Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Enforcing Socio-Economic Rights in Northern Ireland

Gráinne McKeever, Fionnuala Ni Aolain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Having established the status of social and economic rights the authors then argue for the imaginative enforcement of such rights starting at the national level. The authors look first at the judicial role in this enforcement. They expand the concept of enforcement to argue the domestic justiciability of these rights and explore the lingering perception of the lack of justiciability of social and economic rights and the effect of enforcement. The next section highlights two models of judicial enforcement: the minimal enforcement model and the substantive enforcement model. It discusses the aim of each model, their benefits and limitations and the variations within each model. The final detailed section examines and explains the programmatic model requiring pro-active government strategies to embed social and economic rights. The authors use Northern Ireland to explore the programmatic approach developed there and conclude with their preference for a combination of models to secure the enforcement of social and economic rights at a domestic level.
LanguageEnglish
Pages158-180
JournalEuropean Human Rights Law Review
Volume2
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2004

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@article{ef6349b327b04c50b95f41c5f5234551,
title = "Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Enforcing Socio-Economic Rights in Northern Ireland",
abstract = "Having established the status of social and economic rights the authors then argue for the imaginative enforcement of such rights starting at the national level. The authors look first at the judicial role in this enforcement. They expand the concept of enforcement to argue the domestic justiciability of these rights and explore the lingering perception of the lack of justiciability of social and economic rights and the effect of enforcement. The next section highlights two models of judicial enforcement: the minimal enforcement model and the substantive enforcement model. It discusses the aim of each model, their benefits and limitations and the variations within each model. The final detailed section examines and explains the programmatic model requiring pro-active government strategies to embed social and economic rights. The authors use Northern Ireland to explore the programmatic approach developed there and conclude with their preference for a combination of models to secure the enforcement of social and economic rights at a domestic level.",
author = "Gr{\'a}inne McKeever and {Ni Aolain}, Fionnuala",
note = "Reference text: Vienna Declaration and Program of Action, UN GAOR, World Conference on Human Rights, 48th Sess., 22d plen. mtg.., UN Doc. A/CONF.157/24 (1993). P.N. Bhagwati, “Social Action Litigation: The Indian Experience” in N. Tiruchelvam and R. Coomaraswamy, eds, Public Interest Litigation and Legal Activism Related to Development (1987); R.H. Kisanga, “The Legal Profession, Pluralism and Public Interest Litigation in Tanzania” in The Role of the Judiciary in Plural Societies “The Maastricht Guidelines on Violations of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” (1998) 20 Human Rights Quarterly 691-705; The Lindberg Principles on the Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No.3, 5th Sess., 1990, UN Doc.E/1991/23, Annex III; Status of the International Covenants on Human Rights, Draft Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights, UN ESCOR, Commission on Human Rights, 53rd Sess., Agenda Item 14, UN Doc.E/Cn.4/1997/105 (1997) P. Alston, “The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” in P. Alston, The United Nations and Human Rights (Oxford University Press, 1992), pp.473-508. M. Craven, The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A Perspective on its Development (Oxford University Press, 1995). D. D. Raphael, ed., Political Theory and the Rights of Man (Macmillan Press, London, 1967), p.34; M. Craven, “The Domestic Application of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” (1993) 40 Netherlands International Law Review 367; B. Graefrath, “How Different Countries Implement International Standards on Human Rights” (1984/5) 1 Canadian Human Rights Yearbook 31; Louis Henkin, “Economic and Social Rights as ‘Rights': A United States Perspective” (1981) 2 Human Rights Law Journal 223; F. Matscher, ed., The Implementation of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Engle Verlag, Strasbourg, 1991). S. Grotz, J. Beatson and P. Duffy, Human Rights, The 1998 Act and the European Convention (Sweet & Maxwell, 2000); R. Clayton and H. Tomlinson, The Law of Human Rights (Oxford University Press, 2000); Lord Irvine, “The Development of Human Rights Britain under an Incorporated Convention on Human Rights” [1999] E.H.R.L.R. 243. Frank H. Easterbrook, “Method, Result and Authority: A Reply” (1985) 98 Harvard Law Review 622; Richard A. Posner, “The Deprofessionalization of Legal Teaching and Scholarship” (1993) 91 Michigan Law Review 1921. Other views on this linkage include Larry M. Chubb, “Economic Analysis in the Courts: Limits and Constraints” (1989) 64 Indiana Law Journal 76 (Note); George M. Cohen, “Posnerian Jurisprudence and Economic Analysis of Law: The View from the Bench” (1985) 133 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1117. Conor Gearty, “The European Court of Human Rights and the Protection of Civil Liberties: An Overview” (1993) 52 C.L.J. 89-127 Bertus de Villiers, Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Rights: The Indian Experience (1992) S.A.J.H.R. 29. S. Terreblanche, A History of Inequality in South Africa 1652-2002 (University of Natal Press, 2002). Cass R. Sunstein, “Why Does the American Constitution Lack Social and Economic Guarantees?” at www.law.uchicago.edu/academics/publiclaw/index.html. Christopher McCrudden, “Equality” in Colin Harvey, ed., Human Rights, Equality and Democratic Renewal in Northern Ireland (Hart Publishing, 2002). S. Razavi and C. Miller, Gender Mainstreaming: A Study of Efforts by the UNDP, the World Bank and the ILO to Institutionalize Gender Issues (UN Publications Research Institute for Social Development, Geneva, 1995). F. Ni Aol{\'a}in, The Politics of Force Conflict Management and State Violence in Northern Ireland (Blackstaff Press, 2000). K. Boyle, T. Hadden and P. Hillyard, Law and State: The Case of Northern Ireland (Martin Robertson, London, 1975); K. Boyle, T. Hadden and P. Hillyard, Ten Years On in Northern Ireland: The Legal Control of Political Violence (Cobden Trust, London, 1980). Christopher McCrudden, Benchmarks for Change: Mainstreaming Fairness in the Governance of Northern Ireland (Committee on the Administration of Justice, Belfast, Belfast, (1998) Padraic Quirk and Eithne McLaughlin, “Targeting Social Need” in Eithne McLaughlin and Padraic Quirk, eds, Employment Equality in Northern Ireland (SACHR, Belfast), Vol.11; Policy Aspects of Employment Equality in Northern Ireland (Colourbooks Ltd, Dublin, 1996). Colm Campbell, Fionnuala Ni Aol{\'a}in and Colin Harvey, “The Frontiers of Legal Analysis: Reframing the Transition in Northern Ireland” (2003) 66 M.L.R. 317-345 K. Crenshaw, “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics and Violence Against Women of Color” in Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement (New Press, 1996) Les Allamby, “Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” (2001) 52 N.I.L.Q. 52 335-341(2001). Mohibur Rahman, Guy Palmer, Peter Kenway and Catherine Howarth, Monitoring Poverty and Social Exclusion 2000 (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, North Yorkshire, 2000).",
year = "2004",
language = "English",
volume = "2",
pages = "158--180",
journal = "European Human Rights Law Review",
issn = "1361-1526",
number = "2",

}

Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Enforcing Socio-Economic Rights in Northern Ireland. / McKeever, Gráinne; Ni Aolain, Fionnuala.

In: European Human Rights Law Review, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2004, p. 158-180.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Thinking Globally, Acting Locally: Enforcing Socio-Economic Rights in Northern Ireland

AU - McKeever, Gráinne

AU - Ni Aolain, Fionnuala

N1 - Reference text: Vienna Declaration and Program of Action, UN GAOR, World Conference on Human Rights, 48th Sess., 22d plen. mtg.., UN Doc. A/CONF.157/24 (1993). P.N. Bhagwati, “Social Action Litigation: The Indian Experience” in N. Tiruchelvam and R. Coomaraswamy, eds, Public Interest Litigation and Legal Activism Related to Development (1987); R.H. Kisanga, “The Legal Profession, Pluralism and Public Interest Litigation in Tanzania” in The Role of the Judiciary in Plural Societies “The Maastricht Guidelines on Violations of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” (1998) 20 Human Rights Quarterly 691-705; The Lindberg Principles on the Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, General Comment No.3, 5th Sess., 1990, UN Doc.E/1991/23, Annex III; Status of the International Covenants on Human Rights, Draft Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights, UN ESCOR, Commission on Human Rights, 53rd Sess., Agenda Item 14, UN Doc.E/Cn.4/1997/105 (1997) P. Alston, “The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” in P. Alston, The United Nations and Human Rights (Oxford University Press, 1992), pp.473-508. M. Craven, The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights: A Perspective on its Development (Oxford University Press, 1995). D. D. Raphael, ed., Political Theory and the Rights of Man (Macmillan Press, London, 1967), p.34; M. Craven, “The Domestic Application of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” (1993) 40 Netherlands International Law Review 367; B. Graefrath, “How Different Countries Implement International Standards on Human Rights” (1984/5) 1 Canadian Human Rights Yearbook 31; Louis Henkin, “Economic and Social Rights as ‘Rights': A United States Perspective” (1981) 2 Human Rights Law Journal 223; F. Matscher, ed., The Implementation of Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Engle Verlag, Strasbourg, 1991). S. Grotz, J. Beatson and P. Duffy, Human Rights, The 1998 Act and the European Convention (Sweet & Maxwell, 2000); R. Clayton and H. Tomlinson, The Law of Human Rights (Oxford University Press, 2000); Lord Irvine, “The Development of Human Rights Britain under an Incorporated Convention on Human Rights” [1999] E.H.R.L.R. 243. Frank H. Easterbrook, “Method, Result and Authority: A Reply” (1985) 98 Harvard Law Review 622; Richard A. Posner, “The Deprofessionalization of Legal Teaching and Scholarship” (1993) 91 Michigan Law Review 1921. Other views on this linkage include Larry M. Chubb, “Economic Analysis in the Courts: Limits and Constraints” (1989) 64 Indiana Law Journal 76 (Note); George M. Cohen, “Posnerian Jurisprudence and Economic Analysis of Law: The View from the Bench” (1985) 133 University of Pennsylvania Law Review 1117. Conor Gearty, “The European Court of Human Rights and the Protection of Civil Liberties: An Overview” (1993) 52 C.L.J. 89-127 Bertus de Villiers, Directive Principles of State Policy and Fundamental Rights: The Indian Experience (1992) S.A.J.H.R. 29. S. Terreblanche, A History of Inequality in South Africa 1652-2002 (University of Natal Press, 2002). Cass R. Sunstein, “Why Does the American Constitution Lack Social and Economic Guarantees?” at www.law.uchicago.edu/academics/publiclaw/index.html. Christopher McCrudden, “Equality” in Colin Harvey, ed., Human Rights, Equality and Democratic Renewal in Northern Ireland (Hart Publishing, 2002). S. Razavi and C. Miller, Gender Mainstreaming: A Study of Efforts by the UNDP, the World Bank and the ILO to Institutionalize Gender Issues (UN Publications Research Institute for Social Development, Geneva, 1995). F. Ni Aoláin, The Politics of Force Conflict Management and State Violence in Northern Ireland (Blackstaff Press, 2000). K. Boyle, T. Hadden and P. Hillyard, Law and State: The Case of Northern Ireland (Martin Robertson, London, 1975); K. Boyle, T. Hadden and P. Hillyard, Ten Years On in Northern Ireland: The Legal Control of Political Violence (Cobden Trust, London, 1980). Christopher McCrudden, Benchmarks for Change: Mainstreaming Fairness in the Governance of Northern Ireland (Committee on the Administration of Justice, Belfast, Belfast, (1998) Padraic Quirk and Eithne McLaughlin, “Targeting Social Need” in Eithne McLaughlin and Padraic Quirk, eds, Employment Equality in Northern Ireland (SACHR, Belfast), Vol.11; Policy Aspects of Employment Equality in Northern Ireland (Colourbooks Ltd, Dublin, 1996). Colm Campbell, Fionnuala Ni Aoláin and Colin Harvey, “The Frontiers of Legal Analysis: Reframing the Transition in Northern Ireland” (2003) 66 M.L.R. 317-345 K. Crenshaw, “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics and Violence Against Women of Color” in Critical Race Theory: The Key Writings that Formed the Movement (New Press, 1996) Les Allamby, “Economic, Social and Cultural Rights” (2001) 52 N.I.L.Q. 52 335-341(2001). Mohibur Rahman, Guy Palmer, Peter Kenway and Catherine Howarth, Monitoring Poverty and Social Exclusion 2000 (Joseph Rowntree Foundation, North Yorkshire, 2000).

PY - 2004

Y1 - 2004

N2 - Having established the status of social and economic rights the authors then argue for the imaginative enforcement of such rights starting at the national level. The authors look first at the judicial role in this enforcement. They expand the concept of enforcement to argue the domestic justiciability of these rights and explore the lingering perception of the lack of justiciability of social and economic rights and the effect of enforcement. The next section highlights two models of judicial enforcement: the minimal enforcement model and the substantive enforcement model. It discusses the aim of each model, their benefits and limitations and the variations within each model. The final detailed section examines and explains the programmatic model requiring pro-active government strategies to embed social and economic rights. The authors use Northern Ireland to explore the programmatic approach developed there and conclude with their preference for a combination of models to secure the enforcement of social and economic rights at a domestic level.

AB - Having established the status of social and economic rights the authors then argue for the imaginative enforcement of such rights starting at the national level. The authors look first at the judicial role in this enforcement. They expand the concept of enforcement to argue the domestic justiciability of these rights and explore the lingering perception of the lack of justiciability of social and economic rights and the effect of enforcement. The next section highlights two models of judicial enforcement: the minimal enforcement model and the substantive enforcement model. It discusses the aim of each model, their benefits and limitations and the variations within each model. The final detailed section examines and explains the programmatic model requiring pro-active government strategies to embed social and economic rights. The authors use Northern Ireland to explore the programmatic approach developed there and conclude with their preference for a combination of models to secure the enforcement of social and economic rights at a domestic level.

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JO - European Human Rights Law Review

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JF - European Human Rights Law Review

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