Theoretical analysis on efficiency factor of direct expansion PV/T module for heat pump application

Jian Yao, Erjian Chen, Yanjun Dai, M Huang

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39 Citations (Scopus)
139 Downloads (Pure)


Direct expansion solar assisted PVT (photovoltaic/thermal) heat pump is a combination of PVT technology and heat pump technology, which can improve the comprehensive conversion efficiency of solar energy, and it is suitable for solar heating applications. In this paper, the efficiency factor of direct expansion PVT module employing roll-bond panel has been theoretically derived, modified, and validated by experimental results. Moreover, the efficiency factor could be used to design, evaluate, and optimize the thermal performance of direct expansion solar assisted heat pump systems. In addition, parameter analysis of four evaporator unit types has been conducted, and the recommendation values of each parameter have also been presented. The simulation results show that the roll-bond evaporator (fluid channel width: 10 mm) with hexagon and rectangle patterns have better temperature distribution uniformity than grid and linear types, and their temperature differences are both 0.038 °C while their dimensionless pressure losses are 0.109 and 0.230, respectively. To specifically design different kinds of PVT collector/evaporator or direct expansion evaporators, a novel design method for roll-bond evaporator is proposed, and a combination of hexagon and grid types is recommended for PVT module. Moreover, the recommendation fluid channel width of the roll-bond panel is 8 mm to 13 mm while the scaling ratio is 0.8 to 1.2. The modified efficiency factors are 0.521, 0.564, 0.549, and 0.342 of hexagon, grid, rectangle, and linear types when the fluid channel width is 10 mm, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)677-694
Number of pages18
JournalSolar Energy
Early online date20 Jun 2020
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 31 Aug 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This research work is funded by the International Research Cooperation Program of Shanghai (Grant No. 18160710500 ).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 International Solar Energy Society

Copyright 2020 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • solar energy
  • Direct expansion
  • PVT
  • efficiency factor
  • roll-bond panel
  • channel design method
  • Channel design method
  • Solar energy
  • Efficiency factor
  • Roll-bond panel


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