Thermal characteristics of externally venting flames and their effect on the exposed façade surface

Eleni Asimakopoulou, Dionysios Kolaitis, Maria Founti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

In a compartment fire, Externally Venting Flames (EVF) may significantly increase the risk of firespreading to adjacent floors or buildings, especially when combustible insulation materials are installed onthe building façade. An increasing number of recent reports suggest that existing fire engineering designmethodologies cannot describe with sufficient accuracy the characteristics of EVF under realistic fire loadconditions. In this context, a series of fire safety engineering design correlations used to describe the mainEVF thermal characteristics, namely EVF centreline temperature and EVF-induced heat flux on theexposed façade surface, are comparatively assessed. Towards this end, measurements obtained in amedium- and a large-scale compartment-façade fire test are employed; aiming to broaden the scope of thevalidation study, predictions of the investigated correlations are further compared to measurementsobtained in 6 large-scale fire tests found in the literature. It is found that the correlation proposed inEN1991-1-2 (Eurocode 1) for the estimation of the EVF centreline temperature is under-predicting themeasured values in large-scale fire tests. In addition, it is concluded that estimation of the local flameemissivity should take into account the specific fuel type used in each case.
LanguageEnglish
Pages451-460
JournalFire Safety Journal
Volume91
Early online date18 May 2017
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2017

Fingerprint

venting
Facades
flames
Fires
flame temperature
compartments
engineering
Safety engineering
Hot Temperature
insulation
Heat flux
Insulation
heat flux
safety
Temperature
predictions

Keywords

  • compartment fires
  • heat transfer
  • externally venting flames
  • façade fires
  • Eurocode

Cite this

@article{cb7d2ec9b7d943f293fb36968ea74923,
title = "Thermal characteristics of externally venting flames and their effect on the exposed fa{\cc}ade surface",
abstract = "In a compartment fire, Externally Venting Flames (EVF) may significantly increase the risk of firespreading to adjacent floors or buildings, especially when combustible insulation materials are installed onthe building fa{\cc}ade. An increasing number of recent reports suggest that existing fire engineering designmethodologies cannot describe with sufficient accuracy the characteristics of EVF under realistic fire loadconditions. In this context, a series of fire safety engineering design correlations used to describe the mainEVF thermal characteristics, namely EVF centreline temperature and EVF-induced heat flux on theexposed fa{\cc}ade surface, are comparatively assessed. Towards this end, measurements obtained in amedium- and a large-scale compartment-fa{\cc}ade fire test are employed; aiming to broaden the scope of thevalidation study, predictions of the investigated correlations are further compared to measurementsobtained in 6 large-scale fire tests found in the literature. It is found that the correlation proposed inEN1991-1-2 (Eurocode 1) for the estimation of the EVF centreline temperature is under-predicting themeasured values in large-scale fire tests. In addition, it is concluded that estimation of the local flameemissivity should take into account the specific fuel type used in each case.",
keywords = "compartment fires, heat transfer, externally venting flames, fa{\cc}ade fires, Eurocode",
author = "Eleni Asimakopoulou and Dionysios Kolaitis and Maria Founti",
note = "Reference text: [1] J. Sun, L. Hu, Y. Zhang, A review on research of fire dynamics in high rise buildings, Theor. Appl. Mech. Lett. 3 (2013) 1–13, http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/2.1304201. [2] J. Glancey, Beijing’s newest skyscraper survives blaze, The Guardian, 〈http://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/feb/11/television-cultural-centre-tower-beijing-fire〉, 2009. [3] M. Gray, Fire breaks out at luxury Dubai skyscraper, CNN, 〈http://edition.cnn.com/2015/02/20/middleeast/dubai-tower-fire/〉, 2015. [4] N. White, M. Delichatsios, Fire Hazards of Exterior Wall Assemblies Containing Combustible Components 1st edition, Springer Briefs in Fire, Springer, 2014. [5] E.K. Asimakopoulou, D.I. Kolaitis, M.A. Founti, Assessment of fire engineering design correlations used to describe the geometry and thermal characteristics of Externally Venting Flames, Fire Technol. 53 (2017) 709–739, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10694-016-0594-2. [6] E.K. Asimakopoulou, D.I. Kolaitis, M.A. Founti, Geometrical characteristics of externally venting flames: assessment of fire engineering correlations using medium-scale compartment fa{\cc}ade fire tests, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 44 (2016) 780–790, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2016.09.006. [7] E. McKirdy, Huge blaze engulfs residential tower in United Arab Emirates, CNN, 〈http://edition.cnn.com/2016/03/28/middleeast/uae-ajman-tower-blaze/index.html〉, 2016. [8] J. Hanna, A. Fantz, C.E. Sholcet, Fire engulfs downtown Dubai’s high-rise Address hotel, 〈http://edition.cnn.com/2015/12/31/middleeast/dubai-address-hotel-fire/〉, 2016. [9] N. Toscano, R. Spooner, Docklands apartment tower fire fuelled by material in building’s walls, Age Vic. (2015). 〈http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/ docklands-apartment-tower-fire-fuelled-by-material-in-buildings-walls-says-mfb-20150427-1mukhx.html〉. [10] E. Antonatus, Facades fire safety aspects in the context of increasing use of thermal insulation, Proceedings of the 13th Interflam Conference, Windsor U.K, 2013. [11] C.W. Staff, Sharjah Al Baker Tower fire caused by cigarette, Construction Week Online 〈http://www.constructionweekonline.com/article-16634-sharjah-al-baker-tower-fire-caused-by-cigarette/〉, 2012. [12] L. Peng, Z. Bu, X. Huang, Review on the fire safety of exterior wall claddings in high-rise buildings in China, Procedia Eng. 62 (2013) 663–670, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.08.112. [13] M. Law, T. O′Brien, Fire safety of bare external structural steel, Constrado, Croydon, U.K, 1981. [14] S. Yokoi, {"}Study on the prevention of fire spread caused by hot upward current{"}, Building Research Institute, Report No 34, Tokyo, Japan, 1960. [15] EN 1991-1-2, Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures, Part 1-2 – General Actions – Actions on Structures Exposed to Fire, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 2002. [16] C.L. Beyler, Fire plumes and ceiling jets, Fire Saf. J. 11 (1986) 53–75, http://dx. doi.org/10.1016/0379-7112(86)90052-4. [17] K. Himoto, T. Tsuchihashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, Modeling thermal behaviors of window flame ejected from a fire compartment, Fire Saf. J. 44 (2009) 230–240, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2008.06.005. [18] S. Klopovic, O.F. Turan, A comprehensive study of externally venting flames, Part I: experimental plume characteristics for through-draft and no through-draft ventilation conditions and repeatability, Fire Saf. J. 36 (2001) 99–133. [19] S. Klopovic, O.F. Turan, A comprehensive study of externally venting flames, Part II: plume envelope and centre-line temperature comparisons, secondary fires, wind effects and smoke management system, Fire Saf. J. 36 (2001) 135–172. [20] I. Oleszkiewicz, Fire exposure to exterior walls and flame spread on combustible cladding, Fire Technol. 26 (1990) 357–375, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01293079. [21] Y. Lee, M.A. Delichatsios, G.W.H. Silcock, Heat flux distribution and flame shapes on the inert fa{\cc}ade, Fire Saf. Sci. 9 (2008) 193–204, http://dx.doi.org/10.3801/IAFSS.FSS.9-193. [22] M.J. Hurley, SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering 5th ed, SFPE, Quincy, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 2016. [23] D. Drysdale, An Introduction in Fire Dynamics, John Wiley, New York, U.S.A., 2011. [24] W. Mower, Window Breakage Induced by Exterior Fires, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD, 1998. [25] M.A. Delichatsios, Flame heights in turbulent wall fires with significant flame radiation, Combust. Sci. Technol. 39 (1984) 195–214, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00102208408923789. [26] H. Morgado, J. Rodrigues, Balcony effect on the external fire spread into upper floors, J. Struct. Fire Eng. 6 (2015) 255–273. [27] C.A. Empis, Analysis of the compartment fire parameters influencing the heat flux incident on the structural fa{\cc}ade, (Ph.D. Thesis), University of Edinburgh, U.K., 2010. [28] H. Huang, R. Ooka, N. Liu, L. Zhang, Z. Deng, S. Kato, Experimental study of fire growth in a reduced scale compartment under different approaching external wind conditions, Fire Saf. J. 44 (2009) 311–321. [29] Y. Ohmiya, T. Tanaka, T. Wakamatsu, A room fire model for predicting fire spread by external flames, Fire Sci. Technol. 18 (1998) 11–21. [30] L.G. Seigel, The projection of flames from burning buildings, Fire Technol. 5 (1969) 43–51, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02591612. [31] C.T. Webster, M.M. Raftery, P.G. Smith, The burning of fires in rooms – Part III, FRN 474, Joint Fire Research Organization, Borehamwood, U.K, 1961. [32] ISO 9705, International Organization for Standardization, ISO 9705 Fire Tests: Full-Scale Room Test for Surface Products, 1st Edition, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993. [33] E.K. Asimakopoulou, K.E. Chotzoglou, D.I. Kolaitis, M.A. Founti, Characteristics of externally venting flames and their effects on the fa{\cc}ade: a detailed experimental study, Fire Technol. 52 (2016) 2043–2069, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10694-016-0575-5. [34] D.I. Kolaitis, E.K. Asimakopoulou, M.A. Founti, A full-scale fire test to investigate the fire behaviour of the ventilated fa{\cc}ade system, in: Proceedings of the 14th Interflam Conference, U.K, 2016. [35] H. Yoshioka, Y. Ohmiya, M. Noak, M. Yoshida, Large-scale fa{\cc}ade tests conducted based on ISO 13785-2 with non combustible fa{\cc}ade specimens, Fire Sci. Technol. 31 (2012) 1–22, http://dx.doi.org/10.3210/fst.31.1.",
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Thermal characteristics of externally venting flames and their effect on the exposed façade surface. / Asimakopoulou, Eleni; Kolaitis, Dionysios; Founti, Maria.

In: Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 91, 07.2017, p. 451-460.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Thermal characteristics of externally venting flames and their effect on the exposed façade surface

AU - Asimakopoulou, Eleni

AU - Kolaitis, Dionysios

AU - Founti, Maria

N1 - Reference text: [1] J. Sun, L. Hu, Y. Zhang, A review on research of fire dynamics in high rise buildings, Theor. Appl. Mech. Lett. 3 (2013) 1–13, http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/2.1304201. [2] J. Glancey, Beijing’s newest skyscraper survives blaze, The Guardian, 〈http://www.theguardian.com/world/2009/feb/11/television-cultural-centre-tower-beijing-fire〉, 2009. [3] M. Gray, Fire breaks out at luxury Dubai skyscraper, CNN, 〈http://edition.cnn.com/2015/02/20/middleeast/dubai-tower-fire/〉, 2015. [4] N. White, M. Delichatsios, Fire Hazards of Exterior Wall Assemblies Containing Combustible Components 1st edition, Springer Briefs in Fire, Springer, 2014. [5] E.K. Asimakopoulou, D.I. Kolaitis, M.A. Founti, Assessment of fire engineering design correlations used to describe the geometry and thermal characteristics of Externally Venting Flames, Fire Technol. 53 (2017) 709–739, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10694-016-0594-2. [6] E.K. Asimakopoulou, D.I. Kolaitis, M.A. Founti, Geometrical characteristics of externally venting flames: assessment of fire engineering correlations using medium-scale compartment façade fire tests, J. Loss Prev. Process Ind. 44 (2016) 780–790, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2016.09.006. [7] E. McKirdy, Huge blaze engulfs residential tower in United Arab Emirates, CNN, 〈http://edition.cnn.com/2016/03/28/middleeast/uae-ajman-tower-blaze/index.html〉, 2016. [8] J. Hanna, A. Fantz, C.E. Sholcet, Fire engulfs downtown Dubai’s high-rise Address hotel, 〈http://edition.cnn.com/2015/12/31/middleeast/dubai-address-hotel-fire/〉, 2016. [9] N. Toscano, R. Spooner, Docklands apartment tower fire fuelled by material in building’s walls, Age Vic. (2015). 〈http://www.theage.com.au/victoria/ docklands-apartment-tower-fire-fuelled-by-material-in-buildings-walls-says-mfb-20150427-1mukhx.html〉. [10] E. Antonatus, Facades fire safety aspects in the context of increasing use of thermal insulation, Proceedings of the 13th Interflam Conference, Windsor U.K, 2013. [11] C.W. Staff, Sharjah Al Baker Tower fire caused by cigarette, Construction Week Online 〈http://www.constructionweekonline.com/article-16634-sharjah-al-baker-tower-fire-caused-by-cigarette/〉, 2012. [12] L. Peng, Z. Bu, X. Huang, Review on the fire safety of exterior wall claddings in high-rise buildings in China, Procedia Eng. 62 (2013) 663–670, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2013.08.112. [13] M. Law, T. O′Brien, Fire safety of bare external structural steel, Constrado, Croydon, U.K, 1981. [14] S. Yokoi, "Study on the prevention of fire spread caused by hot upward current", Building Research Institute, Report No 34, Tokyo, Japan, 1960. [15] EN 1991-1-2, Eurocode 1: Actions on Structures, Part 1-2 – General Actions – Actions on Structures Exposed to Fire, European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium, 2002. [16] C.L. Beyler, Fire plumes and ceiling jets, Fire Saf. J. 11 (1986) 53–75, http://dx. doi.org/10.1016/0379-7112(86)90052-4. [17] K. Himoto, T. Tsuchihashi, Y. Tanaka, T. Tanaka, Modeling thermal behaviors of window flame ejected from a fire compartment, Fire Saf. J. 44 (2009) 230–240, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.firesaf.2008.06.005. [18] S. Klopovic, O.F. Turan, A comprehensive study of externally venting flames, Part I: experimental plume characteristics for through-draft and no through-draft ventilation conditions and repeatability, Fire Saf. J. 36 (2001) 99–133. [19] S. Klopovic, O.F. Turan, A comprehensive study of externally venting flames, Part II: plume envelope and centre-line temperature comparisons, secondary fires, wind effects and smoke management system, Fire Saf. J. 36 (2001) 135–172. [20] I. Oleszkiewicz, Fire exposure to exterior walls and flame spread on combustible cladding, Fire Technol. 26 (1990) 357–375, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF01293079. [21] Y. Lee, M.A. Delichatsios, G.W.H. Silcock, Heat flux distribution and flame shapes on the inert façade, Fire Saf. Sci. 9 (2008) 193–204, http://dx.doi.org/10.3801/IAFSS.FSS.9-193. [22] M.J. Hurley, SFPE Handbook of Fire Protection Engineering 5th ed, SFPE, Quincy, Massachusetts, U.S.A., 2016. [23] D. Drysdale, An Introduction in Fire Dynamics, John Wiley, New York, U.S.A., 2011. [24] W. Mower, Window Breakage Induced by Exterior Fires, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD, 1998. [25] M.A. Delichatsios, Flame heights in turbulent wall fires with significant flame radiation, Combust. Sci. Technol. 39 (1984) 195–214, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00102208408923789. [26] H. Morgado, J. Rodrigues, Balcony effect on the external fire spread into upper floors, J. Struct. Fire Eng. 6 (2015) 255–273. [27] C.A. Empis, Analysis of the compartment fire parameters influencing the heat flux incident on the structural façade, (Ph.D. Thesis), University of Edinburgh, U.K., 2010. [28] H. Huang, R. Ooka, N. Liu, L. Zhang, Z. Deng, S. Kato, Experimental study of fire growth in a reduced scale compartment under different approaching external wind conditions, Fire Saf. J. 44 (2009) 311–321. [29] Y. Ohmiya, T. Tanaka, T. Wakamatsu, A room fire model for predicting fire spread by external flames, Fire Sci. Technol. 18 (1998) 11–21. [30] L.G. Seigel, The projection of flames from burning buildings, Fire Technol. 5 (1969) 43–51, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/BF02591612. [31] C.T. Webster, M.M. Raftery, P.G. Smith, The burning of fires in rooms – Part III, FRN 474, Joint Fire Research Organization, Borehamwood, U.K, 1961. [32] ISO 9705, International Organization for Standardization, ISO 9705 Fire Tests: Full-Scale Room Test for Surface Products, 1st Edition, Geneva, Switzerland, 1993. [33] E.K. Asimakopoulou, K.E. Chotzoglou, D.I. Kolaitis, M.A. Founti, Characteristics of externally venting flames and their effects on the façade: a detailed experimental study, Fire Technol. 52 (2016) 2043–2069, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10694-016-0575-5. [34] D.I. Kolaitis, E.K. Asimakopoulou, M.A. Founti, A full-scale fire test to investigate the fire behaviour of the ventilated façade system, in: Proceedings of the 14th Interflam Conference, U.K, 2016. [35] H. Yoshioka, Y. Ohmiya, M. Noak, M. Yoshida, Large-scale façade tests conducted based on ISO 13785-2 with non combustible façade specimens, Fire Sci. Technol. 31 (2012) 1–22, http://dx.doi.org/10.3210/fst.31.1.

PY - 2017/7

Y1 - 2017/7

N2 - In a compartment fire, Externally Venting Flames (EVF) may significantly increase the risk of firespreading to adjacent floors or buildings, especially when combustible insulation materials are installed onthe building façade. An increasing number of recent reports suggest that existing fire engineering designmethodologies cannot describe with sufficient accuracy the characteristics of EVF under realistic fire loadconditions. In this context, a series of fire safety engineering design correlations used to describe the mainEVF thermal characteristics, namely EVF centreline temperature and EVF-induced heat flux on theexposed façade surface, are comparatively assessed. Towards this end, measurements obtained in amedium- and a large-scale compartment-façade fire test are employed; aiming to broaden the scope of thevalidation study, predictions of the investigated correlations are further compared to measurementsobtained in 6 large-scale fire tests found in the literature. It is found that the correlation proposed inEN1991-1-2 (Eurocode 1) for the estimation of the EVF centreline temperature is under-predicting themeasured values in large-scale fire tests. In addition, it is concluded that estimation of the local flameemissivity should take into account the specific fuel type used in each case.

AB - In a compartment fire, Externally Venting Flames (EVF) may significantly increase the risk of firespreading to adjacent floors or buildings, especially when combustible insulation materials are installed onthe building façade. An increasing number of recent reports suggest that existing fire engineering designmethodologies cannot describe with sufficient accuracy the characteristics of EVF under realistic fire loadconditions. In this context, a series of fire safety engineering design correlations used to describe the mainEVF thermal characteristics, namely EVF centreline temperature and EVF-induced heat flux on theexposed façade surface, are comparatively assessed. Towards this end, measurements obtained in amedium- and a large-scale compartment-façade fire test are employed; aiming to broaden the scope of thevalidation study, predictions of the investigated correlations are further compared to measurementsobtained in 6 large-scale fire tests found in the literature. It is found that the correlation proposed inEN1991-1-2 (Eurocode 1) for the estimation of the EVF centreline temperature is under-predicting themeasured values in large-scale fire tests. In addition, it is concluded that estimation of the local flameemissivity should take into account the specific fuel type used in each case.

KW - compartment fires

KW - heat transfer

KW - externally venting flames

KW - façade fires

KW - Eurocode

U2 - 10.1016/j.firesaf.2017.03.075

DO - 10.1016/j.firesaf.2017.03.075

M3 - Article

VL - 91

SP - 451

EP - 460

JO - Fire Safety Journal

T2 - Fire Safety Journal

JF - Fire Safety Journal

SN - 0379-7112

ER -