A packed-bed thermal energy storage (PBTES) device, which is simultaneously restricted by thermal storage capacity and outlet temperatures of both cold and hot heat transfer fluids, is characterized by an unstable operation condition, and its calculation is complicated. To solve this problem, a steady thermodynamics model of PBTES with fixed temperatures on both ends is built. By using this model, the exergy destruction, thermocline thickness, thermal storage capacity, thermal storage time, and other key parameters can be calculated in a simple way. In addition, the model explains the internal reason for the change of thermocline thickness during thermal storage and release processes. Furthermore, the stable operation of the PBTES device is analyzed, and it is found that higher inlet temperature of hot air, and lower temperature difference between cold and hot air can produce less exergy destruction and achieve a larger cycle number of stable operation. The work can be employed as the basis of the design and engineering application of PBTES.
- packed bed thermal energy storage
- thermaldynamic analysis
- stable operation