The translation of the childbirth self-efficacy inventory into Arabic

s Abujelban, M. Sinclair, WG KERNOHAN

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13 Citations (Scopus)


. The translation of the childbirth self-efficacy inventory into ArabicDownload the pdf Print this page Evidence Based Midwifery: June 2012Sanaa Abujilban1 PhD, MSN, RM, RN. Marlene Sinclair2 PhD, MEd, BSc, DASE, RNT, RM, RN. W George Kernohan3 PhD, BSc.1 Assistant professor, School of Nursing, The Hashemite University, PO Box 150459, Zarqa, 13115, Jordan. Email: 2 Professor of midwifery research, Institute of Nursing Research, University of Ulster, Jordanstown Campus, BT37 0QB Northern Ireland. Email: 3 Professor of health research, Institute of Nursing Research, University of Ulster, Jordanstown Campus, BT37 0QB Northern Ireland. Email: research was funded by the University of Ulster vice-chancellor’s research scholarships studentship. Many thanks to the women who kindly gave their time to participate.Abstract Aim. The purpose of this paper is to describe the translation and adaptation process using the WHO (2005) framework to adapt Lowe’s (1993) English version of the childbirth self-efficacy inventory (CBSEI) into Arabic for use in Jordan. Background. It is important for researchers who borrow instruments for use in different cultures and conceptually different contexts to ensure that these are tested for acceptability and practicality as well as linguistic/literal equivalence using a robust and transparent framework. The WHO (2005) has devised a framework for guiding researchers involved in the translation process that includes forward translation, expert panel, back translation, pre-testing and cognitive interviewing.Methods. Ethical approval, permission to use the CBSEI and access to pregnant women was obtained respectively from the University of Ulster, Professor Nancy Lowe and the Ministry of Health in Jordan. A convenience sample of 19 nulliparous women was recruited from one major maternity hospital, one public maternal health centre and one private maternal health centre in Northern Jordan between June and July 2006. The WHO (2005) process of translation and adaptation of research instruments was used.Findings. Pre-testing of the Arabic version showed that women found it difficult to differentiate between the four subscales of the CBSEI and the two stages of labour. The women also found the questionnaire to be long and difficult. Therefore, adaptations have been made and these include a shortened form of the Arabic CBSEI that focuses on the whole labour process rather than two separate stages. Conclusion. Conceptual and cultural differences are important factors for consideration when using borrowed instruments, regardless of their proven reliability and validity, as demonstrated by the Jordanian women in this study. The process of adaptation and testing of instruments, as suggested by the WHO (2005), has enhanced the transferability and rigour of the CBSEI.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)45-49
JournalEvidence Based Midwifery: June 2012
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - Jun 2012

Bibliographical note

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  • childbirth self-efficacy inventory
  • Arabic translation
  • WHO translation process
  • evidence-based midwifery


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