Thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica in pork slaughter plant scald tank water

Declan J Bolton, Claire Ivory, D.A. McDowell

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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    Abstract

    The objective of this study was to establish the time-temperature combinations required to ensure the thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica during scalding of pork carcasses. A 2 strain cocktail of Y. enterocolitica (bioserotypes 2/O:5,27 and 1A/O:6,30) was heat treated at 50, 55 and 60 °C in samples of scald tank water obtained from a commercial pork slaughter plant. Samples were removed at regular intervals and surviving cells enumerated using (i) Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin Agar (CIN) supplemented with ampicillin and arabinose and (ii) Tryptone Soya Agar (TSA), overlaid with CIN agar with ampicillin and arabinose. The data generated was used to estimate D- and z-values and the formula Dx = log- 1(log D60 - ((t2 - t1)/z)) was applied to calculate thermal death time-temperature combinations from 55 to 65 °C. D50, D55 and D60-values of 45.9, 10.6 and 2.7 min were calculated from the cell counts obtained on CIN agar, respectively. The corresponding D-values calculated from the TSA/CIN counts were 45.1, 11 and 2.5 min, respectively. The z-value was 7.8. It was concluded that a time-temperature combination of 2.7 min at 60 °C is required to achieve a 1 log reduction in Y. enterocolitica in pork scald tank water. The predicted equivalent at 65 °C was 0.6 min. This study provides data and a model to enable pork processors to identify and apply parameters to limit the risk of carcass cross-contamination with Y. enterocolitica in pork carcass scald tanks
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages668-671
    JournalMeat Science
    Volume96
    Issue number3
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2013

    Fingerprint

    Yersinia enterocolitica
    heat inactivation
    pork
    slaughter
    cefsulodin
    agar
    novobiocin
    water
    pig carcasses
    arabinose
    ampicillin
    scalding
    heat
    temperature
    cross contamination
    cells
    death
    sampling

    Cite this

    Bolton, Declan J ; Ivory, Claire ; McDowell, D.A. / Thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica in pork slaughter plant scald tank water. In: Meat Science. 2013 ; Vol. 96, No. 3. pp. 668-671.
    @article{b2801cc5a2ca4a11913380908a225d2d,
    title = "Thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica in pork slaughter plant scald tank water",
    abstract = "The objective of this study was to establish the time-temperature combinations required to ensure the thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica during scalding of pork carcasses. A 2 strain cocktail of Y. enterocolitica (bioserotypes 2/O:5,27 and 1A/O:6,30) was heat treated at 50, 55 and 60 °C in samples of scald tank water obtained from a commercial pork slaughter plant. Samples were removed at regular intervals and surviving cells enumerated using (i) Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin Agar (CIN) supplemented with ampicillin and arabinose and (ii) Tryptone Soya Agar (TSA), overlaid with CIN agar with ampicillin and arabinose. The data generated was used to estimate D- and z-values and the formula Dx = log- 1(log D60 - ((t2 - t1)/z)) was applied to calculate thermal death time-temperature combinations from 55 to 65 °C. D50, D55 and D60-values of 45.9, 10.6 and 2.7 min were calculated from the cell counts obtained on CIN agar, respectively. The corresponding D-values calculated from the TSA/CIN counts were 45.1, 11 and 2.5 min, respectively. The z-value was 7.8. It was concluded that a time-temperature combination of 2.7 min at 60 °C is required to achieve a 1 log reduction in Y. enterocolitica in pork scald tank water. The predicted equivalent at 65 °C was 0.6 min. This study provides data and a model to enable pork processors to identify and apply parameters to limit the risk of carcass cross-contamination with Y. enterocolitica in pork carcass scald tanks",
    author = "Bolton, {Declan J} and Claire Ivory and D.A. McDowell",
    note = "Reference text: Asplund, K., Tuovinen, V., Veijalainen, P., & Hirn, J. (1990). The prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 in Finnish pigs and pork. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 31, 39–43. Bhagat, N., & Virdi, J. S. (2009). Molecular and biochemical characterization of urease and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A in acidic pH in vitro. BMC Microbiology, 9, 262. Bolton, D. J., McMahon, C. M., Doherty, A. M., Sheridan, J. J., McDowell, D. A., Blair, I. S., & Harrington, D. (2000). Thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica in minced beef under laboratory conditions and in sous-vide prepared minced and solid beef cooked in a commercial retort. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 88, 626–632. Bolton, D. J., Pearce, R., Sheridan, J. J., McDowell, D. A., & Blair, I. S. (2003). Decontamination of pork carcasses during scalding and the prevention of Salmonella cross contamination. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 94, 1036–1042. Davies, R. H., McLaren, I. M., & Bedford, S. (1999). Distribution of Salmonella contamination in two abattoirs. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on the Epidemiology and Control of Salmonella in Pork (pp. 267–272). USA: University of Illinois. De Boer, E., & Nouws, J. F. M. (1991). Slaughter pigs and pork as a source of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 12, 375–378. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) (2011). The community summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and foodborne outbreaks in the European Union in 2009. The EFSA Journal, 9(3), 2090. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M., Hielm, S., & Korkeala, H. (1999). High prevalence of yadA-positive Yersinia enterocolitica in pig tongue and minced meat at the retail level in Finland. Journal of Food Protection, 62, 123–127. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M., Stolle, A., Siitonen, A., & Koekeala, H. (2006). Sporadic human Yersinia enterocolitica infections caused by bioserotype 4/O:3 originate mainly from pigs. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 55, 747–749. Hald, T., Wingstrand, A., Swanenberg, M., Altrock, A. V., Limpitakis, N., & Thorberg, B. M. (1999). Harvest epidemiology of Salmonella contamination in EU pig slaughterhouses. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on the Epidemiology and Control of Salmonella in Pork (pp. 273–276). USA: University of Illinois. Johannessen, G. S., Kapperud, G., & Kruse, H. (2000). Occurrence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in Norwegian pork products determined by a PCR method and traditional culture method. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 54, 75–80. Juneja, V. K., & Eblen, B. S. (2000). Heat inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 in beef as affected by fat content. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 30, 461–467. Nesbakken, T. (1988). Enumeration of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 from the porcine oral cavity and its occurrence on cut surfaces of pig carcasses and the environment in a slaughterhouse. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 6, 287–293. Nesbakken, T., Nerbrink, E., Rotterud, O. J., & Borch, E. (1994). Reduction of Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria spp. on carcasses by enclosure of the rectum during slaughter. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 23, 197–208. Pagan, R., Manas, P., Raso, J., & Trepat, F. J. S. (1999). Heat resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica grown at different temperatures and heated in different media. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 47, 59–66. Pearce, R., Bolton, D. J., Sheridan, J. J., McDowell, D. A., & Blair, I. S. (2002). Studies to determine the critical control points in pork slaughter hazard analysis and critical control point systems. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 90, 331–339. Schiemann, D. A. (1989). Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. In M. P. Doyle (Ed.), Foodborne Bacterial pathogens (pp. 601–672). New York: Marcel Dekker. Sorqvist, S., & Danielsson-Tham, M. L. (1990). Survival of Campylobacter, Salmonella and Yersinia spp. in scalding water used at pig slaughter. Fleischwirtsch, 70(12), 1451–1454. Van Damme, I., Habib, I., & De Zeutter, L. (2010). Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughter pig tonsils: Enumeration and detection by enrichment versus direct plating culture. Food Microbiology, 27(1), 158–161.",
    year = "2013",
    doi = "10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.11.034",
    language = "English",
    volume = "96",
    pages = "668--671",
    journal = "Meat Science",
    issn = "0309-1740",
    publisher = "Elsevier",
    number = "3",

    }

    Thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica in pork slaughter plant scald tank water. / Bolton, Declan J; Ivory, Claire; McDowell, D.A.

    In: Meat Science, Vol. 96, No. 3, 2013, p. 668-671.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - Thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica in pork slaughter plant scald tank water

    AU - Bolton, Declan J

    AU - Ivory, Claire

    AU - McDowell, D.A.

    N1 - Reference text: Asplund, K., Tuovinen, V., Veijalainen, P., & Hirn, J. (1990). The prevalence of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 in Finnish pigs and pork. Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica, 31, 39–43. Bhagat, N., & Virdi, J. S. (2009). Molecular and biochemical characterization of urease and survival of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A in acidic pH in vitro. BMC Microbiology, 9, 262. Bolton, D. J., McMahon, C. M., Doherty, A. M., Sheridan, J. J., McDowell, D. A., Blair, I. S., & Harrington, D. (2000). Thermal inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica in minced beef under laboratory conditions and in sous-vide prepared minced and solid beef cooked in a commercial retort. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 88, 626–632. Bolton, D. J., Pearce, R., Sheridan, J. J., McDowell, D. A., & Blair, I. S. (2003). Decontamination of pork carcasses during scalding and the prevention of Salmonella cross contamination. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 94, 1036–1042. Davies, R. H., McLaren, I. M., & Bedford, S. (1999). Distribution of Salmonella contamination in two abattoirs. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on the Epidemiology and Control of Salmonella in Pork (pp. 267–272). USA: University of Illinois. De Boer, E., & Nouws, J. F. M. (1991). Slaughter pigs and pork as a source of human pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 12, 375–378. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) (2011). The community summary report on trends and sources of zoonoses, zoonotic agents and foodborne outbreaks in the European Union in 2009. The EFSA Journal, 9(3), 2090. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M., Hielm, S., & Korkeala, H. (1999). High prevalence of yadA-positive Yersinia enterocolitica in pig tongue and minced meat at the retail level in Finland. Journal of Food Protection, 62, 123–127. Fredriksson-Ahomaa, M., Stolle, A., Siitonen, A., & Koekeala, H. (2006). Sporadic human Yersinia enterocolitica infections caused by bioserotype 4/O:3 originate mainly from pigs. Journal of Medical Microbiology, 55, 747–749. Hald, T., Wingstrand, A., Swanenberg, M., Altrock, A. V., Limpitakis, N., & Thorberg, B. M. (1999). Harvest epidemiology of Salmonella contamination in EU pig slaughterhouses. Proceedings of the 3rd International Symposium on the Epidemiology and Control of Salmonella in Pork (pp. 273–276). USA: University of Illinois. Johannessen, G. S., Kapperud, G., & Kruse, H. (2000). Occurrence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in Norwegian pork products determined by a PCR method and traditional culture method. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 54, 75–80. Juneja, V. K., & Eblen, B. S. (2000). Heat inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 in beef as affected by fat content. Letters in Applied Microbiology, 30, 461–467. Nesbakken, T. (1988). Enumeration of Yersinia enterocolitica O:3 from the porcine oral cavity and its occurrence on cut surfaces of pig carcasses and the environment in a slaughterhouse. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 6, 287–293. Nesbakken, T., Nerbrink, E., Rotterud, O. J., & Borch, E. (1994). Reduction of Yersinia enterocolitica and Listeria spp. on carcasses by enclosure of the rectum during slaughter. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 23, 197–208. Pagan, R., Manas, P., Raso, J., & Trepat, F. J. S. (1999). Heat resistance of Yersinia enterocolitica grown at different temperatures and heated in different media. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 47, 59–66. Pearce, R., Bolton, D. J., Sheridan, J. J., McDowell, D. A., & Blair, I. S. (2002). Studies to determine the critical control points in pork slaughter hazard analysis and critical control point systems. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 90, 331–339. Schiemann, D. A. (1989). Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. In M. P. Doyle (Ed.), Foodborne Bacterial pathogens (pp. 601–672). New York: Marcel Dekker. Sorqvist, S., & Danielsson-Tham, M. L. (1990). Survival of Campylobacter, Salmonella and Yersinia spp. in scalding water used at pig slaughter. Fleischwirtsch, 70(12), 1451–1454. Van Damme, I., Habib, I., & De Zeutter, L. (2010). Yersinia enterocolitica in slaughter pig tonsils: Enumeration and detection by enrichment versus direct plating culture. Food Microbiology, 27(1), 158–161.

    PY - 2013

    Y1 - 2013

    N2 - The objective of this study was to establish the time-temperature combinations required to ensure the thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica during scalding of pork carcasses. A 2 strain cocktail of Y. enterocolitica (bioserotypes 2/O:5,27 and 1A/O:6,30) was heat treated at 50, 55 and 60 °C in samples of scald tank water obtained from a commercial pork slaughter plant. Samples were removed at regular intervals and surviving cells enumerated using (i) Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin Agar (CIN) supplemented with ampicillin and arabinose and (ii) Tryptone Soya Agar (TSA), overlaid with CIN agar with ampicillin and arabinose. The data generated was used to estimate D- and z-values and the formula Dx = log- 1(log D60 - ((t2 - t1)/z)) was applied to calculate thermal death time-temperature combinations from 55 to 65 °C. D50, D55 and D60-values of 45.9, 10.6 and 2.7 min were calculated from the cell counts obtained on CIN agar, respectively. The corresponding D-values calculated from the TSA/CIN counts were 45.1, 11 and 2.5 min, respectively. The z-value was 7.8. It was concluded that a time-temperature combination of 2.7 min at 60 °C is required to achieve a 1 log reduction in Y. enterocolitica in pork scald tank water. The predicted equivalent at 65 °C was 0.6 min. This study provides data and a model to enable pork processors to identify and apply parameters to limit the risk of carcass cross-contamination with Y. enterocolitica in pork carcass scald tanks

    AB - The objective of this study was to establish the time-temperature combinations required to ensure the thermal inactivation of Yersinia enterocolitica during scalding of pork carcasses. A 2 strain cocktail of Y. enterocolitica (bioserotypes 2/O:5,27 and 1A/O:6,30) was heat treated at 50, 55 and 60 °C in samples of scald tank water obtained from a commercial pork slaughter plant. Samples were removed at regular intervals and surviving cells enumerated using (i) Cefsulodin-Irgasan-Novobiocin Agar (CIN) supplemented with ampicillin and arabinose and (ii) Tryptone Soya Agar (TSA), overlaid with CIN agar with ampicillin and arabinose. The data generated was used to estimate D- and z-values and the formula Dx = log- 1(log D60 - ((t2 - t1)/z)) was applied to calculate thermal death time-temperature combinations from 55 to 65 °C. D50, D55 and D60-values of 45.9, 10.6 and 2.7 min were calculated from the cell counts obtained on CIN agar, respectively. The corresponding D-values calculated from the TSA/CIN counts were 45.1, 11 and 2.5 min, respectively. The z-value was 7.8. It was concluded that a time-temperature combination of 2.7 min at 60 °C is required to achieve a 1 log reduction in Y. enterocolitica in pork scald tank water. The predicted equivalent at 65 °C was 0.6 min. This study provides data and a model to enable pork processors to identify and apply parameters to limit the risk of carcass cross-contamination with Y. enterocolitica in pork carcass scald tanks

    U2 - 10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.11.034

    DO - 10.1016/j.meatsci.2012.11.034

    M3 - Article

    VL - 96

    SP - 668

    EP - 671

    JO - Meat Science

    T2 - Meat Science

    JF - Meat Science

    SN - 0309-1740

    IS - 3

    ER -