, please contact the journal Administrator prior to submitting your files. • IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT YOU TRANSFER COPYRIGHT TO IEEE. Once you have submitted the files, you should be taken to a page where you can electronically transfer the copyright to IEEE. If you are not automatically transferred to the IEEE copyright page, please go back to your Author Center, click on the link “Manuscripts with Decisions” and scroll down to find the paper. Click on “Transfer Copyright” and follow the instructions through to completion. Once you have completed the copyright process, please click {"}Return{"} rather than closing the browser window to ensure that the copyright completion is recorded in ScholarOne Manuscripts. Finally, the IEEE has a target of limiting the time between original submission and publication to two years. Your prompt response is essential to our being able to maintain this target. Some papers have been rejected when received outside this time frame. My warmest congratulations on your successful submission. Thank you for contributing to our Transactions through a quality submission. Kind regards, Prof. Kwok LEUNG Editor-in-Chief IEEE Transactions on Antennas & Propagation TAP Website: http://ieeeaps.org/aps_trans/index.htm TAP Manuscript Central Website: https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/tap-ieee",
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    Ultra-Compact Retrodirective Antenna Arrays with Superdirective Radiation Patterns. / Malyuskin, Oleksandr; Fusco, Vincent.

    Vol. 64, 17.04.2016.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Ultra-Compact Retrodirective Antenna Arrays with Superdirective Radiation Patterns

    AU - Malyuskin, Oleksandr

    AU - Fusco, Vincent

    N1 - From: tap.editor@ieee.org To: o.malyuskin@qub.ac.uk, malyuskin@yahoo.co.uk CC: Subject: Manuscript AP1509-1368.R1 has been accepted for publication Body: 17-Apr-2016 Dr. Oleksandr Malyuskin ECIT, Queens University Belfast Queens Rd Belfast Antrim United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland BT39DT Paper No.: AP1509-1368.R1 Paper Title: Ultra-Compact Retrodirective Antenna Arrays with Superdirective Radiation Patterns Dear Dr. Malyuskin, It is my pleasure to inform you that the Editorial Board has recommended that your manuscript be published in the IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation as a Paper. ***********FAILURE TO FOLLOW SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS WILL DELAY PUBLICATION********** • Please make minor changes to the manuscript if required. Check your final manuscript carefully for errors and consistency. Pay attention to dimensional units, standard definitions and quantities. For example, many authors confuse return loss (usually positive) with reflection coefficient (negative). • All final files are submitted through the ‘Awaiting Final Files’ queue in your Author Center on ScholarOne Manuscript. • Before you commence the final submission process, please make sure all author information in ScholarOne Manuscript is correct and complete. When this is confirmed, please upload: 1. A Latex or Microsoft Word application file. The final manuscript should be in the IEEE two-column template with figures and captions. (This template can be downloaded from the Transactions web site listed below). It should include keywords/index terms, along with bios and photos if you are including them. Failure to submit a source file may result in publishing delays. 2. A pdf of your entire manuscript. A pdf alone is NOT sufficient for publication. Please ensure the source file, as detailed in Step 1, is also submitted. Both files are essential. 3. A pdf of your covering letter responding to the final review. This should describe any changes that have been made. 4. (Not required for a Communication or Comment) Biosketch(es) (maximum 600 words per Bio) and photo(s). Biosketches should be uploaded at the same time as the other final files. These can be included at the end of your Microsoft Word or Latex source file, or submitted as a separate upload. For author photos jpeg files are accepted. 5. Separate figure files. The acceptable formats are Postscript (PS), Encapsulated Postscript (EPS), Tagged Image File Format (TIFF), Microsoft Word, Microsoft Power Point, Microsoft Excel, or Portable Document Format (PDF). IEEE does NOT accept files prepared as GIF, JPEG, WMF, PNG, and BMP (or any other formats not included in the list of acceptable files). IEEE now offers the option to print figures in grayscale but post online free of charge. Any color figures submitted will be automatically processed by IEEE for online color. Figures may also be printed in color for a charge of $1045.00 (set-up) plus an additional $62.50 per color figure. 6. (Optional) If you would like figures to be printed in color, please attach a cover letter detailing which figures should appear in print color. *NOTE: make sure that all files have unique file names in order for them to export successfully to ScholarOne* Once you have completed the submission of your final files, you will not be able to make changes until you have received page proofs from the IEEE. By submitting your final files through Manuscript Central, you are acknowledging and agreeing to any applicable page charges this paper may incur. Overlength page charges are mandatory and are not negotiable. If you have any questions about these charges, please contact the journal Administrator prior to submitting your files. • IT IS ESSENTIAL THAT YOU TRANSFER COPYRIGHT TO IEEE. Once you have submitted the files, you should be taken to a page where you can electronically transfer the copyright to IEEE. If you are not automatically transferred to the IEEE copyright page, please go back to your Author Center, click on the link “Manuscripts with Decisions” and scroll down to find the paper. Click on “Transfer Copyright” and follow the instructions through to completion. Once you have completed the copyright process, please click "Return" rather than closing the browser window to ensure that the copyright completion is recorded in ScholarOne Manuscripts. Finally, the IEEE has a target of limiting the time between original submission and publication to two years. Your prompt response is essential to our being able to maintain this target. Some papers have been rejected when received outside this time frame. My warmest congratulations on your successful submission. Thank you for contributing to our Transactions through a quality submission. Kind regards, Prof. Kwok LEUNG Editor-in-Chief IEEE Transactions on Antennas & Propagation TAP Website: http://ieeeaps.org/aps_trans/index.htm TAP Manuscript Central Website: https://mc.manuscriptcentral.com/tap-ieee

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    N2 - It is shown that the Direction-of-Arrival (DoA)information carried by an incident electromagnetic wave can beencoded into the evanescent near field of an electrically smallantenna array with a spatial rate higher than that of the incidentfield oscillation rate in free space. Phase conjugation of thereceived signal leads to the retrodirection of the near field in theantenna array environment which in turn generates aretrodirected far-field beam towards the original DoA. Thiselectromagnetic phenomenon enables electrically smallretrodirective antenna arrays with superdirective, angular superresolution,auto-pointing properties for an arbitrary DoA.Theoretical explanation of the phenomenon based on firstprinciple observations is given and full-wave simulationsdemonstrate a realisability route for the proposed retrodirectiveterminal that is comprised of resonance dipole antenna elements.Specifically it is shown that a 3-element disk-loadedretrodirective dipole array with 0.15λ spacings can achieve3.4dBi maximal gain, 3dBi front-to-back ratio and 13% returnloss fractional bandwidth (at 10dB level). Next it is demonstratedthat the radiation gain of a 3-element array can be improved toapproximately 6dBi at expense of the return loss fractionalbandwidth reduction (2%).

    AB - It is shown that the Direction-of-Arrival (DoA)information carried by an incident electromagnetic wave can beencoded into the evanescent near field of an electrically smallantenna array with a spatial rate higher than that of the incidentfield oscillation rate in free space. Phase conjugation of thereceived signal leads to the retrodirection of the near field in theantenna array environment which in turn generates aretrodirected far-field beam towards the original DoA. Thiselectromagnetic phenomenon enables electrically smallretrodirective antenna arrays with superdirective, angular superresolution,auto-pointing properties for an arbitrary DoA.Theoretical explanation of the phenomenon based on firstprinciple observations is given and full-wave simulationsdemonstrate a realisability route for the proposed retrodirectiveterminal that is comprised of resonance dipole antenna elements.Specifically it is shown that a 3-element disk-loadedretrodirective dipole array with 0.15λ spacings can achieve3.4dBi maximal gain, 3dBi front-to-back ratio and 13% returnloss fractional bandwidth (at 10dB level). Next it is demonstratedthat the radiation gain of a 3-element array can be improved toapproximately 6dBi at expense of the return loss fractionalbandwidth reduction (2%).

    KW - Dipole antennas

    KW - Antenna radiation patterns

    KW - Directive antennas

    KW - Phased arrays

    KW - Receiving antennas

    U2 - 10.1109/TAP.2016.2560922

    DO - 10.1109/TAP.2016.2560922

    M3 - Article

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    ER -