Therapeutic potential for GIP receptor agonists and antagonists

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Abstract

Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP or gastric inhibitory polypeptide) is a 42-amino-acid hormone, secreted from the enteroendocrine K cells, which has insulin-releasing and extrapancreatic glucoregulatory actions. However, the unfavourable pharmacokinetic profile and the weak biological effects of native GIP limit its effectiveness for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. To overcome this, longer-acting GIP agonists exhibiting enzymatic stability and enhanced bioactivity have been generated and successfully tested in animal models of diabetes. Thus,GIP receptor agonists offer one of the newest classes of potential antidiabetic drug. GIP is also known to play a role in lipid metabolism and fat deposition. Accordingly, both genetic and chemical ablation of GIP signalling in mice with obesity-diabetes can protect against, or even reverse many of the obesity-associated metabolic disturbances. Strong parallels exist with the beneficial metabolic effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in obese, insulin-resistant humans that surgically ablates GIP-secreting K cells. The purpose of this article is to highlight the therapeutic potential of GIP-based therapeutics in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
LanguageEnglish
Pages499-512
JournalBest Practice and Research: Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume23
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2009

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Obesity
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Enteroendocrine Cells
Gastric Inhibitory Polypeptide
Insulin
Gastric Bypass
Lipid Metabolism
Hypoglycemic Agents
Therapeutics
Animal Models
Pharmacokinetics
Fats
Hormones
Amino Acids
Glucose
Peptides
gastric inhibitory polypeptide receptor

Cite this

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abstract = "Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP or gastric inhibitory polypeptide) is a 42-amino-acid hormone, secreted from the enteroendocrine K cells, which has insulin-releasing and extrapancreatic glucoregulatory actions. However, the unfavourable pharmacokinetic profile and the weak biological effects of native GIP limit its effectiveness for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. To overcome this, longer-acting GIP agonists exhibiting enzymatic stability and enhanced bioactivity have been generated and successfully tested in animal models of diabetes. Thus,GIP receptor agonists offer one of the newest classes of potential antidiabetic drug. GIP is also known to play a role in lipid metabolism and fat deposition. Accordingly, both genetic and chemical ablation of GIP signalling in mice with obesity-diabetes can protect against, or even reverse many of the obesity-associated metabolic disturbances. Strong parallels exist with the beneficial metabolic effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in obese, insulin-resistant humans that surgically ablates GIP-secreting K cells. The purpose of this article is to highlight the therapeutic potential of GIP-based therapeutics in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.",
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AB - Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP or gastric inhibitory polypeptide) is a 42-amino-acid hormone, secreted from the enteroendocrine K cells, which has insulin-releasing and extrapancreatic glucoregulatory actions. However, the unfavourable pharmacokinetic profile and the weak biological effects of native GIP limit its effectiveness for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. To overcome this, longer-acting GIP agonists exhibiting enzymatic stability and enhanced bioactivity have been generated and successfully tested in animal models of diabetes. Thus,GIP receptor agonists offer one of the newest classes of potential antidiabetic drug. GIP is also known to play a role in lipid metabolism and fat deposition. Accordingly, both genetic and chemical ablation of GIP signalling in mice with obesity-diabetes can protect against, or even reverse many of the obesity-associated metabolic disturbances. Strong parallels exist with the beneficial metabolic effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in obese, insulin-resistant humans that surgically ablates GIP-secreting K cells. The purpose of this article is to highlight the therapeutic potential of GIP-based therapeutics in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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