The use of conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence (CUVAF) as a biomarker of time spent outdoors.

Stephanie Kearney, Lisa O'Donoghue, L. Kirsty Pourshahidi, Patrick Richardson, Kathryn J Saunders

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: CUVAF has been used in previous Southern Hemisphere myopia research as a marker for time spent outdoors. The validity of CUVAF as an indicator of time spent outdoors is yet to be explored in the Northern Hemisphere. It is unclear if CUVAF represents damage attributed to UV exposure or dry eye. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between CUVAF measures, self-reported time spent outdoors and measures of dry eye.Methods: Participants were recruited from University staff and students (n=50, 19-64yrs; mean 41). None were using topical ocular medications (with the exception of dry eye treatments). Sun exposure and dry eye questionnaires (Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and McMonnies) were completed by the participant. Dryness was also assessed using slit lamp biomicroscopy and invasive tear break up time (ITBUT). Images of the temporal and nasal conjunctiva from the right and left eye were captured using a bespoke photography system. The total CUVAF area, average CUVAF pixel intensity per mm2 and total CUVAF pixel intensity were analysed using MATLAB R2013a (The MathWorks Inc).Results: Of the 50 participants, 42% were classified as having dry eye. Self-reported sunglass use was negatively associated with all CUVAF measures (Kruskal Wallis total CUVAF area, p=0.04, ptrend=0.03, average CUVAF pixel intensity p=0.02, ptrend= 0.02, total CUVAF pixel intensity: p=0.04, ptrend=0.02). Time spent outdoors was positively associated with all CUVAF measures (Spearman’s corr. total CUVAF area: r=0.37, p=0.01, average CUVAF pixel intensity: r=0.36, p=0.01, total CUVAF pixel intensity: r=0.37, p=0.01) and remained significant when sunglass use was controlled for (partial correlation, total CUVAF area: r=0.32, p=0.03, average CUVAF pixel intensity: r=0.39, p=0.01, total CUVAF pixel intensity: r=0.39, p=0.03). Neither CUVAF area nor intensity measures were associated with any dry eye measure (OSDI: all p≥0.41, corneal staining: all p≥0.38, McMonnies: all r≤0.09 all p≥0.52, slit lamp biomicroscopy: all r≤0.20 all p≥0.17, ITBUT: all r≤-0.07 all p≥0.31).Conclusions: CUVAF area and intensity were not associated with clinical measures of dry eye. Greater CUVAF area and intensity were associated with wearing sunglasses less frequently and spending more time outdoors. If sunglass wear is accounted for, CUVAF may be a useful biomarker of time spent outdoors in future myopia studies.
LanguageEnglish
Pages359-359
JournalOphthalmic and Physiological Optics
Volume36
Issue number4
Early online date28 Jun 2016
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 28 Jun 2016

Fingerprint

Biomarkers
Eye Diseases
Myopia
Tears
Photography
Conjunctiva
Solar System
Nose
Cross-Sectional Studies
Staining and Labeling
Students
Research

Keywords

  • myopia
  • autofluorescence
  • dry eye

Cite this

@article{857abdacdcd045da9f101ba26139f57a,
title = "The use of conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence (CUVAF) as a biomarker of time spent outdoors.",
abstract = "Purpose: CUVAF has been used in previous Southern Hemisphere myopia research as a marker for time spent outdoors. The validity of CUVAF as an indicator of time spent outdoors is yet to be explored in the Northern Hemisphere. It is unclear if CUVAF represents damage attributed to UV exposure or dry eye. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between CUVAF measures, self-reported time spent outdoors and measures of dry eye.Methods: Participants were recruited from University staff and students (n=50, 19-64yrs; mean 41). None were using topical ocular medications (with the exception of dry eye treatments). Sun exposure and dry eye questionnaires (Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and McMonnies) were completed by the participant. Dryness was also assessed using slit lamp biomicroscopy and invasive tear break up time (ITBUT). Images of the temporal and nasal conjunctiva from the right and left eye were captured using a bespoke photography system. The total CUVAF area, average CUVAF pixel intensity per mm2 and total CUVAF pixel intensity were analysed using MATLAB R2013a (The MathWorks Inc).Results: Of the 50 participants, 42{\%} were classified as having dry eye. Self-reported sunglass use was negatively associated with all CUVAF measures (Kruskal Wallis total CUVAF area, p=0.04, ptrend=0.03, average CUVAF pixel intensity p=0.02, ptrend= 0.02, total CUVAF pixel intensity: p=0.04, ptrend=0.02). Time spent outdoors was positively associated with all CUVAF measures (Spearman’s corr. total CUVAF area: r=0.37, p=0.01, average CUVAF pixel intensity: r=0.36, p=0.01, total CUVAF pixel intensity: r=0.37, p=0.01) and remained significant when sunglass use was controlled for (partial correlation, total CUVAF area: r=0.32, p=0.03, average CUVAF pixel intensity: r=0.39, p=0.01, total CUVAF pixel intensity: r=0.39, p=0.03). Neither CUVAF area nor intensity measures were associated with any dry eye measure (OSDI: all p≥0.41, corneal staining: all p≥0.38, McMonnies: all r≤0.09 all p≥0.52, slit lamp biomicroscopy: all r≤0.20 all p≥0.17, ITBUT: all r≤-0.07 all p≥0.31).Conclusions: CUVAF area and intensity were not associated with clinical measures of dry eye. Greater CUVAF area and intensity were associated with wearing sunglasses less frequently and spending more time outdoors. If sunglass wear is accounted for, CUVAF may be a useful biomarker of time spent outdoors in future myopia studies.",
keywords = "myopia, autofluorescence, dry eye",
author = "Stephanie Kearney and Lisa O'Donoghue and Pourshahidi, {L. Kirsty} and Patrick Richardson and Saunders, {Kathryn J}",
note = "Compliant in UIR; evidence uploaded to 'Other files'",
year = "2016",
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pages = "359--359",
journal = "Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics: the Journal of the College of Optometrists",
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The use of conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence (CUVAF) as a biomarker of time spent outdoors. / Kearney, Stephanie; O'Donoghue, Lisa; Pourshahidi, L. Kirsty; Richardson, Patrick; Saunders, Kathryn J.

In: Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics, Vol. 36, No. 4, 28.06.2016, p. 359-359.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The use of conjunctival ultraviolet autofluorescence (CUVAF) as a biomarker of time spent outdoors.

AU - Kearney, Stephanie

AU - O'Donoghue, Lisa

AU - Pourshahidi, L. Kirsty

AU - Richardson, Patrick

AU - Saunders, Kathryn J

N1 - Compliant in UIR; evidence uploaded to 'Other files'

PY - 2016/6/28

Y1 - 2016/6/28

N2 - Purpose: CUVAF has been used in previous Southern Hemisphere myopia research as a marker for time spent outdoors. The validity of CUVAF as an indicator of time spent outdoors is yet to be explored in the Northern Hemisphere. It is unclear if CUVAF represents damage attributed to UV exposure or dry eye. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between CUVAF measures, self-reported time spent outdoors and measures of dry eye.Methods: Participants were recruited from University staff and students (n=50, 19-64yrs; mean 41). None were using topical ocular medications (with the exception of dry eye treatments). Sun exposure and dry eye questionnaires (Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and McMonnies) were completed by the participant. Dryness was also assessed using slit lamp biomicroscopy and invasive tear break up time (ITBUT). Images of the temporal and nasal conjunctiva from the right and left eye were captured using a bespoke photography system. The total CUVAF area, average CUVAF pixel intensity per mm2 and total CUVAF pixel intensity were analysed using MATLAB R2013a (The MathWorks Inc).Results: Of the 50 participants, 42% were classified as having dry eye. Self-reported sunglass use was negatively associated with all CUVAF measures (Kruskal Wallis total CUVAF area, p=0.04, ptrend=0.03, average CUVAF pixel intensity p=0.02, ptrend= 0.02, total CUVAF pixel intensity: p=0.04, ptrend=0.02). Time spent outdoors was positively associated with all CUVAF measures (Spearman’s corr. total CUVAF area: r=0.37, p=0.01, average CUVAF pixel intensity: r=0.36, p=0.01, total CUVAF pixel intensity: r=0.37, p=0.01) and remained significant when sunglass use was controlled for (partial correlation, total CUVAF area: r=0.32, p=0.03, average CUVAF pixel intensity: r=0.39, p=0.01, total CUVAF pixel intensity: r=0.39, p=0.03). Neither CUVAF area nor intensity measures were associated with any dry eye measure (OSDI: all p≥0.41, corneal staining: all p≥0.38, McMonnies: all r≤0.09 all p≥0.52, slit lamp biomicroscopy: all r≤0.20 all p≥0.17, ITBUT: all r≤-0.07 all p≥0.31).Conclusions: CUVAF area and intensity were not associated with clinical measures of dry eye. Greater CUVAF area and intensity were associated with wearing sunglasses less frequently and spending more time outdoors. If sunglass wear is accounted for, CUVAF may be a useful biomarker of time spent outdoors in future myopia studies.

AB - Purpose: CUVAF has been used in previous Southern Hemisphere myopia research as a marker for time spent outdoors. The validity of CUVAF as an indicator of time spent outdoors is yet to be explored in the Northern Hemisphere. It is unclear if CUVAF represents damage attributed to UV exposure or dry eye. This cross-sectional study investigated the association between CUVAF measures, self-reported time spent outdoors and measures of dry eye.Methods: Participants were recruited from University staff and students (n=50, 19-64yrs; mean 41). None were using topical ocular medications (with the exception of dry eye treatments). Sun exposure and dry eye questionnaires (Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and McMonnies) were completed by the participant. Dryness was also assessed using slit lamp biomicroscopy and invasive tear break up time (ITBUT). Images of the temporal and nasal conjunctiva from the right and left eye were captured using a bespoke photography system. The total CUVAF area, average CUVAF pixel intensity per mm2 and total CUVAF pixel intensity were analysed using MATLAB R2013a (The MathWorks Inc).Results: Of the 50 participants, 42% were classified as having dry eye. Self-reported sunglass use was negatively associated with all CUVAF measures (Kruskal Wallis total CUVAF area, p=0.04, ptrend=0.03, average CUVAF pixel intensity p=0.02, ptrend= 0.02, total CUVAF pixel intensity: p=0.04, ptrend=0.02). Time spent outdoors was positively associated with all CUVAF measures (Spearman’s corr. total CUVAF area: r=0.37, p=0.01, average CUVAF pixel intensity: r=0.36, p=0.01, total CUVAF pixel intensity: r=0.37, p=0.01) and remained significant when sunglass use was controlled for (partial correlation, total CUVAF area: r=0.32, p=0.03, average CUVAF pixel intensity: r=0.39, p=0.01, total CUVAF pixel intensity: r=0.39, p=0.03). Neither CUVAF area nor intensity measures were associated with any dry eye measure (OSDI: all p≥0.41, corneal staining: all p≥0.38, McMonnies: all r≤0.09 all p≥0.52, slit lamp biomicroscopy: all r≤0.20 all p≥0.17, ITBUT: all r≤-0.07 all p≥0.31).Conclusions: CUVAF area and intensity were not associated with clinical measures of dry eye. Greater CUVAF area and intensity were associated with wearing sunglasses less frequently and spending more time outdoors. If sunglass wear is accounted for, CUVAF may be a useful biomarker of time spent outdoors in future myopia studies.

KW - myopia

KW - autofluorescence

KW - dry eye

UR - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27350182

U2 - 10.1111/opo.12309

DO - 10.1111/opo.12309

M3 - Article

VL - 36

SP - 359

EP - 359

JO - Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics: the Journal of the College of Optometrists

T2 - Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics: the Journal of the College of Optometrists

JF - Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics: the Journal of the College of Optometrists

SN - 0275-5408

IS - 4

ER -