The strategic marketing of small sports clubs: from fundraising to social entrepreneurship

Damian Gallagher, Audrey Gilmore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This paper investigates how small sports clubs (SSCs), the foundations for sporting excellence and significant contributors to the social capital of society in the face of continued financial difficulties, can maximise their fundraising activities. A conceptual framework for investigating the traditional fundraising planning process in the unique context of SSCs is developed and a qualitative methodology is utilised via 19 in-depth interviews in Northern Ireland and Germany to test this model. The findings of this study question the applicability of generic fundraising planning processes for SSCs and emphasise the previously under-realised central role that individual personal competencies play and argue for the application and practice of social entrepreneurship in order to ensure the long-term survival of SSCs.This study makes a contribution to the developing literature on sports marketing and to the important issue of strategic fundraising in the context of SSCs. It highlights the informal, ad-hoc nature of fundraising in many SSCs and provides some direction for how they could become more professional in how they fund their activities and plan for the future development of the clubs.
LanguageEnglish
Pages231-247
JournalJournal of Strategic Marketing
Volume20
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2012

Fingerprint

Fund raising
Social entrepreneurship
Clubs
Strategic marketing
Planning process
Excellence
Sport marketing
Northern Ireland
Social capital
Qualitative methodology
Germany
Conceptual framework
Competency
In-depth interviews
Ad hoc

Keywords

  • SMEs
  • strategic fundraising planning
  • sports marketing
  • social entrepreneurship
  • qualitative research

Cite this

@article{a82653a6b2a344a4a193cf7baaea4523,
title = "The strategic marketing of small sports clubs: from fundraising to social entrepreneurship",
abstract = "This paper investigates how small sports clubs (SSCs), the foundations for sporting excellence and significant contributors to the social capital of society in the face of continued financial difficulties, can maximise their fundraising activities. A conceptual framework for investigating the traditional fundraising planning process in the unique context of SSCs is developed and a qualitative methodology is utilised via 19 in-depth interviews in Northern Ireland and Germany to test this model. The findings of this study question the applicability of generic fundraising planning processes for SSCs and emphasise the previously under-realised central role that individual personal competencies play and argue for the application and practice of social entrepreneurship in order to ensure the long-term survival of SSCs.This study makes a contribution to the developing literature on sports marketing and to the important issue of strategic fundraising in the context of SSCs. It highlights the informal, ad-hoc nature of fundraising in many SSCs and provides some direction for how they could become more professional in how they fund their activities and plan for the future development of the clubs.",
keywords = "SMEs, strategic fundraising planning, sports marketing, social entrepreneurship, qualitative research",
author = "Damian Gallagher and Audrey Gilmore",
note = "Reference text: 1. Aalto, M. 1997. Fundraising: Finanzierungsalternativen f{\"u}r {\"O}ffentliche Bibliotheken, G{\"u}tersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung. 2. Aldrich, T. 2009. Benchmarking the fundraising performance of UK charities. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 14: 353–364. [CrossRef] 3. Andreoni, J. and Payne, A.A. 2003. Do government grants to private charities crowd out giving or fund-raising?. American Economic Review, 93: 792–812. [CrossRef], [Web of Science {\circledR}] 4. Anheier, H. and Toepler, S. 1997. “Philanthropic giving and fundraising in Europe”. In Critical issues in fundraising, Edited by: Burlingham, D.F. 81–109. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 5. Beech, J. and Chadwick, S. 2007. The marketing of sport, London: Prentice Hall. 6. Bennett, R. 2007. The use of marketing metrics by British Fundraising Charities: A survey of current practice. Journal of Marketing Management, 23: 959–989. [Taylor & Francis Online] 7. Bothwell, R.O. 2002. Foundation funding of grassroots organisations. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 7: 382–392. [CrossRef] 8. Botting, N. and Norton, M. 2001. The complete fundraising handbook, London: The Directory of Social Change. 9. Breuer, C., & Wicker, P. (2010). Sportvereine in Deutschland. Retrieved 5 August, 2010, from www.dosb.de/de/service/download-center/sportentwicklungs-bericht/ 10. Bronzan, R.T. 1977. Public relations, promotions and fund-raising for athletic and physical education programs, New York: John Wiley and Sons. 11. Carpenter, J., Holmes, J. and Matthews, P. 2008. Charity auctions: A field experiment. The Economic Journal, 118(January): 92–113. 12. Carson, D., Cromie, S., McGowan, P. and Hill, J. 1995. Marketing and entrepreneurship in SMEs: An innovative approach, London: Prentice Hall. 13. Carson, D., Gilmore, A., Perry, C. and Gronhaug, K. 2001. Qualitative marketing research, London: Sage. 14. Chadwick, S. (2009). Sport facing unprecedented problems in the face of global recession: A commentary. Retrieved 5 August, 2010, from www.europeanbusinessreview.com/?p = 1632 15. Charmaz, K. 1983. “The grounded theory method: An explication and interpretation”. In Business research methods, Edited by: Bryman, A. and Bell, E. 578–601. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 16. Clarke, S. 1993. The complete fundraising handbook, Great Britain: Bath Press. 17. Clarke, S. and Norton, M. 1997. The complete fundraising handbook, London: The Directory of Social Change. 18. Coleman, R. 2002. Characteristics of volunteering in UK sport: Lessons from cricket. Managing Leisure, 7: 220–238. [Taylor & Francis Online] 19. Courtney, R. 1995. Planning a fundraising strategy, Belfast: NICVA Management Series. 20. Denscombe, M. 2007. The good research guide: For small-scale social research projects, Maidenhead: Open University Press. 21. Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R. and Lowe, A. 2002. Management research, London: Sage. 22. Ehlers, I. 2006. “Personenbezogene Kompetenzen”. In Fundraising: Handbuch f{\"u}r Grundlagen, Strategien und Methoden, 3rd ed., Edited by: Akademie, Fundraising. 571–584. Wiesbaden: Gabler. 23. Enjolras, B. 2002. Does the commercialization of voluntary organizations ‘crowd out’ voluntary work?. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 73: 375–398. [CrossRef] 24. Fabisch, N. 2006. Fundraising, M{\"u}nchen: dtv. 25. Ferrand, A. and McCarthy, S. 2009. Marketing the sports organisation, Oxon: Routledge. 26. Freyer, W. 2003. Sport-marketing, Dresden: FIT. 27. Fullerton, S., & Johnson, M.M. (2009, October 28–30). Sports marketing in an economic quagmire. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Sport Marketing Association Conference, Cleveland, Ohio 28. Gallagher, D., Gilmore, A., & Alexander, N. (2009, July 7–9). Defining a small sports club (SSC): Towards a conceptual framework. Paper presented at the Academy of Marketing Annual Conference, Leeds Metropolitan University, England 29. Garrett, R. 2004. The response of voluntary sports clubs to Sport England's Lottery funding: Cases of compliance, change and resistance. Managing Leisure, 9: 13–29. [Taylor & Francis Online] 30. Gilmore, A. 2003. Services marketing and management, London: Sage. 31. Gilmore, A., Carson, D. and Grant, K. 2001. SME marketing in practice. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 19: 6–11. [CrossRef] 32. Haibach, M. 2002. Handbuch Fundraising, Frankfurt/Main: Campus-Verlag. 33. Harris, S., Mori, K. and Collins, M. 2009. Great expectations: Voluntary sports clubs and their role in delivering national policy for English sport. Voluntas, 20: 404–423. [CrossRef] 34. Heinzel, H. 2004. Philanthropy and fundraising in Western Europe within a framework of change. New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising, 46(Winter): 101–120. [CrossRef] 35. Hill, J. 2001. A multidimensional study of the key determinants of effective SME marketing activity: Part 1.. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 7(5): 171–204. [CrossRef] 36. Hirsch, A. (2008). Analyse des Social Marketing des Kindergartens St. Elisabeth und m{\"o}gliche Verbesserungen. Retrieved April 20, 2010, from www.fruehpaedagogikstudieren.de/news/thema-des-monats/projektarbeit-andreas-hirsch.pdf 37. H{\"o}nig, H.-J. and Schulz, L. 2006. “Spenderbetreuung in Fundraising: Handbuch f{\"u}r Grundlagen, Strategien und Methoden”. In Fundraising: Handbuch f{\"u}r Grundlagen, Strategien und Methoden, Edited by: Akademie, Fundraising. 285–298. Wiesbaden: Gabler. 38. Humphreys, B.R. 2010. “The impact of the global financial crisis on sport in North America”. In Optimal strategies in sports economics and management, Edited by: Butenko, S., Panos Pardalos, P. and Lafuente, J.G. 39–58. New York: Springer Publications. [CrossRef] 39. Hunt, S.D. 2002. Foundations of Marketing Theory, Armonk: M.E. Sharpe. 40. Jank, D. 1999. Fundraising f{\"u}r Hochschulbibliotheken und Hochschularchive, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 41. Jones, A., Loguercio, A. and Makar, A. 2003. Orchestrating change by empowering volunteer fundraisers: A case study. New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising, 39: 119–130. [CrossRef] 42. Kelly, K.S. 1998. Effective fund-raising management, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 43. Klein, K. 1997. “Principles and techniques of fund raising”. In Fundraising: Handbuch f{\"u}r Grundlagen, Strategien und Methoden, Edited by: Akademie, Fundraising. 9–92. Wiesbaden: Gabler. 44. Levy, J.D. 2004. The growth of fundraising: Framing the impact of research and literature on education and training. New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising, 43(Spring): 21–30. [CrossRef] 45. Lindahl, W.E. 2010. Principles of fundraising, Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett. 46. Lindahl, W.E. and Conley, A.T. 2002. Literature review: Philanthropic fundraising. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 13: 91–112. [CrossRef] 47. Lysakowski, L. 2007. Nonprofit essentials: The development plan, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. 48. Mason, D.S. 1999. What is the sports product and who buys it? The marketing of professional sports leagues. European Journal of Marketing, 33: 402–418. [CrossRef] 49. Masteralexis, L.P., Barr, C.A. and Hums, M.A. 2009. Principles and practices of sport management, London: Jones and Bartlett. 50. Mazurkiewicz, D. and Thieme, L. 2008. “Fundraising”. In Handw{\"o}rterbuch des Sportmanagements, Edited by: Wadsack, R. 58–60. Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang. 51. McCurley, S. 1994. “Recruiting and retaining volunteers”. In The Jossey Bass handbook of nonprofit management and leadership, Edited by: Herman, R.D. 511–534. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 52. Mullin, B.J., Hardy, S. and Sutton, W.A. 2007. Sport marketing, Leeds: Human Kinetics. 53. Papadimitriou, D. 2002. Amateur structures and their effect on performance: The case of Greek voluntary sports clubs. Managing Leisure, 7: 205–219. [Taylor & Francis Online] 54. Pearson, J. 1999. Comprehensive research on alumni relationships: Four years of market research at Stanford University. New Directions for Institutional Research, 1999(101): 5–21. [CrossRef] 55. Pisarczyk, S. 2000. Fundraising f{\"u}r Freizeitheime: Grundlagen f{\"u}r handelnde Fundraising-Didaktik und Freizeitp{\"a}dagogik in den Jugendtreffs, Frankfurt am Main: Haag und Herchen. 56. Reid Howie Associates (2006). The sustainability of local sports clubs in Scotland. Retrieved August 10, 2010, from www.scotland.gov.uk/socialresearch 57. Rieken, M. (2002). Direct mail als fund raising-Instrument in der Politik (PhD thesis). Carl von Ossietzky-Universit{\"a}t 58. Rosso, H.A. 1991. “A philosophy of fundraising”. In Achieving excellence in fundraising, Edited by: Tempel, E.R., Seiler, T.L. and Aldrich, E.E. 3–9. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley and Sons. 59. Sakires, J., Doherty, A. and Misener, K. 2009. Role ambiguity in voluntary sport organizations. Journal of Sport Management, 23: 615–643. [Web of Science {\circledR}] 60. Sargeant, A. 1999. Charitable giving: Towards a model of donor behavior. Journal of Marketing Management, 15: 215–238. [Taylor & Francis Online] 61. Sargeant, A. 2009. Marketing management for nonprofit organisations, Oxford: Oxford University Press. 62. Sargeant, A. and Ewing, M. 2001. Fundraising direct: A communications guide for charity marketing. Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing, 9: 185–204. [Taylor & Francis Online] 63. Sargeant, A. and Jay, E. 2010. Fundraising management analysis, planning and practice, Oxon: Routledge. 64. Sargeant, A. and Sheng, J. 2010. Fundraising principles and practices, San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Associates 65. Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. 2009. Research methods for business students, Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall. 66. Seiler, T.L. 2001. Developing your case for support, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publications. 67. Sheth, J.N., Gardner, D.M. and Garrett, D.E. 1988. Marketing theory: Evolution and evaluation, New York: John Wiley & Sons. 68. Shilbury, D., Quick, S. and Westerbeek, H. 2003. Strategic sport marketing, Crows Nest, Australia: Allen and Unwin. 69. Slack, T. and Parent, M.M. 2006. Understanding sport organizations, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 70. Smith, H. and Dunn, M.B. 1995. “Gifts and donors' expectations”. In The ethics of asking, Edited by: Elliot, D. 101–110. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. 71. Smith, S.R. 2005. Performance benchmarking: Lessons on using performance benchmarks to maximize fundraising results. New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising, 49(Fall): 109–119. [CrossRef] 72. Staples, C. 2004. What does corporate social responsibility mean for charitable fundraising in the UK?. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 9: 154–158. [CrossRef] 73. Stewart, B. 2007. Sport funding and finance, Oxford: Elsevier. 74. Stier, W.F. 1994. Fundraising for sport and recreation, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers. 75. Taks, M. (2010, June 1–5). The impact of the economic recession on sport participation in local communities. Paper presented at the 2010 North American Society for Sport Management Conference, Tampa, Florida 76. Tempel, E.R., Seiler, T.L. and Aldrich, E.E., eds. 2011. Achieving excellence in fundraising, San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons. 77. Urselmann, M. 2002. Fundraising: Erfolgreiche Strategien f{\"u}hrender Nonprofit- Organisationen, Bern: Haupt. 78. Wagner, L. 2004. Fundraising, culture, and the U.S. perspective. New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising, 46(Winter): 5–12. [CrossRef] 79. Waters, R.D. 2008. Applying relationship management theory to the fundraising process. Journal of Communication Management, 12: 73–87. [CrossRef] 80. Zakus, D., Skinner, J. and Edwards, A. 2009. Social capital in Australian sport. Sport in Society, 12: 986–998. [Taylor & Francis Online]",
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The strategic marketing of small sports clubs: from fundraising to social entrepreneurship. / Gallagher, Damian; Gilmore, Audrey.

In: Journal of Strategic Marketing, Vol. 20, No. 3, 05.2012, p. 231-247.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The strategic marketing of small sports clubs: from fundraising to social entrepreneurship

AU - Gallagher, Damian

AU - Gilmore, Audrey

N1 - Reference text: 1. Aalto, M. 1997. Fundraising: Finanzierungsalternativen für Öffentliche Bibliotheken, Gütersloh: Bertelsmann Stiftung. 2. Aldrich, T. 2009. Benchmarking the fundraising performance of UK charities. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 14: 353–364. [CrossRef] 3. Andreoni, J. and Payne, A.A. 2003. Do government grants to private charities crowd out giving or fund-raising?. American Economic Review, 93: 792–812. [CrossRef], [Web of Science ®] 4. Anheier, H. and Toepler, S. 1997. “Philanthropic giving and fundraising in Europe”. In Critical issues in fundraising, Edited by: Burlingham, D.F. 81–109. New York: John Wiley and Sons. 5. Beech, J. and Chadwick, S. 2007. The marketing of sport, London: Prentice Hall. 6. Bennett, R. 2007. The use of marketing metrics by British Fundraising Charities: A survey of current practice. Journal of Marketing Management, 23: 959–989. [Taylor & Francis Online] 7. Bothwell, R.O. 2002. Foundation funding of grassroots organisations. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 7: 382–392. [CrossRef] 8. Botting, N. and Norton, M. 2001. The complete fundraising handbook, London: The Directory of Social Change. 9. Breuer, C., & Wicker, P. (2010). Sportvereine in Deutschland. Retrieved 5 August, 2010, from www.dosb.de/de/service/download-center/sportentwicklungs-bericht/ 10. Bronzan, R.T. 1977. Public relations, promotions and fund-raising for athletic and physical education programs, New York: John Wiley and Sons. 11. Carpenter, J., Holmes, J. and Matthews, P. 2008. Charity auctions: A field experiment. The Economic Journal, 118(January): 92–113. 12. Carson, D., Cromie, S., McGowan, P. and Hill, J. 1995. Marketing and entrepreneurship in SMEs: An innovative approach, London: Prentice Hall. 13. Carson, D., Gilmore, A., Perry, C. and Gronhaug, K. 2001. Qualitative marketing research, London: Sage. 14. Chadwick, S. (2009). Sport facing unprecedented problems in the face of global recession: A commentary. Retrieved 5 August, 2010, from www.europeanbusinessreview.com/?p = 1632 15. Charmaz, K. 1983. “The grounded theory method: An explication and interpretation”. In Business research methods, Edited by: Bryman, A. and Bell, E. 578–601. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 16. Clarke, S. 1993. The complete fundraising handbook, Great Britain: Bath Press. 17. Clarke, S. and Norton, M. 1997. The complete fundraising handbook, London: The Directory of Social Change. 18. Coleman, R. 2002. Characteristics of volunteering in UK sport: Lessons from cricket. Managing Leisure, 7: 220–238. [Taylor & Francis Online] 19. Courtney, R. 1995. Planning a fundraising strategy, Belfast: NICVA Management Series. 20. Denscombe, M. 2007. The good research guide: For small-scale social research projects, Maidenhead: Open University Press. 21. Easterby-Smith, M., Thorpe, R. and Lowe, A. 2002. Management research, London: Sage. 22. Ehlers, I. 2006. “Personenbezogene Kompetenzen”. In Fundraising: Handbuch für Grundlagen, Strategien und Methoden, 3rd ed., Edited by: Akademie, Fundraising. 571–584. Wiesbaden: Gabler. 23. Enjolras, B. 2002. Does the commercialization of voluntary organizations ‘crowd out’ voluntary work?. Annals of Public and Cooperative Economics, 73: 375–398. [CrossRef] 24. Fabisch, N. 2006. Fundraising, München: dtv. 25. Ferrand, A. and McCarthy, S. 2009. Marketing the sports organisation, Oxon: Routledge. 26. Freyer, W. 2003. Sport-marketing, Dresden: FIT. 27. Fullerton, S., & Johnson, M.M. (2009, October 28–30). Sports marketing in an economic quagmire. Paper presented at the 7th Annual Sport Marketing Association Conference, Cleveland, Ohio 28. Gallagher, D., Gilmore, A., & Alexander, N. (2009, July 7–9). Defining a small sports club (SSC): Towards a conceptual framework. Paper presented at the Academy of Marketing Annual Conference, Leeds Metropolitan University, England 29. Garrett, R. 2004. The response of voluntary sports clubs to Sport England's Lottery funding: Cases of compliance, change and resistance. Managing Leisure, 9: 13–29. [Taylor & Francis Online] 30. Gilmore, A. 2003. Services marketing and management, London: Sage. 31. Gilmore, A., Carson, D. and Grant, K. 2001. SME marketing in practice. Marketing Intelligence and Planning, 19: 6–11. [CrossRef] 32. Haibach, M. 2002. Handbuch Fundraising, Frankfurt/Main: Campus-Verlag. 33. Harris, S., Mori, K. and Collins, M. 2009. Great expectations: Voluntary sports clubs and their role in delivering national policy for English sport. Voluntas, 20: 404–423. [CrossRef] 34. Heinzel, H. 2004. Philanthropy and fundraising in Western Europe within a framework of change. New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising, 46(Winter): 101–120. [CrossRef] 35. Hill, J. 2001. A multidimensional study of the key determinants of effective SME marketing activity: Part 1.. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 7(5): 171–204. [CrossRef] 36. Hirsch, A. (2008). Analyse des Social Marketing des Kindergartens St. Elisabeth und mögliche Verbesserungen. Retrieved April 20, 2010, from www.fruehpaedagogikstudieren.de/news/thema-des-monats/projektarbeit-andreas-hirsch.pdf 37. Hönig, H.-J. and Schulz, L. 2006. “Spenderbetreuung in Fundraising: Handbuch für Grundlagen, Strategien und Methoden”. In Fundraising: Handbuch für Grundlagen, Strategien und Methoden, Edited by: Akademie, Fundraising. 285–298. Wiesbaden: Gabler. 38. Humphreys, B.R. 2010. “The impact of the global financial crisis on sport in North America”. In Optimal strategies in sports economics and management, Edited by: Butenko, S., Panos Pardalos, P. and Lafuente, J.G. 39–58. New York: Springer Publications. [CrossRef] 39. Hunt, S.D. 2002. Foundations of Marketing Theory, Armonk: M.E. Sharpe. 40. Jank, D. 1999. Fundraising für Hochschulbibliotheken und Hochschularchive, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. 41. Jones, A., Loguercio, A. and Makar, A. 2003. Orchestrating change by empowering volunteer fundraisers: A case study. New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising, 39: 119–130. [CrossRef] 42. Kelly, K.S. 1998. Effective fund-raising management, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 43. Klein, K. 1997. “Principles and techniques of fund raising”. In Fundraising: Handbuch für Grundlagen, Strategien und Methoden, Edited by: Akademie, Fundraising. 9–92. Wiesbaden: Gabler. 44. Levy, J.D. 2004. The growth of fundraising: Framing the impact of research and literature on education and training. New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising, 43(Spring): 21–30. [CrossRef] 45. Lindahl, W.E. 2010. Principles of fundraising, Sudbury: Jones and Bartlett. 46. Lindahl, W.E. and Conley, A.T. 2002. Literature review: Philanthropic fundraising. Nonprofit Management and Leadership, 13: 91–112. [CrossRef] 47. Lysakowski, L. 2007. Nonprofit essentials: The development plan, Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. 48. Mason, D.S. 1999. What is the sports product and who buys it? The marketing of professional sports leagues. European Journal of Marketing, 33: 402–418. [CrossRef] 49. Masteralexis, L.P., Barr, C.A. and Hums, M.A. 2009. Principles and practices of sport management, London: Jones and Bartlett. 50. Mazurkiewicz, D. and Thieme, L. 2008. “Fundraising”. In Handwörterbuch des Sportmanagements, Edited by: Wadsack, R. 58–60. Frankfurt a.M.: Peter Lang. 51. McCurley, S. 1994. “Recruiting and retaining volunteers”. In The Jossey Bass handbook of nonprofit management and leadership, Edited by: Herman, R.D. 511–534. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. 52. Mullin, B.J., Hardy, S. and Sutton, W.A. 2007. Sport marketing, Leeds: Human Kinetics. 53. Papadimitriou, D. 2002. Amateur structures and their effect on performance: The case of Greek voluntary sports clubs. Managing Leisure, 7: 205–219. [Taylor & Francis Online] 54. Pearson, J. 1999. Comprehensive research on alumni relationships: Four years of market research at Stanford University. New Directions for Institutional Research, 1999(101): 5–21. [CrossRef] 55. Pisarczyk, S. 2000. Fundraising für Freizeitheime: Grundlagen für handelnde Fundraising-Didaktik und Freizeitpädagogik in den Jugendtreffs, Frankfurt am Main: Haag und Herchen. 56. Reid Howie Associates (2006). The sustainability of local sports clubs in Scotland. Retrieved August 10, 2010, from www.scotland.gov.uk/socialresearch 57. Rieken, M. (2002). Direct mail als fund raising-Instrument in der Politik (PhD thesis). Carl von Ossietzky-Universität 58. Rosso, H.A. 1991. “A philosophy of fundraising”. In Achieving excellence in fundraising, Edited by: Tempel, E.R., Seiler, T.L. and Aldrich, E.E. 3–9. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley and Sons. 59. Sakires, J., Doherty, A. and Misener, K. 2009. Role ambiguity in voluntary sport organizations. Journal of Sport Management, 23: 615–643. [Web of Science ®] 60. Sargeant, A. 1999. Charitable giving: Towards a model of donor behavior. Journal of Marketing Management, 15: 215–238. [Taylor & Francis Online] 61. Sargeant, A. 2009. Marketing management for nonprofit organisations, Oxford: Oxford University Press. 62. Sargeant, A. and Ewing, M. 2001. Fundraising direct: A communications guide for charity marketing. Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing, 9: 185–204. [Taylor & Francis Online] 63. Sargeant, A. and Jay, E. 2010. Fundraising management analysis, planning and practice, Oxon: Routledge. 64. Sargeant, A. and Sheng, J. 2010. Fundraising principles and practices, San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Associates 65. Saunders, M., Lewis, P. and Thornhill, A. 2009. Research methods for business students, Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall. 66. Seiler, T.L. 2001. Developing your case for support, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publications. 67. Sheth, J.N., Gardner, D.M. and Garrett, D.E. 1988. Marketing theory: Evolution and evaluation, New York: John Wiley & Sons. 68. Shilbury, D., Quick, S. and Westerbeek, H. 2003. Strategic sport marketing, Crows Nest, Australia: Allen and Unwin. 69. Slack, T. and Parent, M.M. 2006. Understanding sport organizations, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. 70. Smith, H. and Dunn, M.B. 1995. “Gifts and donors' expectations”. In The ethics of asking, Edited by: Elliot, D. 101–110. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. 71. Smith, S.R. 2005. Performance benchmarking: Lessons on using performance benchmarks to maximize fundraising results. New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising, 49(Fall): 109–119. [CrossRef] 72. Staples, C. 2004. What does corporate social responsibility mean for charitable fundraising in the UK?. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 9: 154–158. [CrossRef] 73. Stewart, B. 2007. Sport funding and finance, Oxford: Elsevier. 74. Stier, W.F. 1994. Fundraising for sport and recreation, Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Publishers. 75. Taks, M. (2010, June 1–5). The impact of the economic recession on sport participation in local communities. Paper presented at the 2010 North American Society for Sport Management Conference, Tampa, Florida 76. Tempel, E.R., Seiler, T.L. and Aldrich, E.E., eds. 2011. Achieving excellence in fundraising, San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons. 77. Urselmann, M. 2002. Fundraising: Erfolgreiche Strategien führender Nonprofit- Organisationen, Bern: Haupt. 78. Wagner, L. 2004. Fundraising, culture, and the U.S. perspective. New Directions for Philanthropic Fundraising, 46(Winter): 5–12. [CrossRef] 79. Waters, R.D. 2008. Applying relationship management theory to the fundraising process. Journal of Communication Management, 12: 73–87. [CrossRef] 80. Zakus, D., Skinner, J. and Edwards, A. 2009. Social capital in Australian sport. Sport in Society, 12: 986–998. [Taylor & Francis Online]

PY - 2012/5

Y1 - 2012/5

N2 - This paper investigates how small sports clubs (SSCs), the foundations for sporting excellence and significant contributors to the social capital of society in the face of continued financial difficulties, can maximise their fundraising activities. A conceptual framework for investigating the traditional fundraising planning process in the unique context of SSCs is developed and a qualitative methodology is utilised via 19 in-depth interviews in Northern Ireland and Germany to test this model. The findings of this study question the applicability of generic fundraising planning processes for SSCs and emphasise the previously under-realised central role that individual personal competencies play and argue for the application and practice of social entrepreneurship in order to ensure the long-term survival of SSCs.This study makes a contribution to the developing literature on sports marketing and to the important issue of strategic fundraising in the context of SSCs. It highlights the informal, ad-hoc nature of fundraising in many SSCs and provides some direction for how they could become more professional in how they fund their activities and plan for the future development of the clubs.

AB - This paper investigates how small sports clubs (SSCs), the foundations for sporting excellence and significant contributors to the social capital of society in the face of continued financial difficulties, can maximise their fundraising activities. A conceptual framework for investigating the traditional fundraising planning process in the unique context of SSCs is developed and a qualitative methodology is utilised via 19 in-depth interviews in Northern Ireland and Germany to test this model. The findings of this study question the applicability of generic fundraising planning processes for SSCs and emphasise the previously under-realised central role that individual personal competencies play and argue for the application and practice of social entrepreneurship in order to ensure the long-term survival of SSCs.This study makes a contribution to the developing literature on sports marketing and to the important issue of strategic fundraising in the context of SSCs. It highlights the informal, ad-hoc nature of fundraising in many SSCs and provides some direction for how they could become more professional in how they fund their activities and plan for the future development of the clubs.

KW - SMEs

KW - strategic fundraising planning

KW - sports marketing

KW - social entrepreneurship

KW - qualitative research

U2 - 10.1080/0965254X.2012.657225

DO - 10.1080/0965254X.2012.657225

M3 - Article

VL - 20

SP - 231

EP - 247

JO - Journal of Strategic Marketing

T2 - Journal of Strategic Marketing

JF - Journal of Strategic Marketing

SN - 0965-254X

IS - 3

ER -