The validity and responsiveness of isometric lower body multi–joint tests of muscular strength: A Systematic Review

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Abstract

Background Researchers and practitioner’s working in sports medicine and science require valid tests to determine the effectiveness of interventions and enhance understanding of mechanisms underpinning adaptation. Such decision making is influenced by the supportive evidence describing the validity of tests within current research. Objective To review the validity of lower body isometric multi-joint tests ability to assess muscular strength and determine the current level of evidence.Methods Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed in a systematic fashion to search, assess and synthesize existing literature on this topic. Electronic databases Web of Science, CINAHL and PubMed were searched up to 18 March 2015. Potential inclusions were screened against eligibility criteria relating to types of test, measurement instrument, properties of validity assessed, population group and were required to be published in English. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to assess methodological quality and measurement properties rating of included studies. Studies rated as fair or better in methodological quality were included in the best evidence synthesis.Results Fifty nine studies met the eligibility criteria for quality appraisal. The ten studies that rated fair or better in methodological quality were included in the best evidence synthesis. The most frequently investigated lower body isometric multi-joint tests for validity were the isometric mid-thigh pull and isometric squat. The validity of these tests was strong in terms of reliability and construct validity. The evidence for responsiveness of tests was found to be moderate for the isometric squat test and unknown for the isometric mid-thigh pull. No tests using the isometric leg press met the criteria for inclusion in the best evidence synthesis. Conclusions Researchers and practitioners can use the isometric squat and isometric mid-thigh pull with confidence in terms of reliability and construct validity. Further work to investigate other validity components such as criterion validity, smallest detectable change and responsiveness to resistance exercise interventions may be beneficial to the current level of evidence.
LanguageEnglish
JournalSports Medicine - Open
Volume1
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 8 Jun 2017

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Reproducibility of Results
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Keywords

  • Isometric

Cite this

@article{6e47ba611a9248f6a0297b5279b8c12a,
title = "The validity and responsiveness of isometric lower body multi–joint tests of muscular strength: A Systematic Review",
abstract = "Background Researchers and practitioner’s working in sports medicine and science require valid tests to determine the effectiveness of interventions and enhance understanding of mechanisms underpinning adaptation. Such decision making is influenced by the supportive evidence describing the validity of tests within current research. Objective To review the validity of lower body isometric multi-joint tests ability to assess muscular strength and determine the current level of evidence.Methods Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed in a systematic fashion to search, assess and synthesize existing literature on this topic. Electronic databases Web of Science, CINAHL and PubMed were searched up to 18 March 2015. Potential inclusions were screened against eligibility criteria relating to types of test, measurement instrument, properties of validity assessed, population group and were required to be published in English. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to assess methodological quality and measurement properties rating of included studies. Studies rated as fair or better in methodological quality were included in the best evidence synthesis.Results Fifty nine studies met the eligibility criteria for quality appraisal. The ten studies that rated fair or better in methodological quality were included in the best evidence synthesis. The most frequently investigated lower body isometric multi-joint tests for validity were the isometric mid-thigh pull and isometric squat. The validity of these tests was strong in terms of reliability and construct validity. The evidence for responsiveness of tests was found to be moderate for the isometric squat test and unknown for the isometric mid-thigh pull. No tests using the isometric leg press met the criteria for inclusion in the best evidence synthesis. Conclusions Researchers and practitioners can use the isometric squat and isometric mid-thigh pull with confidence in terms of reliability and construct validity. Further work to investigate other validity components such as criterion validity, smallest detectable change and responsiveness to resistance exercise interventions may be beneficial to the current level of evidence.",
keywords = "Isometric",
author = "David Drake and Rodney Kennedy and Wallace, {Eric S}",
note = "Reference text: 1. West DJ, Owen NJ, Jones MR, et al. Relationships between force-time characteristics of the isometric midthigh pull and dynamic performance in professional rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(11):3070-5. 2. Abernethy P, Wilson G, Logan P. Strength and power assessment - issues, controversies and challenges. Sports Med. 1995;19(6):401-17. 3. Tillin NA, Pain MTG, Folland J. Explosive force production during isometric squats correlates with athletic performance in rugby union players. J Sports Sci. 2013;31(1):66-76. 4. Gentil P, Fisher J, Steele J. A review of the acute effects and long-term adaptations of single and multi-Joint exercises during resistance training. Sports Med. 2017;47(5):834-55. 5. Judge LW, Wildeman JN, Bellar DM. Designing an effective preactivity warm-up routine for the 1 repetition maximum back squat. Strength Cond J. 2011;33(1):88-90. 6. Jidovtseff B, Croisier JL, Scimar N, et al. The ability of isoinertial assessment to monitor specific training effects. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2008;48(1):55-64. 7. Verdera F, Champavier L, Schmidt C, et al. Reliability and validity of a new device to measure isometric strength in polyarticular exercises. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1999;39(2):113-9. 8. Loturco I, Pereira LF, Cal Abad CC, et al. Using bar velocity to predict the maximum dynamic strength in the half-squat exercise. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11(5):697-700. 9. McMaster DT, Gill N, Cronin J, et al. A brief review of strength and ballistic assessment methodologies in sport. Sports Med. 2014;44(5):603-23. 10. Soares-Caldeira LF, Ritti-Dias RM, Okuno NM, et al. Familiarization indexes in sessions of 1-RM tests in adult women. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(7):2039-45. 11. Cronin JB, Henderson ME. Maximal strength and power assessment in novice weight trainers. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(1):48-52. 12. Ritti-Dias RM, Avelar A, Salvador EP, et al. Influence of previous experience on resistance training on reliability of one-repetition maximum test. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(5):1418-22. 13. Eston R, Evans HJL. The validity of submaximal ratings of perceived exertion to predict one repetition maximum. J Sport Sci Med. 2009;8(4):567-73. 14. McGuigan MR, Winchester JB. The relationship between isometric and dynamic strength in college football players. J Sport Sci Med. 2008;7(1):101-5. 15. Bazyler CD, Beckham GK, Sato K. The use of the isometric squat as a measure of strength and explosiveness. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(5):1386-92. 16. Spiteri T, Nimphius S, Hart NH, et al. Contribution of strength characteristics to change of direction and agility performance in female basketball athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(9):2415-23. 17. Young W, McLean B, Ardagna J. Relationship between strength qualities and sprinting performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1995;35(1):13-9. 18. Davidson M, Keating J. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs): how should I interpret reports of measurement properties? A practical guide for clinicians and researchers who are not biostatisticians. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(9):792-6. 19. Mokkink LB, Terwee CB, Patrick DL, et al. The COSMIN study reached international consensus on taxonomy, terminology, and definitions of measurement properties for health-related patient-reported outcomes. J Clin Epidemiol. 2010;63(7):737-45. 20. Terwee CB, Bot SDM, de Boer MR, et al. Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. J Clin Epidemiol. 2007;60(1):34-42. 21. Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration. BMJ. 2009;339. 22. Terwee CB, Mokkink LB, Knol DL, et al. Rating the methodological quality in systematic reviews of studies on measurement properties: a scoring system for the COSMIN checklist. Qual Life Res. 2012;21(4):651-7. 23. Terwee CB, Jansma EP, Riphagen I, et al. Development of a methodological PubMed search filter for finding studies on measurement properties of measurement instruments. Qual Life Res. 2009;18(8):1115-23. 24. Utter A, Stone M, O'Bryant H, et al. Sport-seasonal changes in body composition, strength, and power of college wrestlers. J Strength Cond Res. 1998;12(4):266-71. 25. James LP, Roberts LA, Haff GG, et al. The validity and reliability of a portable isometric mid-thigh clean pull. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(5):1378-86. 26. Sampson M, McGowan J, Cogo E, et al. An evidence-based practice guideline for the peer review of electronic search strategies. J Clin Epidemiol. 2009;62(9):944-52. 27. Hopkins WG. How to interpret changes in an athletic performance test. Sportscience. 2004;8(1):1-7. 28. Stone M, Plisk S, Collins D. Training principles: evaluation of modes and methods of resistance training- a coaching perspective. Sports Biomech. 2002;1(1):79-103. 29. Winchester JB, McBride JM, Maher MA, et al. Eight weeks of ballistic exercise improves power independently of changes in strength and muscle fiber type expression. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(6):1728-34. 30. van Kampen DA, Willems WJ, van Beers LWAH, et al. Determination and comparison of the smallest detectable change (SDC) and the minimal important change (MIC) of four-shoulder patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). J Orthop Surg Res. 2013;8(1):1-9. 31. De Vet HC, Terwee CB, Mokkink LB, et al. Measurement in medicine: a practical guide: Cambridge University Press; 2011. 32. Kroman SL, Roos EM, Bennell KL, et al. Measurement properties of performance-based outcome measures to assess physical function in young and middle-aged people known to be at high risk of hip and/or knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2014;22(1):26-39. 33. Deschenes MR, Kraemer WJ. Performance and physiologic adaptations to resistance training. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;81(11):S3-S16. 34. Kraemer WJ, Adams K, Cafarelli E, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(2):364-80. 35. Peterson MD, Rhea MR, Alvar BA. Maximizing strength development in athletes: a meta-analysis to determine the dose-response relationship. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(2):377-82. 36. Wernbom M, Augustsson J, Thome{\'e} R. The influence of frequency, intensity, volume and mode of strength training on whole muscle cross-sectional area in humans. Sports Med. 2007;37(3):225-64. 37. Ratamess NA, Brent AA, Evetoch TK, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(3):687. 38. Dos'Santos T, Jones PA, Kelly J, et al. Effect of sampling frequency on isometric mid-thigh pull kinetics. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11(2):255-60. 39. Stone MH, Sands WA, Carlock J, et al. The importance of isometric maximum strength and peak rate of force development in sprint cycling. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(4):878-84. 40. Kraska JM, Ramsey MW, Haff GG, et al. Relationship between strength characteristics and unweighted and weighted vertical jump height. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2009;4(4):461-73. 41. Storey A, Wong S, Smith HK, et al. Divergent muscle functional and architectural responses to two successive high intensity resistance exercise sessions in competitive weightlifters and resistance trained adults. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112(10):3629-39. 42. Markovic G. Poor relationship between strength and power qualities and agility performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2007;47(3):276-83. 43. Markovic G, Jaric S. Movement performance and body size: the relationship for different groups of tests. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;92(1):139-49. 44. Markovic G, Jukic I, Milanovic D, et al. Effects of sprint and plyometric training on muscle function and athletic performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(2):543-9. 45. Granacher U, Muehlbauer T, Doerflinger B, et al. Promoting strength and balance in adolescents during physical education: effects of a short-term resistance training. Int J Sports Med. 2011;25(4):940-9. 46. Bazyler CD, Sato K, Wassinger CA, et al. The efficacy of incorporating partial squats in maximal strength training. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(11):3024-32. 47. Comfort P, Jones PA, McMahon JJ, et al. Effect of knee and trunk angle on kinetic variables during the isometric midthigh pull: test-retest reliability. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015;10(1):58-63. 48. Rahmani A, Viale F, Dalleau G, et al. Force/velocity and power/velocity relationships in squat exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;84(3):227-32 49. Sheppard JM, Nimphius S, Haff GG, et al. Development of a comprehensive performance-testing protocol for competitive surfers. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8(5):490-5. 50. Blazevich AJ, Gill N, Newton RU. Reliability and validity of two isometric squat tests. J Strength Cond Res. 2002;16(2):298-304. 51. Thomas C, Comfort P, Chiang C, et al. Relationship between isometric mid thigh pull variables and sprint and change of direction performance in collegiate athletes. J Trainology. 2015;4(1):6-10. 52. Thomas C, Jones PA, Comfort P. Reliability of the dynamic strength index in collegiate athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015;10(5):542-5. 53. Thomas C, Jones PA, Rothwell J, et al. An investigation into the relationship between maximum isometric strength and vertical jump performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(8):2176-85. 54. Crewther BT, Kilduff LP, Cook CJ, et al. Scaling strength and power for body mass differences in rugby union players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2012;52(1):27-32. 55. Bazyler CD, Bailey CA, Chiang C, et al. The effects of strength training on isometric force production symmetry in recreationally trained males. J Trainology. 2014;3(1):6-10. 56. Beckham G, Mizuguchi S, Carter C, et al. Relationships of isometric mid-thigh pull variables to weightlifting performance. J Sports Med Phys Fit. 2013;53(5):573-81. 57. Cormie P, Deane RS, Triplett NT, et al. Acute effects of whole-body vibration on muscle activity, strength, and power. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(2):257-61. 58. Dumke CL, Pfaffenroth CM, McBride JM, et al. Relationship between muscle strength, power and stiffness and running economy in trained male runners. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2010;5(2):249-61. 59. Haff GG, Carlock JM, Hartman MJ, et al. Force-time curve characteristics of dynamic and isometric muscle actions of elite women olympic weightlifters. 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year = "2017",
month = "6",
day = "8",
language = "English",
volume = "1",
journal = "Sports Medicine - Open",
issn = "2199-1170",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - The validity and responsiveness of isometric lower body multi–joint tests of muscular strength: A Systematic Review

AU - Drake, David

AU - Kennedy, Rodney

AU - Wallace, Eric S

N1 - Reference text: 1. West DJ, Owen NJ, Jones MR, et al. Relationships between force-time characteristics of the isometric midthigh pull and dynamic performance in professional rugby league players. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(11):3070-5. 2. Abernethy P, Wilson G, Logan P. Strength and power assessment - issues, controversies and challenges. Sports Med. 1995;19(6):401-17. 3. Tillin NA, Pain MTG, Folland J. Explosive force production during isometric squats correlates with athletic performance in rugby union players. J Sports Sci. 2013;31(1):66-76. 4. Gentil P, Fisher J, Steele J. A review of the acute effects and long-term adaptations of single and multi-Joint exercises during resistance training. Sports Med. 2017;47(5):834-55. 5. Judge LW, Wildeman JN, Bellar DM. Designing an effective preactivity warm-up routine for the 1 repetition maximum back squat. Strength Cond J. 2011;33(1):88-90. 6. Jidovtseff B, Croisier JL, Scimar N, et al. The ability of isoinertial assessment to monitor specific training effects. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2008;48(1):55-64. 7. Verdera F, Champavier L, Schmidt C, et al. Reliability and validity of a new device to measure isometric strength in polyarticular exercises. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1999;39(2):113-9. 8. Loturco I, Pereira LF, Cal Abad CC, et al. Using bar velocity to predict the maximum dynamic strength in the half-squat exercise. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11(5):697-700. 9. McMaster DT, Gill N, Cronin J, et al. A brief review of strength and ballistic assessment methodologies in sport. Sports Med. 2014;44(5):603-23. 10. Soares-Caldeira LF, Ritti-Dias RM, Okuno NM, et al. Familiarization indexes in sessions of 1-RM tests in adult women. J Strength Cond Res. 2009;23(7):2039-45. 11. Cronin JB, Henderson ME. Maximal strength and power assessment in novice weight trainers. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(1):48-52. 12. Ritti-Dias RM, Avelar A, Salvador EP, et al. Influence of previous experience on resistance training on reliability of one-repetition maximum test. J Strength Cond Res. 2011;25(5):1418-22. 13. Eston R, Evans HJL. The validity of submaximal ratings of perceived exertion to predict one repetition maximum. J Sport Sci Med. 2009;8(4):567-73. 14. McGuigan MR, Winchester JB. The relationship between isometric and dynamic strength in college football players. J Sport Sci Med. 2008;7(1):101-5. 15. Bazyler CD, Beckham GK, Sato K. The use of the isometric squat as a measure of strength and explosiveness. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(5):1386-92. 16. Spiteri T, Nimphius S, Hart NH, et al. Contribution of strength characteristics to change of direction and agility performance in female basketball athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(9):2415-23. 17. Young W, McLean B, Ardagna J. Relationship between strength qualities and sprinting performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1995;35(1):13-9. 18. Davidson M, Keating J. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs): how should I interpret reports of measurement properties? A practical guide for clinicians and researchers who are not biostatisticians. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(9):792-6. 19. Mokkink LB, Terwee CB, Patrick DL, et al. The COSMIN study reached international consensus on taxonomy, terminology, and definitions of measurement properties for health-related patient-reported outcomes. J Clin Epidemiol. 2010;63(7):737-45. 20. Terwee CB, Bot SDM, de Boer MR, et al. Quality criteria were proposed for measurement properties of health status questionnaires. J Clin Epidemiol. 2007;60(1):34-42. 21. Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, et al. The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: explanation and elaboration. BMJ. 2009;339. 22. Terwee CB, Mokkink LB, Knol DL, et al. Rating the methodological quality in systematic reviews of studies on measurement properties: a scoring system for the COSMIN checklist. Qual Life Res. 2012;21(4):651-7. 23. Terwee CB, Jansma EP, Riphagen I, et al. Development of a methodological PubMed search filter for finding studies on measurement properties of measurement instruments. Qual Life Res. 2009;18(8):1115-23. 24. Utter A, Stone M, O'Bryant H, et al. Sport-seasonal changes in body composition, strength, and power of college wrestlers. J Strength Cond Res. 1998;12(4):266-71. 25. James LP, Roberts LA, Haff GG, et al. The validity and reliability of a portable isometric mid-thigh clean pull. J Strength Cond Res. 2017;31(5):1378-86. 26. Sampson M, McGowan J, Cogo E, et al. An evidence-based practice guideline for the peer review of electronic search strategies. J Clin Epidemiol. 2009;62(9):944-52. 27. Hopkins WG. How to interpret changes in an athletic performance test. Sportscience. 2004;8(1):1-7. 28. Stone M, Plisk S, Collins D. Training principles: evaluation of modes and methods of resistance training- a coaching perspective. Sports Biomech. 2002;1(1):79-103. 29. Winchester JB, McBride JM, Maher MA, et al. Eight weeks of ballistic exercise improves power independently of changes in strength and muscle fiber type expression. J Strength Cond Res. 2008;22(6):1728-34. 30. van Kampen DA, Willems WJ, van Beers LWAH, et al. Determination and comparison of the smallest detectable change (SDC) and the minimal important change (MIC) of four-shoulder patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs). J Orthop Surg Res. 2013;8(1):1-9. 31. De Vet HC, Terwee CB, Mokkink LB, et al. Measurement in medicine: a practical guide: Cambridge University Press; 2011. 32. Kroman SL, Roos EM, Bennell KL, et al. Measurement properties of performance-based outcome measures to assess physical function in young and middle-aged people known to be at high risk of hip and/or knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2014;22(1):26-39. 33. Deschenes MR, Kraemer WJ. Performance and physiologic adaptations to resistance training. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2002;81(11):S3-S16. 34. Kraemer WJ, Adams K, Cafarelli E, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2002;34(2):364-80. 35. Peterson MD, Rhea MR, Alvar BA. Maximizing strength development in athletes: a meta-analysis to determine the dose-response relationship. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(2):377-82. 36. Wernbom M, Augustsson J, Thomeé R. The influence of frequency, intensity, volume and mode of strength training on whole muscle cross-sectional area in humans. Sports Med. 2007;37(3):225-64. 37. Ratamess NA, Brent AA, Evetoch TK, et al. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Progression models in resistance training for healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(3):687. 38. Dos'Santos T, Jones PA, Kelly J, et al. Effect of sampling frequency on isometric mid-thigh pull kinetics. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2016;11(2):255-60. 39. Stone MH, Sands WA, Carlock J, et al. The importance of isometric maximum strength and peak rate of force development in sprint cycling. J Strength Cond Res. 2004;18(4):878-84. 40. Kraska JM, Ramsey MW, Haff GG, et al. Relationship between strength characteristics and unweighted and weighted vertical jump height. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2009;4(4):461-73. 41. Storey A, Wong S, Smith HK, et al. Divergent muscle functional and architectural responses to two successive high intensity resistance exercise sessions in competitive weightlifters and resistance trained adults. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2012;112(10):3629-39. 42. Markovic G. Poor relationship between strength and power qualities and agility performance. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2007;47(3):276-83. 43. Markovic G, Jaric S. Movement performance and body size: the relationship for different groups of tests. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2004;92(1):139-49. 44. Markovic G, Jukic I, Milanovic D, et al. Effects of sprint and plyometric training on muscle function and athletic performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2007;21(2):543-9. 45. Granacher U, Muehlbauer T, Doerflinger B, et al. Promoting strength and balance in adolescents during physical education: effects of a short-term resistance training. Int J Sports Med. 2011;25(4):940-9. 46. Bazyler CD, Sato K, Wassinger CA, et al. The efficacy of incorporating partial squats in maximal strength training. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(11):3024-32. 47. Comfort P, Jones PA, McMahon JJ, et al. Effect of knee and trunk angle on kinetic variables during the isometric midthigh pull: test-retest reliability. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015;10(1):58-63. 48. Rahmani A, Viale F, Dalleau G, et al. Force/velocity and power/velocity relationships in squat exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;84(3):227-32 49. Sheppard JM, Nimphius S, Haff GG, et al. Development of a comprehensive performance-testing protocol for competitive surfers. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2013;8(5):490-5. 50. Blazevich AJ, Gill N, Newton RU. Reliability and validity of two isometric squat tests. J Strength Cond Res. 2002;16(2):298-304. 51. Thomas C, Comfort P, Chiang C, et al. Relationship between isometric mid thigh pull variables and sprint and change of direction performance in collegiate athletes. J Trainology. 2015;4(1):6-10. 52. Thomas C, Jones PA, Comfort P. Reliability of the dynamic strength index in collegiate athletes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. 2015;10(5):542-5. 53. Thomas C, Jones PA, Rothwell J, et al. An investigation into the relationship between maximum isometric strength and vertical jump performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2015;29(8):2176-85. 54. Crewther BT, Kilduff LP, Cook CJ, et al. Scaling strength and power for body mass differences in rugby union players. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2012;52(1):27-32. 55. 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PY - 2017/6/8

Y1 - 2017/6/8

N2 - Background Researchers and practitioner’s working in sports medicine and science require valid tests to determine the effectiveness of interventions and enhance understanding of mechanisms underpinning adaptation. Such decision making is influenced by the supportive evidence describing the validity of tests within current research. Objective To review the validity of lower body isometric multi-joint tests ability to assess muscular strength and determine the current level of evidence.Methods Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed in a systematic fashion to search, assess and synthesize existing literature on this topic. Electronic databases Web of Science, CINAHL and PubMed were searched up to 18 March 2015. Potential inclusions were screened against eligibility criteria relating to types of test, measurement instrument, properties of validity assessed, population group and were required to be published in English. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to assess methodological quality and measurement properties rating of included studies. Studies rated as fair or better in methodological quality were included in the best evidence synthesis.Results Fifty nine studies met the eligibility criteria for quality appraisal. The ten studies that rated fair or better in methodological quality were included in the best evidence synthesis. The most frequently investigated lower body isometric multi-joint tests for validity were the isometric mid-thigh pull and isometric squat. The validity of these tests was strong in terms of reliability and construct validity. The evidence for responsiveness of tests was found to be moderate for the isometric squat test and unknown for the isometric mid-thigh pull. No tests using the isometric leg press met the criteria for inclusion in the best evidence synthesis. Conclusions Researchers and practitioners can use the isometric squat and isometric mid-thigh pull with confidence in terms of reliability and construct validity. Further work to investigate other validity components such as criterion validity, smallest detectable change and responsiveness to resistance exercise interventions may be beneficial to the current level of evidence.

AB - Background Researchers and practitioner’s working in sports medicine and science require valid tests to determine the effectiveness of interventions and enhance understanding of mechanisms underpinning adaptation. Such decision making is influenced by the supportive evidence describing the validity of tests within current research. Objective To review the validity of lower body isometric multi-joint tests ability to assess muscular strength and determine the current level of evidence.Methods Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were followed in a systematic fashion to search, assess and synthesize existing literature on this topic. Electronic databases Web of Science, CINAHL and PubMed were searched up to 18 March 2015. Potential inclusions were screened against eligibility criteria relating to types of test, measurement instrument, properties of validity assessed, population group and were required to be published in English. The Consensus-based Standards for the Selection of health Measurement Instruments (COSMIN) checklist was used to assess methodological quality and measurement properties rating of included studies. Studies rated as fair or better in methodological quality were included in the best evidence synthesis.Results Fifty nine studies met the eligibility criteria for quality appraisal. The ten studies that rated fair or better in methodological quality were included in the best evidence synthesis. The most frequently investigated lower body isometric multi-joint tests for validity were the isometric mid-thigh pull and isometric squat. The validity of these tests was strong in terms of reliability and construct validity. The evidence for responsiveness of tests was found to be moderate for the isometric squat test and unknown for the isometric mid-thigh pull. No tests using the isometric leg press met the criteria for inclusion in the best evidence synthesis. Conclusions Researchers and practitioners can use the isometric squat and isometric mid-thigh pull with confidence in terms of reliability and construct validity. Further work to investigate other validity components such as criterion validity, smallest detectable change and responsiveness to resistance exercise interventions may be beneficial to the current level of evidence.

KW - Isometric

M3 - Article

VL - 1

JO - Sports Medicine - Open

T2 - Sports Medicine - Open

JF - Sports Medicine - Open

SN - 2199-1170

ER -