Tracking verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157, O26, O111, O103 and O145 in Irish cattle

K M Thomas, M S McCann, M M Collery, P Whyte, D.A. McDowell, G Duffy

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    47 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study was to investigate carriage and transfer of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157, O26, O111, O103 and O145 from faeces and hide to dressed carcasses of Irish cattle as well as establishing the virulence potential of VTEC carried by these cattle. Individual cattle was tracked and faecal samples,hide and carcass (pre-evisceration and post-wash) swabs were analysed for verotoxin (vt1 and vt2) genes using a duplex real-time PCR assay. Positive samples were screened for the five serogroups of interest by real-time PCR. Isolates were recovered from PCR positive samples using immunomagnetic separation and confirmed by latex agglutination and PCR. Isolates were subject to a virulence screen (vt1, vt2, eaeA and hlyA) by PCR. Isolates carrying vt genes were examined by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Of theVTEC isolated, E. coli O157 was the most frequently recovered from hide (17.6%), faeces (2.3%) and pre-evisceration/post-wash carcass (0.7%) samples. VTEC O26 was isolated from 0.2% of hide swabs and 1.5% of faeces samples. VTEC O145 was isolated from 0.7% of faeces samples. VTEC O26 and VTEC O145 were not recovered from carcass swabs. Non-VTEC O103 was recovered from all sample types (27.1% hide, 8.5% faeces, 5.5% pre-evisceration carcass, 2.2% post-wash carcass), with 0.2% of hide swabs and 1.0% of faeces samples found to be positive for VTEC O103 isolates. E. coli O111 was not detected in any samples. For the four serogroups recovered, the direct transfer from hide to carcass was not observed. This study shows that while VTEC O157 are being carried by cattle presented for slaughter in Ireland, a number of other verotoxin producing strains are beginning to emerge.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages288-296
    JournalInternational Journal of Food Microbiology
    Volume153
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 3 Feb 2012

    Fingerprint

    Escherichia coli O157
    hides and skins
    Feces
    Escherichia coli
    cattle
    feces
    evisceration
    Shiga Toxins
    Escherichia coli O26
    sampling
    verotoxins
    Polymerase Chain Reaction
    Virulence
    Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
    quantitative polymerase chain reaction
    serotypes
    Immunomagnetic Separation
    virulence
    immunomagnetic separation
    Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis

    Keywords

    • Verocytotoxigenic
    • E. coli
    • Cattle
    • Abattoir
    • Hide
    • Carcass

    Cite this

    Thomas, K M ; McCann, M S ; Collery, M M ; Whyte, P ; McDowell, D.A. ; Duffy, G. / Tracking verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157, O26, O111, O103 and O145 in Irish cattle. In: International Journal of Food Microbiology. 2012 ; Vol. 153, No. 3. pp. 288-296.
    @article{46f6629eca42497ba16f6d9620447b53,
    title = "Tracking verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157, O26, O111, O103 and O145 in Irish cattle",
    abstract = "The purpose of this study was to investigate carriage and transfer of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157, O26, O111, O103 and O145 from faeces and hide to dressed carcasses of Irish cattle as well as establishing the virulence potential of VTEC carried by these cattle. Individual cattle was tracked and faecal samples,hide and carcass (pre-evisceration and post-wash) swabs were analysed for verotoxin (vt1 and vt2) genes using a duplex real-time PCR assay. Positive samples were screened for the five serogroups of interest by real-time PCR. Isolates were recovered from PCR positive samples using immunomagnetic separation and confirmed by latex agglutination and PCR. Isolates were subject to a virulence screen (vt1, vt2, eaeA and hlyA) by PCR. Isolates carrying vt genes were examined by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Of theVTEC isolated, E. coli O157 was the most frequently recovered from hide (17.6{\%}), faeces (2.3{\%}) and pre-evisceration/post-wash carcass (0.7{\%}) samples. VTEC O26 was isolated from 0.2{\%} of hide swabs and 1.5{\%} of faeces samples. VTEC O145 was isolated from 0.7{\%} of faeces samples. VTEC O26 and VTEC O145 were not recovered from carcass swabs. Non-VTEC O103 was recovered from all sample types (27.1{\%} hide, 8.5{\%} faeces, 5.5{\%} pre-evisceration carcass, 2.2{\%} post-wash carcass), with 0.2{\%} of hide swabs and 1.0{\%} of faeces samples found to be positive for VTEC O103 isolates. E. coli O111 was not detected in any samples. For the four serogroups recovered, the direct transfer from hide to carcass was not observed. This study shows that while VTEC O157 are being carried by cattle presented for slaughter in Ireland, a number of other verotoxin producing strains are beginning to emerge.",
    keywords = "Verocytotoxigenic, E. coli, Cattle, Abattoir, Hide, Carcass",
    author = "Thomas, {K M} and McCann, {M S} and Collery, {M M} and P Whyte and D.A. McDowell and G Duffy",
    note = "Reference text: Acheson, D.W., Reidl, J., Zhang, X., Keusch, G.T., Mekalanos, J.J., Waldor, M.K., 1998. In vivo transduction with shiga toxin 1-encoding phage. Infection and Immunity 66, 4496–4498. Anon, 1997. Clean Cattle Policy. Department of Agriculture, Food and Forestry, Dublin. Arthur, T.M., Bosilevac, J.M., Nou, X., Shackelford, S.D., Wheeler, T.L., Kent, M.P., Jaroni, D., Pauling, B., Allen, D.M., Koohmaraie, M., 2004. Escherichia coli O157 prevalence and enumeration of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia coli O157 at various steps in commercial beef processing plants. Journal of Food Protection 67, 658–665. Baird, B.E., Lucia, L.M., Acuff, G.R., Harris, K.B., Savell, J.W., 2006. Beef hide antimicrobial interventions as a means of reducing bacterial contamination. Meat Science 73, 245–248. Barkocy-Gallagher, G.A., Arthur, T.M., Rivera-Betancourt, M., Nou, X., Shackelford, S.D., Wheeler, T.L., Koohmaraie, M., 2003. Seasonal prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, including O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes, and Salmonella in commercial beef processing plants. Journal of Food Protection 66, 1978–1986. Beutin, L., Geier, D., Zimmermann, S., Karch, H., 1995. Virulence markers of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains originating from healthy domestic animals of different species. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 33, 631–635. Biosearch Technologies, I., 2004. LightCycler 2.0 Color Compensation File [Online] Available at http://www.btidna.com/download/support/calibration_instructions_12_3_ 04.pdf2004(Accessed: 4 January 2007). Boerlin, P., McEwen, S.A., Boerlin-Petzold, F., Wilson, J.B., Johnson, R.P., Gyles, C.L., 1999. Associations between virulence factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and disease in humans. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 37, 497–503. Brichta-Harhay, D.M., Guerini, M.N., Arthur, T.M., Bosilevac, J.M., Kalchayanand, N., Shackelford, S.D., Wheeler, T.L., Koohmaraie, M., 2008. Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination on hides and carcasses of cull cattle presented for slaughter in the United States: an evaluation of prevalence and bacterial loads by immunomagnetic separation and direct plating methods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74, 6289–6297. Carney, E., O'Brien, S.B., Sheridan, J.J., McDowell, D.A., Blair, I.S., Duffy, G., 2006. Prevalence and level of Escherichia coli O157 on beef trimmings, carcasses and boned head meat at a beef slaughter plant. Food Microbiology 23, 52–59. Coia, J.E., 1998. Clinical, microbiological and epidemiological aspects of Escherichia coli O157 infection. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 20, 1–9. Denny, J., Bhat, M., Eckmann, K., 2008. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with raw milk consumption in the Pacific Northwest. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 5, 321–328. Donnenberg, M.S., Whittam, T.S., 2001. Pathogenesis and evolution of virulence in enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 107, 539–548. EFSA, 2011. European Food Safety Authority; the European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2009. EFSA Journal 9 (3), 2090 378 pp.. Elder, R.O., Keen, J.E., Siragusa, G.R., Barkocy-Gallagher, G.A., Koohmaraie, M., Laegreid, W.W., 2000. Correlation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 prevalence in feces, hides, and carcasses of beef cattle during processing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97, 2999–3003. Etcheverr{\'i}a, A.I., Padola, N.L., Sanz, M.E., Polifroni, R., Kr{\"u}ger, A., Passucci, J., Rodr{\'i}guez, E.M., Taraborelli, A.L., Ballerio, M., Parma, A.E., 2010. Occurrence of Shiga toxin- producing E. coli (STEC) on carcasses and retail beef cuts in the marketing chain of beef in Argentina. Meat Science 86, 418–421. Fox, J.T., Renter, D.G., Sanderson, M.W., Nutsch, A.L., Shi, X., Nagaraja, T.G., 2008. Associations between the presence and magnitude of Escherichia coli O157 in feces at harvest and contamination of preintervention beef carcasses. Journal of Food Protection 71, 1761–1767. Gill, C.O., Jones, T., 2000. Microbiological sampling of carcasses by excision or swabbing. Journal of Food Protection 63, 167–173. Gill, C.O., Landers, C., 2004. Microbiological conditions of detained beef carcasses before and after removal of visible contamination. Meat Science 66, 335–342. Gun, H., Yilmaz, A., Turker, S., Tanlasi, A., Yilmaz, H., 2003. Contamination of bovine carcasses and abattoir environment by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Istanbul. International Journal of Food Microbiology 84, 339–344. Guyon, R., Dorey, F., Malas, J.P., Grimont, F., Foret, J., Rouvi{\`e}re, B., Collobert, J.F., 2001. Superficial contamination of bovine carcasses by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a slaughterhouse in Normandy (France). Meat Science 58, 329–331. HSPC, 2010. Health Protection Surveillance Centre. Annual Report 2009. ISSN 1649- 0436. Hussein, H.S., 2007. Prevalence and pathogenicity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef cattle and their products. Journal of Animal Science 85, E63–E72. Jacob, M.E., Renter, D.G., Nagaraja, T.G., 2010. Animal- and truckload-level associations between Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces and on hides at harvest and contamination of preevisceration beef carcasses. Journal of Food Protection 73, 1030–1037. Jeon, B.-W., Jeong, J.-M., Won, G.-Y., Park, H., Eo, S.-K., Kang, H.-Y., Hur, J., Lee, J.H., 2006. Prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli O26 and O111 from cattle in Korea. International Journal of Food Microbiology 110, 123–126. Karmali, M.A., Petric, M., Corazon, L., Fleming, P.C., Arbus, G.S., Lior, H., 1985. The association between idiopathic hemolytic uremic syndrome and infection by verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 151, 775–782. Lim, J.Y., Li, J., Sheng, H., Besser, T.E., Potter, K., Hovde, C.J., 2007. Escherichia coli O157: H7 colonization at the rectoanal junction of long-duration culture-positive cattle. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73, 1380–1382. McEvoy, J.M., Doherty, A.M., Finnerty, M., Sheridan, J.J., McGuire, L., Blair, I.S., McDowell, D.A., Harrington, D., 2000. The relationship between hide cleanliness and bacterial numbers on beef carcasses at a commercial abattoir. Letters in Applied Microbiology 30, 390–395. McEvoy, J.M., Doherty, A.M., Sheridan, J.J., Thomson-Carter, F.M., Garvey, P., McGuire, L., Blair, I.S., McDowell, D.A., 2003. The prevalence and spread of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at a commercial beef abattoir. Journal of Applied Microbiology 95, 256–266. Miyao, Y., Kataoka, T., Nomoto, T., Kai, A., Itoh, T., Itoh, K., 1998. Prevalence of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli habored in the intestine of cattle in Japan. Veterinary Microbiology 61, 137–143. Nastasijevic, I., Mitrovic, R., Buncic, S., 2008. Occurrence of Escherichia coli O157 on hides of slaughtered cattle. Letters in Applied Microbiology 46, 126–131. Naylor, S.W., Low, J.C., Besser, T.E., Mahajan, A., Gunn, G.J., Pearce, M.C., McKendrick, I.J., Smith, D.G., Gally, D.L., 2003. Lymphoid follicle-dense mucosa at the terminal rectum is the principal site of colonization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the bovine host. Infection and Immunity 71, 1505–1512. Naylor, S.W., Gally, D.L., Low, J.C., 2005. Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli in veterinary medicine. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 295, 419–441. O'Brien, S.B., Duffy, G., Carney, E., Sheridan, J.J., McDowell, D.A., Blair, I.S., 2005. Prevalence and numbers of Escherichia coli O157 on bovine hides at a beef slaughter plant. Journal of Food Protection 68, 660–665. O'Hanlon, K.A., Catarame, T.M.G., Duffy, G., Blair, I.S., McDowell, D.A., 2004. RAPID de- tection and quantification of E. coli O157/O26/O111 in minced beef by real-time PCR. Journal of Applied Microbiology 96, 1013–1023. Orden, J.A., Cid, D., Ruiz-Santa-Quiteria, J.A., Garcia, S., Martinez, S., de la Fuente, R., 2002. Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and necrotoxigenic E. coli (NTEC) isolated from healthy cattle in Spain. Journal of Applied Microbiology 93, 29–35. Paton, A.W., Paton, J.C., 1998. Detection and characterization of Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli by using multiplex PCR assays for stx1, stx2, eaeA, enterohemorrhagic E. coli hlyA, rfbO111, and rfbO157. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 36, 598–602. Pearce, M.C., Jenkins, C., Vali, L., Smith, A.W., Knight, H.I., Cheasty, T., Smith, H.R., Gunn, G.J., Woolhouse, M.E., Amyes, S.G., Frankel, G., 2004. Temporal shedding patterns and virulence factors of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O103, O111, O145, and O157 in a cohort of beef calves and their dams. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70, 1708–1716. Pearce, M.C., Evans, J., McKendrick, I.J., Smith, A.W., Knight, H.I., Mellor, D.J., Woolhouse, M.E., Gunn, G.J., Low, J.C., 2006. Prevalence and virulence factors of Escherichia coli serogroups O26, O103, O111, and O145 shed by cattle in Scotland. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 72, 653–659. Perelle, S., Dilasser, F., Grout, J., Fach, P., 2004. Detection by 5′-nuclease PCR of Shiga- toxin producing Escherichia coli O26, O55, O91, O103, O111, O113, O145 and O157:H7, associated with the world's most frequent clinical cases. Molecular and Cellular Probes 18, 185–192. Perelle, S., Dilasser, F., Grout, J., Fach, P., 2005. Detection of Escherichia coli serogroup O103 by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Journal of Applied Microbiology 98, 1162–1168. Prendergast, D.M., Lendrum, L., Pearce, R., Ball, C., McLernon, J., O'Grady, D., Scott, L., Fanning, S., Egan, J., Gutierrez, M., 2011. Verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157 in beef and sheep abattoirs in Ireland and characterisation of isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multi-locus variable number of tandem repeat analysis. International Journal of Food Microbiology 144, 519–527. Reid, C.A., Small, A., Avery, S.M., Buncic, S., 2002. Presence of food-borne pathogens on cattle hides. Food Control 13, 411–415. Renter, D.G., Bohaychuk, V., Van Donkersgoed, J., King, R., 2007. Presence of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in feces from feedlot cattle in Alberta and absence on corresponding beef carcasses. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research 71, 230–235. 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Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains from bovines: association of adhesion with carriage of eae and other genes. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 34, 2980–2984. Willshaw, G.A., Thirlwell, J., Jones, A.P., Parry, S., Salmon, R.L., Hickey, M., 1994. Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 in beefburgers linked to an outbreak of diarrhoea, haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic uraemic syndrome in Britain. Letters in Applied Microbiology 19, 304–307.",
    year = "2012",
    month = "2",
    day = "3",
    doi = "10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.11.012",
    language = "English",
    volume = "153",
    pages = "288--296",
    journal = "International Journal of Food Microbiology",
    issn = "0168-1605",
    publisher = "Elsevier",
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    }

    Tracking verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157, O26, O111, O103 and O145 in Irish cattle. / Thomas, K M; McCann, M S; Collery, M M; Whyte, P; McDowell, D.A.; Duffy, G.

    In: International Journal of Food Microbiology, Vol. 153, No. 3, 03.02.2012, p. 288-296.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Tracking verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli O157, O26, O111, O103 and O145 in Irish cattle

    AU - Thomas, K M

    AU - McCann, M S

    AU - Collery, M M

    AU - Whyte, P

    AU - McDowell, D.A.

    AU - Duffy, G

    N1 - Reference text: Acheson, D.W., Reidl, J., Zhang, X., Keusch, G.T., Mekalanos, J.J., Waldor, M.K., 1998. In vivo transduction with shiga toxin 1-encoding phage. Infection and Immunity 66, 4496–4498. Anon, 1997. Clean Cattle Policy. Department of Agriculture, Food and Forestry, Dublin. Arthur, T.M., Bosilevac, J.M., Nou, X., Shackelford, S.D., Wheeler, T.L., Kent, M.P., Jaroni, D., Pauling, B., Allen, D.M., Koohmaraie, M., 2004. Escherichia coli O157 prevalence and enumeration of aerobic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, and Escherichia coli O157 at various steps in commercial beef processing plants. Journal of Food Protection 67, 658–665. Baird, B.E., Lucia, L.M., Acuff, G.R., Harris, K.B., Savell, J.W., 2006. Beef hide antimicrobial interventions as a means of reducing bacterial contamination. Meat Science 73, 245–248. Barkocy-Gallagher, G.A., Arthur, T.M., Rivera-Betancourt, M., Nou, X., Shackelford, S.D., Wheeler, T.L., Koohmaraie, M., 2003. Seasonal prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, including O157:H7 and non-O157 serotypes, and Salmonella in commercial beef processing plants. Journal of Food Protection 66, 1978–1986. Beutin, L., Geier, D., Zimmermann, S., Karch, H., 1995. Virulence markers of Shiga-like toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains originating from healthy domestic animals of different species. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 33, 631–635. Biosearch Technologies, I., 2004. LightCycler 2.0 Color Compensation File [Online] Available at http://www.btidna.com/download/support/calibration_instructions_12_3_ 04.pdf2004(Accessed: 4 January 2007). Boerlin, P., McEwen, S.A., Boerlin-Petzold, F., Wilson, J.B., Johnson, R.P., Gyles, C.L., 1999. Associations between virulence factors of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and disease in humans. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 37, 497–503. Brichta-Harhay, D.M., Guerini, M.N., Arthur, T.M., Bosilevac, J.M., Kalchayanand, N., Shackelford, S.D., Wheeler, T.L., Koohmaraie, M., 2008. Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 contamination on hides and carcasses of cull cattle presented for slaughter in the United States: an evaluation of prevalence and bacterial loads by immunomagnetic separation and direct plating methods. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 74, 6289–6297. Carney, E., O'Brien, S.B., Sheridan, J.J., McDowell, D.A., Blair, I.S., Duffy, G., 2006. Prevalence and level of Escherichia coli O157 on beef trimmings, carcasses and boned head meat at a beef slaughter plant. Food Microbiology 23, 52–59. Coia, J.E., 1998. Clinical, microbiological and epidemiological aspects of Escherichia coli O157 infection. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 20, 1–9. Denny, J., Bhat, M., Eckmann, K., 2008. Outbreak of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with raw milk consumption in the Pacific Northwest. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 5, 321–328. Donnenberg, M.S., Whittam, T.S., 2001. Pathogenesis and evolution of virulence in enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli. The Journal of Clinical Investigation 107, 539–548. EFSA, 2011. European Food Safety Authority; the European Union summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and food-borne outbreaks in 2009. EFSA Journal 9 (3), 2090 378 pp.. Elder, R.O., Keen, J.E., Siragusa, G.R., Barkocy-Gallagher, G.A., Koohmaraie, M., Laegreid, W.W., 2000. Correlation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 prevalence in feces, hides, and carcasses of beef cattle during processing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 97, 2999–3003. Etcheverría, A.I., Padola, N.L., Sanz, M.E., Polifroni, R., Krüger, A., Passucci, J., Rodríguez, E.M., Taraborelli, A.L., Ballerio, M., Parma, A.E., 2010. Occurrence of Shiga toxin- producing E. coli (STEC) on carcasses and retail beef cuts in the marketing chain of beef in Argentina. Meat Science 86, 418–421. Fox, J.T., Renter, D.G., Sanderson, M.W., Nutsch, A.L., Shi, X., Nagaraja, T.G., 2008. Associations between the presence and magnitude of Escherichia coli O157 in feces at harvest and contamination of preintervention beef carcasses. Journal of Food Protection 71, 1761–1767. Gill, C.O., Jones, T., 2000. Microbiological sampling of carcasses by excision or swabbing. Journal of Food Protection 63, 167–173. Gill, C.O., Landers, C., 2004. Microbiological conditions of detained beef carcasses before and after removal of visible contamination. Meat Science 66, 335–342. Gun, H., Yilmaz, A., Turker, S., Tanlasi, A., Yilmaz, H., 2003. Contamination of bovine carcasses and abattoir environment by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in Istanbul. International Journal of Food Microbiology 84, 339–344. Guyon, R., Dorey, F., Malas, J.P., Grimont, F., Foret, J., Rouvière, B., Collobert, J.F., 2001. Superficial contamination of bovine carcasses by Escherichia coli O157:H7 in a slaughterhouse in Normandy (France). Meat Science 58, 329–331. HSPC, 2010. Health Protection Surveillance Centre. Annual Report 2009. ISSN 1649- 0436. Hussein, H.S., 2007. Prevalence and pathogenicity of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in beef cattle and their products. Journal of Animal Science 85, E63–E72. Jacob, M.E., Renter, D.G., Nagaraja, T.G., 2010. Animal- and truckload-level associations between Escherichia coli O157:H7 in feces and on hides at harvest and contamination of preevisceration beef carcasses. Journal of Food Protection 73, 1030–1037. Jeon, B.-W., Jeong, J.-M., Won, G.-Y., Park, H., Eo, S.-K., Kang, H.-Y., Hur, J., Lee, J.H., 2006. Prevalence and characteristics of Escherichia coli O26 and O111 from cattle in Korea. International Journal of Food Microbiology 110, 123–126. Karmali, M.A., Petric, M., Corazon, L., Fleming, P.C., Arbus, G.S., Lior, H., 1985. The association between idiopathic hemolytic uremic syndrome and infection by verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli. The Journal of Infectious Diseases 151, 775–782. Lim, J.Y., Li, J., Sheng, H., Besser, T.E., Potter, K., Hovde, C.J., 2007. Escherichia coli O157: H7 colonization at the rectoanal junction of long-duration culture-positive cattle. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 73, 1380–1382. McEvoy, J.M., Doherty, A.M., Finnerty, M., Sheridan, J.J., McGuire, L., Blair, I.S., McDowell, D.A., Harrington, D., 2000. The relationship between hide cleanliness and bacterial numbers on beef carcasses at a commercial abattoir. Letters in Applied Microbiology 30, 390–395. McEvoy, J.M., Doherty, A.M., Sheridan, J.J., Thomson-Carter, F.M., Garvey, P., McGuire, L., Blair, I.S., McDowell, D.A., 2003. The prevalence and spread of Escherichia coli O157:H7 at a commercial beef abattoir. Journal of Applied Microbiology 95, 256–266. Miyao, Y., Kataoka, T., Nomoto, T., Kai, A., Itoh, T., Itoh, K., 1998. Prevalence of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli habored in the intestine of cattle in Japan. Veterinary Microbiology 61, 137–143. Nastasijevic, I., Mitrovic, R., Buncic, S., 2008. Occurrence of Escherichia coli O157 on hides of slaughtered cattle. Letters in Applied Microbiology 46, 126–131. Naylor, S.W., Low, J.C., Besser, T.E., Mahajan, A., Gunn, G.J., Pearce, M.C., McKendrick, I.J., Smith, D.G., Gally, D.L., 2003. Lymphoid follicle-dense mucosa at the terminal rectum is the principal site of colonization of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7 in the bovine host. Infection and Immunity 71, 1505–1512. Naylor, S.W., Gally, D.L., Low, J.C., 2005. Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli in veterinary medicine. International Journal of Medical Microbiology 295, 419–441. O'Brien, S.B., Duffy, G., Carney, E., Sheridan, J.J., McDowell, D.A., Blair, I.S., 2005. 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    PY - 2012/2/3

    Y1 - 2012/2/3

    N2 - The purpose of this study was to investigate carriage and transfer of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157, O26, O111, O103 and O145 from faeces and hide to dressed carcasses of Irish cattle as well as establishing the virulence potential of VTEC carried by these cattle. Individual cattle was tracked and faecal samples,hide and carcass (pre-evisceration and post-wash) swabs were analysed for verotoxin (vt1 and vt2) genes using a duplex real-time PCR assay. Positive samples were screened for the five serogroups of interest by real-time PCR. Isolates were recovered from PCR positive samples using immunomagnetic separation and confirmed by latex agglutination and PCR. Isolates were subject to a virulence screen (vt1, vt2, eaeA and hlyA) by PCR. Isolates carrying vt genes were examined by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Of theVTEC isolated, E. coli O157 was the most frequently recovered from hide (17.6%), faeces (2.3%) and pre-evisceration/post-wash carcass (0.7%) samples. VTEC O26 was isolated from 0.2% of hide swabs and 1.5% of faeces samples. VTEC O145 was isolated from 0.7% of faeces samples. VTEC O26 and VTEC O145 were not recovered from carcass swabs. Non-VTEC O103 was recovered from all sample types (27.1% hide, 8.5% faeces, 5.5% pre-evisceration carcass, 2.2% post-wash carcass), with 0.2% of hide swabs and 1.0% of faeces samples found to be positive for VTEC O103 isolates. E. coli O111 was not detected in any samples. For the four serogroups recovered, the direct transfer from hide to carcass was not observed. This study shows that while VTEC O157 are being carried by cattle presented for slaughter in Ireland, a number of other verotoxin producing strains are beginning to emerge.

    AB - The purpose of this study was to investigate carriage and transfer of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) O157, O26, O111, O103 and O145 from faeces and hide to dressed carcasses of Irish cattle as well as establishing the virulence potential of VTEC carried by these cattle. Individual cattle was tracked and faecal samples,hide and carcass (pre-evisceration and post-wash) swabs were analysed for verotoxin (vt1 and vt2) genes using a duplex real-time PCR assay. Positive samples were screened for the five serogroups of interest by real-time PCR. Isolates were recovered from PCR positive samples using immunomagnetic separation and confirmed by latex agglutination and PCR. Isolates were subject to a virulence screen (vt1, vt2, eaeA and hlyA) by PCR. Isolates carrying vt genes were examined by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Of theVTEC isolated, E. coli O157 was the most frequently recovered from hide (17.6%), faeces (2.3%) and pre-evisceration/post-wash carcass (0.7%) samples. VTEC O26 was isolated from 0.2% of hide swabs and 1.5% of faeces samples. VTEC O145 was isolated from 0.7% of faeces samples. VTEC O26 and VTEC O145 were not recovered from carcass swabs. Non-VTEC O103 was recovered from all sample types (27.1% hide, 8.5% faeces, 5.5% pre-evisceration carcass, 2.2% post-wash carcass), with 0.2% of hide swabs and 1.0% of faeces samples found to be positive for VTEC O103 isolates. E. coli O111 was not detected in any samples. For the four serogroups recovered, the direct transfer from hide to carcass was not observed. This study shows that while VTEC O157 are being carried by cattle presented for slaughter in Ireland, a number of other verotoxin producing strains are beginning to emerge.

    KW - Verocytotoxigenic

    KW - E. coli

    KW - Cattle

    KW - Abattoir

    KW - Hide

    KW - Carcass

    U2 - 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.11.012

    DO - 10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2011.11.012

    M3 - Article

    VL - 153

    SP - 288

    EP - 296

    JO - International Journal of Food Microbiology

    T2 - International Journal of Food Microbiology

    JF - International Journal of Food Microbiology

    SN - 0168-1605

    IS - 3

    ER -