Treatments and Predictors of Mortality for Carbapenem-Resistant Gram-Negative Bacilli Infections in Malaysia: A Retrospective Cohort Study

Usman Abubakar, Amni Izzati Zulkarnain, Jesús Rodríguez-Baño, Norhidayah Kamarudin, Mahmoud Elrggal, Mohamed Hassan Elnaem, SN Harun

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This study evaluated the treatments, mortality rate and patient-related factors associated with mortality. This is a retrospective study involving hospitalised patients with infections caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacilli (CR-GNB) in a tertiary hospital in Malaysia from January 2018 to June 2020. A clinical pharmacist reviewed patients’ electronic records and collected the data according to a pre-designed form. Data were analysed using both descriptive and inferential tests. The study included 145 patients with CR-GNB infections including 77, 40 and 28 Acinetobacter baumannii, enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. The mean age was 57.9 ± 15.8 years. Pneumonia (40.7%) and bacteremia (25.5%) were the most common infections. Meropenem (24.7%) and piperacillin-tazobactam (20.4%) were the most commonly used empiric antibiotics while colistin (63.3%) and amikacin (8.3%) were the most common definitive antibiotics. The mean duration before active antibiotics was 4.6 ± 3.3 days. Overall, the in-hospital mortality rate was 41.4%. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that intensive care unit (ICU) admission (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 5.201; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.603–16.872; p = 0.006), sepsis/septic shock (AOR: 3.430; 95% CI: 1.021–11.522; p = 0.049) and elevated serum creatinine (AOR: 2.752; 95% CI: 1.005–7.536; p = 0.049) were independently associated with mortality. The mortality rate among patients with CR-GNB infection is high. A high rate of inappropriate antibiotic use was observed, including combination antibiotic therapy and delays in starting active antibiotics. Mortality was significantly associated with ICU admission, sepsis/septic shock and elevated serum creatinine.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages12
JournalTropical Medicine and Infectious Disease
Issue number12
Early online date2 Dec 2022
Publication statusPublished online - 2 Dec 2022


  • carbapenem-resistant gram negative bacilli
  • carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii
  • carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae
  • carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa
  • in-hospital mortality
  • risk factors


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