The X-Factor: An evaluation of common methods used to analyse major inter-segment kinematics during the golf swing

Susan J. Brown, W. Scott Selbie, Eric S. Wallace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A common biomechanical feature of a golf swing, described in various ways in the literature, is the interaction between the thorax and pelvis, often termed the X-Factor. There is no consistent method used within golf biomechanics literature however to calculate these segment interactions. The purpose of this study was to examine X-factor data calculated using three reported methods in order to determine the similarity or otherwise of the data calculated using each method. A twelvecamera three-dimensional motion capture system was used to capture the driver swings of 19 participants and a subject specific three-dimensional biomechanical model was created with the position and orientation of each model estimated using a global optimisation algorithm. Comparison of the X-Factor methods showed significant differences for events during the swing (P <0.05). Data for each kinematic measure were derived as a times series for all three methods and regression analysis of these data showed that whilst one method could be successfully mapped to another, the mappings between methods are subject dependent (P
LanguageEnglish
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 6 Mar 2013

Fingerprint

Golf
Biomechanical Phenomena
hexachlorocyclohexane x-factor
Pelvis
Thorax
Regression Analysis

Keywords

  • X-Factor
  • pelvis
  • thorax
  • methods
  • golf

Cite this

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title = "The X-Factor: An evaluation of common methods used to analyse major inter-segment kinematics during the golf swing",
abstract = "A common biomechanical feature of a golf swing, described in various ways in the literature, is the interaction between the thorax and pelvis, often termed the X-Factor. There is no consistent method used within golf biomechanics literature however to calculate these segment interactions. The purpose of this study was to examine X-factor data calculated using three reported methods in order to determine the similarity or otherwise of the data calculated using each method. A twelvecamera three-dimensional motion capture system was used to capture the driver swings of 19 participants and a subject specific three-dimensional biomechanical model was created with the position and orientation of each model estimated using a global optimisation algorithm. Comparison of the X-Factor methods showed significant differences for events during the swing (P <0.05). Data for each kinematic measure were derived as a times series for all three methods and regression analysis of these data showed that whilst one method could be successfully mapped to another, the mappings between methods are subject dependent (P",
keywords = "X-Factor, pelvis, thorax, methods, golf",
author = "Brown, {Susan J.} and Selbie, {W. Scott} and Wallace, {Eric S.}",
note = "Reference text: Aguinaldo, A. L., Buttermore, J., & Chambers, H. (2007). Effects of upper trunk rotation on shoulder joint torque among baseball pitchers of various abilities. Journal of Applied Biomechanics, 23, 42–51. Baker, R. (2001). Pelvic angles: A mathematically rigorous definition which is consistent with a conventional clinical understanding of the terms. Gait and Posture, 13(1), 1–6. Betzler, N. F., Monk, S. A., Wallace, E. S., & Otto, S. R. (2012). Variability in clubhead presentation characteristics and ball impact location for golfers’ drives. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30(5), 439–448. Brown, S. J., Nevill, A. M., Monk, S. A., Otto, S. R., Selbie, W. S., & Wallace, E. S. (2011). Determination of the swing technique characteristics and performance outcome relationship in golf driving for low handicap female golfers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29(14), 1483–1491. Cappozzo, A., Della Croce, U., Leardini, A., & Chiari, L. (2005). Human movement analysis using stereophotogrammetry. Part 1: Theoretical background. Gait and Posture, 21(2), 186–196. Cheetham, P. J., Martin, P. E., Mottram, R. E., & St Laurent, B. F. (2001). The importance of stretching the ‘X-Factor’ in the downswing of golf: ‘The X-Factor stretch’. In: P. R. Thomas (Ed.), Optimising performance in golf (pp. 192–199). Brisbane: Australian Academic Press. Chu, Y., Sell, T. C., & Lephart, S. M. (2010). The relationship between biomechanical variables and driving performance during the golf swing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 2 (11), 1251–1259. Cole, M. H., & Grimshaw, P. N. (2009). The X-Factor and its relationship to golfing performance. Journal of Quantitative Analysis in Sports, 5(1), article 9. Coleman, S. G., & Rankin, A. J. (2005). A three-dimensional examination of the planar nature of the golf swing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(3), 227–234. Egret, C. I., Nicolle, B., Dujardin, F. H., Weber, J., & Chollet, D. (2006). Kinematic analysis of the golf swing in men and women experienced golfers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 27 (6), 463–467. Horan, S. A., Evans, K., & Kavanagh, J. J. (2011). Movement variability in the golf swing of male and female skilled golfers. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(8), 1474–1483. Horan, S. A., Evans, K., Morris, N. R., & Kavanagh, J. J. (2010). Thorax and pelvis kinematics during the downswing of male and female skilled golfers. Journal of Biomechanics, 43(8), 1456–1462. Horan, S. A., & Kavanagh, J. J. (2012). The control of upper body segment speed and velocity during the golf swing. Sports Biomechanics, 11(2), 165–174. Hume, P. A., Keogh, J., & Reid, D. (2005). The role of biomechanics in maximising distance and accuracy of golf shots. Sports Medicine, 35(5), 429–449. Joyce, C., Burnett, A., & Ball, K. (2010). Methodological considerations for the 3D measurement of the X-Factor and lower trunk movement in golf. Sports Biomechanics, 9 (3), 206–221. Leardini, A., Biagi, F., Belvedere, C., & Benedetti, M. G. (2009). Quantitative comparison of current models for trunk motion in human movement analysis. Clinical Biomechanics, 24, 542–550. Lees, A., Barton, G., & Robinson, M. (2010). The influence of Cardan rotation sequence on angular orientation data for the lower limb in the soccer kick. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28(4), 445–450. Lu, T. W., & O’Connor, J. J. (1999). Bone position estimation from skin marker coordinates using global optimization with joint constraints. Journal of Biomechanics, 32, 129–134. MacKenzie, S. J., & Sprigings, E. J. (2009). A three-dimensional forwards dynamics model of the golf swing. Sports Engineering, 11, 165–175. Myers, J., Lephart, S., Tsai, Y. S., Sell, T., Smoliga, J., & Jolly, J. (2008). The role of upper torso and pelvis rotation in driving performance during the golf swing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 26 (2), 181–188. Wheat, J. S., Vernon, T., & Milner, C. E. (2007). The measurement of upper body alignment in the golf drive. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25(7), 749–755. Zheng, N., Barrentine, S. W., Fleisig, G. S., & Andrews, J. R. (2008a). Swing kinematics for male and female pro golfers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29(6), 487–493. Zheng, N., Barrentine, S. W., Fleisig, G. S., & Andrews, J. R. (2008b). Kinematic analysis for male and female pro golfers. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 29(12), 965–970.",
year = "2013",
month = "3",
day = "6",
doi = "10.1080/02640414.2013.775474",
language = "English",
journal = "Journal of Sports Sciences",
issn = "0264-0414",

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The X-Factor: An evaluation of common methods used to analyse major inter-segment kinematics during the golf swing. / Brown, Susan J.; Selbie, W. Scott; Wallace, Eric S.

In: Journal of Sports Sciences, 06.03.2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Brown, Susan J.

AU - Selbie, W. Scott

AU - Wallace, Eric S.

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