Trying to see, failing to focus: near visual impairment in Down syndrome

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The majority of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) do not exhibit accurate accommodation, with the aetiology of this deficit unknown. This study examines the mechanism underlying hypoaccommodation in DS by simultaneously investigating the ‘near triad’ – accommodation, vergence and pupillary response. An objective photorefraction system measured accommodation, pupil size and gaze position (vergence) under binocular conditions while participants viewed an animated movie at 50, 33, 25 and 20 cm. Participants were aged 6–16 years (DS = 41, controls = 76). Measures were obtained from 59% of participants with DS and 99% of controls. Accommodative response was significantly less in DS (p <0.001) and greater accommodative deficits were associated with worsening visual acuity (p = 0.02). Vergence responses were as accurate in DS as in controls (p = 0.90). Habitual pupil diameter did not differ between groups (p = 0.24) but reduced significantly with increasing accommodative demand in both participants with and without DS (p <0.0001). This study is the first to report simultaneous binocular measurement of the near triad in DS demonstrating that hypoaccommodation is linked to poor visual acuity. Vergence responses were accurate indicating that hypoaccommodation cannot be dismissed as a failure to visually engage with near targets, but rather is a consequence of underlying neurological or physiological deficits.
LanguageEnglish
Article number20444
JournalScientific Reports
Volume6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 5 Feb 2016

Fingerprint

Vision Disorders
Down Syndrome
Pupil
Visual Acuity
Motion Pictures

Keywords

  • Down syndrome
  • accommodation
  • vergence
  • vision

Cite this

@article{344d0dc688f441bf8c8c79de076ad0f5,
title = "Trying to see, failing to focus: near visual impairment in Down syndrome",
abstract = "The majority of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) do not exhibit accurate accommodation, with the aetiology of this deficit unknown. This study examines the mechanism underlying hypoaccommodation in DS by simultaneously investigating the ‘near triad’ – accommodation, vergence and pupillary response. An objective photorefraction system measured accommodation, pupil size and gaze position (vergence) under binocular conditions while participants viewed an animated movie at 50, 33, 25 and 20 cm. Participants were aged 6–16 years (DS = 41, controls = 76). Measures were obtained from 59{\%} of participants with DS and 99{\%} of controls. Accommodative response was significantly less in DS (p <0.001) and greater accommodative deficits were associated with worsening visual acuity (p = 0.02). Vergence responses were as accurate in DS as in controls (p = 0.90). Habitual pupil diameter did not differ between groups (p = 0.24) but reduced significantly with increasing accommodative demand in both participants with and without DS (p <0.0001). This study is the first to report simultaneous binocular measurement of the near triad in DS demonstrating that hypoaccommodation is linked to poor visual acuity. Vergence responses were accurate indicating that hypoaccommodation cannot be dismissed as a failure to visually engage with near targets, but rather is a consequence of underlying neurological or physiological deficits.",
keywords = "Down syndrome, accommodation, vergence, vision",
author = "Lesley Doyle and Kathryn Saunders and Julie-Anne Little",
year = "2016",
month = "2",
day = "5",
doi = "10.1038/srep20444",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
journal = "Scientific Reports",
issn = "2045-2322",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Trying to see, failing to focus: near visual impairment in Down syndrome

AU - Doyle, Lesley

AU - Saunders, Kathryn

AU - Little, Julie-Anne

PY - 2016/2/5

Y1 - 2016/2/5

N2 - The majority of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) do not exhibit accurate accommodation, with the aetiology of this deficit unknown. This study examines the mechanism underlying hypoaccommodation in DS by simultaneously investigating the ‘near triad’ – accommodation, vergence and pupillary response. An objective photorefraction system measured accommodation, pupil size and gaze position (vergence) under binocular conditions while participants viewed an animated movie at 50, 33, 25 and 20 cm. Participants were aged 6–16 years (DS = 41, controls = 76). Measures were obtained from 59% of participants with DS and 99% of controls. Accommodative response was significantly less in DS (p <0.001) and greater accommodative deficits were associated with worsening visual acuity (p = 0.02). Vergence responses were as accurate in DS as in controls (p = 0.90). Habitual pupil diameter did not differ between groups (p = 0.24) but reduced significantly with increasing accommodative demand in both participants with and without DS (p <0.0001). This study is the first to report simultaneous binocular measurement of the near triad in DS demonstrating that hypoaccommodation is linked to poor visual acuity. Vergence responses were accurate indicating that hypoaccommodation cannot be dismissed as a failure to visually engage with near targets, but rather is a consequence of underlying neurological or physiological deficits.

AB - The majority of individuals with Down syndrome (DS) do not exhibit accurate accommodation, with the aetiology of this deficit unknown. This study examines the mechanism underlying hypoaccommodation in DS by simultaneously investigating the ‘near triad’ – accommodation, vergence and pupillary response. An objective photorefraction system measured accommodation, pupil size and gaze position (vergence) under binocular conditions while participants viewed an animated movie at 50, 33, 25 and 20 cm. Participants were aged 6–16 years (DS = 41, controls = 76). Measures were obtained from 59% of participants with DS and 99% of controls. Accommodative response was significantly less in DS (p <0.001) and greater accommodative deficits were associated with worsening visual acuity (p = 0.02). Vergence responses were as accurate in DS as in controls (p = 0.90). Habitual pupil diameter did not differ between groups (p = 0.24) but reduced significantly with increasing accommodative demand in both participants with and without DS (p <0.0001). This study is the first to report simultaneous binocular measurement of the near triad in DS demonstrating that hypoaccommodation is linked to poor visual acuity. Vergence responses were accurate indicating that hypoaccommodation cannot be dismissed as a failure to visually engage with near targets, but rather is a consequence of underlying neurological or physiological deficits.

KW - Down syndrome

KW - accommodation

KW - vergence

KW - vision

U2 - 10.1038/srep20444

DO - 10.1038/srep20444

M3 - Article

VL - 6

JO - Scientific Reports

T2 - Scientific Reports

JF - Scientific Reports

SN - 2045-2322

M1 - 20444

ER -