Three-Dimensional Kinematics During the Take-Off Phase in Competitive Long Jumping

José Campos, Javier Gámez, Alberto Encarnación, Marcos Gutiérrez-Dávila, Javier Rojas, Eric Wallace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to identify the relationships among selected kinematic variables that affect the take-off phase and performance in elite jumpers. The jump distance was found to be related to: i) the athlete’s approach speed before the instant of touch down; and ii) the exchange in spatial velocity components at take-off, which results in again in maximum vertical velocity of the centre of mass (CM), favoured by the use of an optimum touch-down angle of the take-off leg, an active landing of the foot at touch-down, and a motion of the take-off leg during the compression phase that helps to manage the loss of horizontal velocity. Nonetheless, the results show that an adequate velocity transformation requires an adaptive technical model to help jumpers to build an efficient individual technical pattern.
LanguageEnglish
Pages395-406
JournalInternational Journal of Sports Science & Coaching
Volume8
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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kinematics
compression

Keywords

  • Centre of Mass
  • Kinematics
  • Long Jump
  • Take-off Phase

Cite this

Campos, J., Gámez, J., Encarnación, A., Gutiérrez-Dávila, M., Rojas, J., & Wallace, E. (2013). Three-Dimensional Kinematics During the Take-Off Phase in Competitive Long Jumping. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 8(2), 395-406.
Campos, José ; Gámez, Javier ; Encarnación, Alberto ; Gutiérrez-Dávila, Marcos ; Rojas, Javier ; Wallace, Eric. / Three-Dimensional Kinematics During the Take-Off Phase in Competitive Long Jumping. In: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching. 2013 ; Vol. 8, No. 2. pp. 395-406.
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abstract = "The purpose of the present study was to identify the relationships among selected kinematic variables that affect the take-off phase and performance in elite jumpers. The jump distance was found to be related to: i) the athlete’s approach speed before the instant of touch down; and ii) the exchange in spatial velocity components at take-off, which results in again in maximum vertical velocity of the centre of mass (CM), favoured by the use of an optimum touch-down angle of the take-off leg, an active landing of the foot at touch-down, and a motion of the take-off leg during the compression phase that helps to manage the loss of horizontal velocity. Nonetheless, the results show that an adequate velocity transformation requires an adaptive technical model to help jumpers to build an efficient individual technical pattern.",
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note = "Reference text: REFERENCES 1. Seyfarth, A., Friedricks, A., Wank, V. and Blickhan, R., Dynamics of The Long Jump, Journal of Biomechanics, 1999, 32, 1259-1267. 2. Lees, A., Graham-Smith, P. and Fowler, N., A Biomechanical Analysis of the Last Stride, Touchdown, and Take-off Characteristics of the Men’s Long Jump, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 1994, 10, 61-78. 3. Hay, J.G., Miller, J. A. and Canterna, R. W., The Techniques of Elite Male Long Jumpers. Journal of Biomechanics, 1986, 19, 855-866. 4. Alexander, R. McN., Optimum Take-off Techniques for High and Long Jumps. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1990, 329, 3-10 . 5. Seyfarth, A., Blickhan, R. and Van Leeuwen, J. L., Optimum Take-off Techniques and Muscle Design for Long Jump, Journal of Experimental Biology, 2000, 203, 741-750. 6. Bridgett, L.A. and Linthorne, L. P., Changes in Long Jump Take-off Technique with Increasing Run-up Speed, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2006, 24 (8), 889-897. 7. Kho, T. and Hay, J., Landing Leg Motion and Performance in the Horizontal Jumps I: The Long Jump, International Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 1990, 6, 343-360. 8. Lees, A., Fowler, N. and Derby, D., A Biomechanical Analysis of the Last Stride, Touch-down and Take-Off Characteristics of the Women’s Long Jump, Journal of Sports Sciences, 1993, 11, 303-314. 9. Graham-Smith, P. and Lees, A., A Three-Dimensional Kinematic Analysis of The Long Jump Take off, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2005, 23 (9), 891-903. 10. Abdel-Aziz Y.I. and Karara, H.M., Direct Linear Transformation from Comparator Co-ordinates into Object Space Coordinates in Close Range Photogrammetry, in: Proceedings of the Symposium on Close Range Photogrammetry, American Society of Photogrammetry, Falls Church, VA, 1971, 1-18. 11. Zatsiorsky,V. and Seluyanov,V., The Mass and Inertia Characteristics of the Main Segments of the Human Body, in: H. Matsui, and K. Kobayashi, ed., Biomechanics, Volume 4B of VIII, International Series on Biomechanics, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL, 1983, 1152-1159. 12. Leva, De, P., Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanovs Segment Inertia Parameters, Journal of Biomechanics, 1996, 29 (9), 1223-1230. 13. Yu, B., Horizontal to Vertical Velocity Conversion in the Triple Jump, Journal of Sports Sciences, 1999, 17, 221-229. 14. Bland, J.M. and Altman, D.G., Calculating Correlation Coefficients with Repeated Observations: Part 1 – Correlation Whitin Subjects, British Medical Journal, 1995, 310-446. 15. Hay, J. G., Citius, Altius, Longius (Faster, Higher, Longer): The Biomechanics of Jumping for Distance, Journal of Biomechanics, 1993, 26 (Suppl. 1), 7-26. 16. Dapena, J. and Chung, C.S., Vertical and Radial Motions of the Body During the Take-off Phase of High Jumping, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1988, 20(3), 290-302. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching Volume 8 · Number 2 · 2013 405 17. Gutierrez-Davila, M., Campos, J. and Navarro, E., A Comparison of Two Landing Styles in a Two-Foot Vertical Jump, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2009, 23(1), 325-331. 18. Asmussen, E. and Bonde-Petersen, F., Storage of Elastic Energy in Skeletal Muscle in Man, Acta Physiologica Scandinavia, 1974, 91, 385-392. 19. Cavagna, G.A., Dusman, B. and Margaria, R., Positive Work Done by Previously Stretched Muscle, Journal of Applied Physiology, 1968, 24, 21-32. 20. Hay, J. G. and Reid, J. G., Anatomy, Mechanics and Human Motion, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1988.",
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Campos, J, Gámez, J, Encarnación, A, Gutiérrez-Dávila, M, Rojas, J & Wallace, E 2013, 'Three-Dimensional Kinematics During the Take-Off Phase in Competitive Long Jumping', International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 395-406.

Three-Dimensional Kinematics During the Take-Off Phase in Competitive Long Jumping. / Campos, José; Gámez, Javier; Encarnación, Alberto; Gutiérrez-Dávila, Marcos; Rojas, Javier; Wallace, Eric.

In: International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2013, p. 395-406.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Three-Dimensional Kinematics During the Take-Off Phase in Competitive Long Jumping

AU - Campos, José

AU - Gámez, Javier

AU - Encarnación, Alberto

AU - Gutiérrez-Dávila, Marcos

AU - Rojas, Javier

AU - Wallace, Eric

N1 - Reference text: REFERENCES 1. Seyfarth, A., Friedricks, A., Wank, V. and Blickhan, R., Dynamics of The Long Jump, Journal of Biomechanics, 1999, 32, 1259-1267. 2. Lees, A., Graham-Smith, P. and Fowler, N., A Biomechanical Analysis of the Last Stride, Touchdown, and Take-off Characteristics of the Men’s Long Jump, Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 1994, 10, 61-78. 3. Hay, J.G., Miller, J. A. and Canterna, R. W., The Techniques of Elite Male Long Jumpers. Journal of Biomechanics, 1986, 19, 855-866. 4. Alexander, R. McN., Optimum Take-off Techniques for High and Long Jumps. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, 1990, 329, 3-10 . 5. Seyfarth, A., Blickhan, R. and Van Leeuwen, J. L., Optimum Take-off Techniques and Muscle Design for Long Jump, Journal of Experimental Biology, 2000, 203, 741-750. 6. Bridgett, L.A. and Linthorne, L. P., Changes in Long Jump Take-off Technique with Increasing Run-up Speed, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2006, 24 (8), 889-897. 7. Kho, T. and Hay, J., Landing Leg Motion and Performance in the Horizontal Jumps I: The Long Jump, International Journal of Sport Biomechanics, 1990, 6, 343-360. 8. Lees, A., Fowler, N. and Derby, D., A Biomechanical Analysis of the Last Stride, Touch-down and Take-Off Characteristics of the Women’s Long Jump, Journal of Sports Sciences, 1993, 11, 303-314. 9. Graham-Smith, P. and Lees, A., A Three-Dimensional Kinematic Analysis of The Long Jump Take off, Journal of Sports Sciences, 2005, 23 (9), 891-903. 10. Abdel-Aziz Y.I. and Karara, H.M., Direct Linear Transformation from Comparator Co-ordinates into Object Space Coordinates in Close Range Photogrammetry, in: Proceedings of the Symposium on Close Range Photogrammetry, American Society of Photogrammetry, Falls Church, VA, 1971, 1-18. 11. Zatsiorsky,V. and Seluyanov,V., The Mass and Inertia Characteristics of the Main Segments of the Human Body, in: H. Matsui, and K. Kobayashi, ed., Biomechanics, Volume 4B of VIII, International Series on Biomechanics, Human Kinetics, Champaign, IL, 1983, 1152-1159. 12. Leva, De, P., Adjustments to Zatsiorsky-Seluyanovs Segment Inertia Parameters, Journal of Biomechanics, 1996, 29 (9), 1223-1230. 13. Yu, B., Horizontal to Vertical Velocity Conversion in the Triple Jump, Journal of Sports Sciences, 1999, 17, 221-229. 14. Bland, J.M. and Altman, D.G., Calculating Correlation Coefficients with Repeated Observations: Part 1 – Correlation Whitin Subjects, British Medical Journal, 1995, 310-446. 15. Hay, J. G., Citius, Altius, Longius (Faster, Higher, Longer): The Biomechanics of Jumping for Distance, Journal of Biomechanics, 1993, 26 (Suppl. 1), 7-26. 16. Dapena, J. and Chung, C.S., Vertical and Radial Motions of the Body During the Take-off Phase of High Jumping, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 1988, 20(3), 290-302. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching Volume 8 · Number 2 · 2013 405 17. Gutierrez-Davila, M., Campos, J. and Navarro, E., A Comparison of Two Landing Styles in a Two-Foot Vertical Jump, Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 2009, 23(1), 325-331. 18. Asmussen, E. and Bonde-Petersen, F., Storage of Elastic Energy in Skeletal Muscle in Man, Acta Physiologica Scandinavia, 1974, 91, 385-392. 19. Cavagna, G.A., Dusman, B. and Margaria, R., Positive Work Done by Previously Stretched Muscle, Journal of Applied Physiology, 1968, 24, 21-32. 20. Hay, J. G. and Reid, J. G., Anatomy, Mechanics and Human Motion, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1988.

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - The purpose of the present study was to identify the relationships among selected kinematic variables that affect the take-off phase and performance in elite jumpers. The jump distance was found to be related to: i) the athlete’s approach speed before the instant of touch down; and ii) the exchange in spatial velocity components at take-off, which results in again in maximum vertical velocity of the centre of mass (CM), favoured by the use of an optimum touch-down angle of the take-off leg, an active landing of the foot at touch-down, and a motion of the take-off leg during the compression phase that helps to manage the loss of horizontal velocity. Nonetheless, the results show that an adequate velocity transformation requires an adaptive technical model to help jumpers to build an efficient individual technical pattern.

AB - The purpose of the present study was to identify the relationships among selected kinematic variables that affect the take-off phase and performance in elite jumpers. The jump distance was found to be related to: i) the athlete’s approach speed before the instant of touch down; and ii) the exchange in spatial velocity components at take-off, which results in again in maximum vertical velocity of the centre of mass (CM), favoured by the use of an optimum touch-down angle of the take-off leg, an active landing of the foot at touch-down, and a motion of the take-off leg during the compression phase that helps to manage the loss of horizontal velocity. Nonetheless, the results show that an adequate velocity transformation requires an adaptive technical model to help jumpers to build an efficient individual technical pattern.

KW - Centre of Mass

KW - Kinematics

KW - Long Jump

KW - Take-off Phase

M3 - Article

VL - 8

SP - 395

EP - 406

JO - International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching

T2 - International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching

JF - International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching

SN - 1747-9541

IS - 2

ER -