The Security-Threat-Community

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

At the height of ‘the Troubles’ in 1976 social-housing in Belfast was in a crisis situation as communities consolidated along ethnic boundaries, often with violent consequences, with some communities becoming drastically overcrowded and others falling into abject dereliction. Using declassified government documentation this paper examines how these events legitimised an emergent confluence of housing and security policy which brought into being the security-threat-community; a socio-material construct where every person is a potential insurgent and every dwelling a potential security-threat. Crucially, the paper problematises the complex entanglement of political, military, paramilitary, economic and ideological forces which shaped its formation. The discussion traces a descent through contingent events within a wider dispositif and reveals the formation of the Standing Committee on the Security Implications of Housing, a confidential government body which assessed the viability of social-housing procurement within communities in terms of the security-threat it might present rather than the housing-need that it would address. As a complement to post-911 discourses concerning increasingly ‘globalised conflicts’ the security-threat-community reinforces the complexities of local discursvities. The paper makes visible the sophisticated socio-material effects of these operations and illustrates how they remain embedded within contemporary community structures. The paper concludes by reflecting on how this permits conflict-era forces to remain active, but largely unacknowledged, within the post-conflict era. Ultimately the paper argues for a ‘revaluing of the value’ of this conflict-architecture within post-conflict policy frameworks.
LanguageEnglish
PagesNA-NA
JournalCity
Volume21
Issue number6
Early online date15 Jan 2018
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Jan 2018

Fingerprint

threat
community
social housing
conflict of values
housing
dispositif
event
security policy
housing policy
documentation
Military
human being
discourse
economics

Keywords

  • Architecture
  • Conflict
  • Society
  • Military
  • Urban
  • Belfast
  • Planning

Cite this

Coyles, David. / The Security-Threat-Community. In: City. 2018 ; Vol. 21, No. 6. pp. NA-NA.
@article{23a08bfe2cd5486f8c89f9cca161bf4f,
title = "The Security-Threat-Community",
abstract = "At the height of ‘the Troubles’ in 1976 social-housing in Belfast was in a crisis situation as communities consolidated along ethnic boundaries, often with violent consequences, with some communities becoming drastically overcrowded and others falling into abject dereliction. Using declassified government documentation this paper examines how these events legitimised an emergent confluence of housing and security policy which brought into being the security-threat-community; a socio-material construct where every person is a potential insurgent and every dwelling a potential security-threat. Crucially, the paper problematises the complex entanglement of political, military, paramilitary, economic and ideological forces which shaped its formation. The discussion traces a descent through contingent events within a wider dispositif and reveals the formation of the Standing Committee on the Security Implications of Housing, a confidential government body which assessed the viability of social-housing procurement within communities in terms of the security-threat it might present rather than the housing-need that it would address. As a complement to post-911 discourses concerning increasingly ‘globalised conflicts’ the security-threat-community reinforces the complexities of local discursvities. The paper makes visible the sophisticated socio-material effects of these operations and illustrates how they remain embedded within contemporary community structures. The paper concludes by reflecting on how this permits conflict-era forces to remain active, but largely unacknowledged, within the post-conflict era. Ultimately the paper argues for a ‘revaluing of the value’ of this conflict-architecture within post-conflict policy frameworks.",
keywords = "Architecture, Conflict, Society, Military, Urban, Belfast, Planning",
author = "David Coyles",
note = "Reference text: Abaza, M. (2014) Post January revolution Cairo: Urban wars and the reshaping of public space. Theory, Culture & Society, 31 163-183. Alcorn, D. (1982) Who Plans Belfast?'. Scope, 52 4-6. Alonso, R. (2004) Pathways out of terrorism in Northern Ireland and the Basque Country: the misrepresentation of the Irish model. Terrorism and Political Violence, 16 (4), 695-713. Anderson, B. (2011) Facing the Future Enemy US Counterinsurgency Doctrine and the Pre-insurgent. Theory, Culture & Society, 28 (7-8), 216-240. Berseford, D. (1982) Security Forces build on Belfast’s sectarian divide. The Guardian, 13 March, 13. Birchall, C. (2011) Introduction to ‘Secrecy and Transparency’ The Politics of Opacity and Openness. Theory, Culture & Society, 28 (7-8), 7-25. Bloomfield, K. (1994) Stormont in crisis: a memoir. Belfast: Blackstaff Press. Boal, F.W. (1969) Territoriality on the shankill‐falls divide, Belfast. Irish Geography, 6 (1), 30-50. Boano, C. (2011) ‘Violent spaces’: production and reproduction of security and vulnerabilities. The Journal of Architecture, 16 (1), 37-55. Bollens, S.A. (2000) On Narrow Ground: Urban Policy and Ethnic Conflict in Jerusalem and Belfast. Albany: State. Bollens, S.A. (1999) Urban Peacebuilding in Divided Societies: Belfast and Johannesburg. Boulder, Colorado. USA: Westview Press Inc. Bradley, C. and Murtagh, B. (2007) Good Practice in Local Area Planning in the Context of Promoting Good Relations. Belfast City Council. Brett, C.E.B. (1986) Housing a divided community. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration. Byrne, J., Heenan, C.G. and Robinson, G. (2012) Attitudes to peace walls. Belfast: Northern Ireland Executive. Callaghan, J. (1973) A house divided: the dilemma of Northern Ireland. London: Collins. Calme, J. and Charlesworth, E. (2008) Divided Cities: Belfast, Beirut, Jerusalem, Mostar and Nicosia. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Cammaerts, B. (2013) The mediation of insurrectionary symbolic damage: the 2010 UK student protests. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 525-548. Campbell, C. and Connelly, I. (2003) A model for the ‘war against terrorism’? Military intervention in Northern Ireland and the 1970 Falls Curfew. Journal of law and society, 30 (3), 341-375. Campbell, J. (2013) Setting the Truth Free: Inside the Bloody Sunday Justice Campaign. Dublin: Liberties Press. Chang, N. (2002) Silencing political dissent: How post-September 11 anti-terrorism measures threaten our civil liberties. London: Turnaround. Coaffee, J. and Murakami Wood, D. (2006) Security is Coming Home: Rethinking Scale and Constructing Resilience in the Global Urban Response to Terrorist Risk. International Relations, 20 503-517. Cowan, R. (1982) Belfast’s Hidden Planners. Town and Country Planning, 6 (56), 163-167. Coyles, D. (2017) Journeys through the Hidden City: Giving visibility to the Material Events of conflict. Environment and Planning D: Society & Space, Coyles, D. (2013) Reflections on Titanic Quarter: the cultural and material legacy of an historic Belfast brand. The Journal of Architecture, 18 (3), 331-363. Coyles, D., Wylie, D. and Spier, S. (2013) Connected Communities: Communities as constructs of people and architecture. Online: Arts and Humanities Research Council. Dawson, G.M. (1984) Defensive Planning in Belfast. Irish Geography, 1 (17), 27. Department of Justice (2012) Building Safer, Shared and Confident Communities: A Community Safety Strategy for Northern Ireland 2012-2017. Belfast: Northern Ireland Executive. Dixon, P. (2009) ‘Hearts and Minds’? British counter-insurgency strategy in Northern Ireland. The Journal of Strategic Studies, 32 (3), 445-474. Douglas, S. (2011) Between Constitutional Mo (nu) ments: Memorialising Past, Present and Future at the District Six Museum and Constitution Hill. Law and Critique, 22 (2), 171-187. Edwards, A. (2010) Misapplying lessons learned? Analysing the utility of British counterinsurgency strategy in Northern Ireland, 1971–76. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 21 (2), 303-330. Edwards, J. and Knottnerus, J.D. (2010) The orange order: Parades, other rituals, and their outcomes. Sociological Focus, 43 (1), 1-23. Foucault, M. (1980) Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972-1977. Brighton: Harvester Press. Gaffikin, F., Karelse, C., Morrissey, M., Mulholland, C. and Sterrett, K. (2016) Making Space for Each Other: Civic Place-Making in a Divided Society. Belfast: Queen's University Belfast. Gaffikin, F. and Morrissey, M. (2011) Planning in Divided Cities: collaborative shaping of contested space. Oxford: Blackwell. Garland, D. (2014) What is a “history of the present”? On Foucault’s genealogies and their critical preconditions. Punishment & Society, 16 (4), 365-384. Garland, D. (1997) 'Governmentality' and the problem of crime: Foucault, criminology, sociology. Theoretical criminology, 1 (2), 173-214. Graham, S. (2011) Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism. London: Verso. Graham, S. (2009) Cities as battlespace: the new military urbanism. City, 13 (4), 383-402. Graham, S. and Wood, D. (2003) Digitizing surveillance: categorization, space, inequality. Critical Social Policy, 23 (2), 227-248. Hart, D.M. (1988) Political manipulation of urban space: the razing of District Six, Cape Town. Urban Geography, 9 (6), 603-628. Hepburn, A.C. (1996) A past apart: studies in the history of Catholic Belfast, 1850-1950. Belfast: Ulster Historical Foundation. H{\"o}ing, N. and Razzaque, J. (2012) Unacknowledged and unwanted? ‘Environmental refugees’ in search of legal status. Journal of Global Ethics, 8 (1), 19-40. Ignatieff, M. (2013) The lesser evil: Political ethics in an age of terror. Princeton: Princeton University Press. International Fund For Ireland (2012) Peace Walls Programme. Available from: https://www.internationalfundforireland.com/peace-walls-programme/102-what-we-do/peace-walls-programme-case-study/556-peace-walls-programme21 Jones, E. (1960) A social geography of Belfast. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Long, K. (2013) When refugees stopped being migrants: Movement, labour and humanitarian protection. Migration Studies, 1 4-26. Lundy, P. (2009) Can the Past Be Policed: Lessons from the Historical Enquiries Team Northern Ireland. Law and Social Challenges, 11 109. Maddalena, K. and Packer, J. (2014) The Digital Body: Telegraphy as Discourse Network. Theory, Culture & Society, 93-117. Mann, M. (2012) The sources of social power: Volume 3, global empires and revolution, 1890-1945. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Mann, M. (2006) The sources of social power revisited: a response to criticism. In: Hall, J. and Schroeder, R., eds. An anatomy of power: the social theory of Michael Mann. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 343-396. Mann, M. (1984) The autonomous power of the state: its origins, mechanisms and results. European journal of sociology, 25 (02), 185-213. Mann, M. and Haugaard, M. (2011) Reflections on the sources of power. Journal of Political Power, 4 (2), 169-178. McAlister, R. (2010) Putting the ‘community’ into community planning: assessing community inclusion in Northern Ireland. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 34 (3), 533-547. McGovern, M. (2013) Inquiring into collusion? Collusion, the state and the management of truth recovery In Northern Ireland. State Crime Journal, 2 (1), 4-29. Meade, T. (2011) Violence and domestic space: demolition and destruction of homes in the occupied Palestinian territories. The Journal of Architecture, 16 (1), 71-87. Monaghan, R. and Shirlow, P. (2011) Forward to the past? Loyalist paramilitarism in Northern Ireland since 1994. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 34 (8), 649-665. Murtagh, B. (2011) Ethno-religious segregation in post-conflict Belfast. Built Environment, 37 (2), 213-225. Murtagh, B. (2008) New Spaces and Old in ‘Post-Conflict’ Belfast. Divided Cities/Contested States: Working Paper Series, (5), Murtagh, B. (2002) The politics of territory: Policy and segregation in Northern Ireland. New York: Palgrave. Office of First Minister and deputy First Minister of the Northern Ireland Executive (2013) Together: Building a United Community Strategy. Belfast: OFMDFM. Packer, J. (2006) Becoming bombs: mobilizing mobility in the war of terror. Cultural studies, 20 (4-5), 378-399. Piquard, B. and Swenarton, M. (2011) Learning from Architecture and Conflict. The Journal of Architecture, 16 (1), 1-13. Pruijt, H. (2013) The logic of urban squatting. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 37 (1), 19-45. Pullan, W. (2011) Frontier urbanism: the periphery at the centre of contested cities. The Journal of Architecture, 16 (1), 15-35. Sanyal, R. (2010) Squatting in camps: building and insurgency in spaces of refuge. Urban Studies, Sassen, S. (2010a) A savage sorting of winners and losers: contemporary versions of primitive accumulation. Globalizations, 7 (1-2), 23-50. Sassen, S. (2010b) When the city itself becomes a technology of war. Theory, Culture & Society, 27 (6), 33-50. Sassen, S. (2006) Territory, authority, rights: from medieval to global assemblages. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Sassen, S. (2002) Governance Hotspots Challenges We Must Confront in the Post-september 11 World. Theory, culture & society, 19 (4), 233-244. Savitch, H.V. (2005) An Anatomy of Urban Terror: Lessons from Jerusalem and Elsewhere. Urban Studies, (3), 395. Shirlow, P. and Murtagh, B. (2006) Belfast: Segregation, violence and the city. London: Pluto Press. Spindler, Z.A. and Nathan, C.D. (2001) Squatting as a transition problem in South Africa. Economics of Transition, 9 (3), Sterrett, K., Hackett, M. and Hill, D. (2012) The social consequences of broken urban structures: a case study of Belfast. Journal of Transport Geography, 21 49-61. Sterrett, K., Hackett, M. and Hill, D. (2011) Agitating for a design and regeneration agenda in a post-conflict city: the case of Belfast. The Journal of Architecture, 16 (1), 99-119. Thornton, R. (2007) Getting it wrong: The crucial mistakes made in the early stages of the British Army's deployment to Northern Ireland (August 1969 to March 1972). The Journal of Strategic Studies, 30 (1), 73-107. Tonge, J., Evans, J., Jeffery, R. and McAuley, J.W. (2011) New Order: Political Change and the Protestant Orange Tradition in Northern Ireland. The British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 13 (3), 400-419. Tuck, C. (2007) Northern Ireland and the British approach to counter-insurgency. Defense & Security Analysis, 23 (2), 165-183. Weizman, E. (2012) The Least of All Possible Evils: Humanitarian Violence from Arendt to Gaza. London: Verso. Weizman, E. (2010) Legislative Attack. Theory, Culture & Society, 27 (6), 11-22. Weizman, E. (2007) Hollow Land: Israel’s Architecture of Occupation. London: Verso. Weizman, E. and Segal, R. (2003) A Civilian Occupation: The Politics of Israeli Architecture. London: Verso. Wiener, R. (1976) The rape and plunder of the Shankill in Belfast: people and planning. Belfast: Nothems Press. Wilkinson, P. (2011) Terrorism versus democracy: The liberal state response. Third ed. Oxon: Routledge. Wither, J.K. (2009) Basra's not Belfast: the British Army, ‘Small Wars’ and Iraq. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 20 (3-4), 611-635.",
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Coyles, D 2018, 'The Security-Threat-Community', City, vol. 21, no. 6, pp. NA-NA.

The Security-Threat-Community. / Coyles, David.

In: City, Vol. 21, No. 6, 15.01.2018, p. NA-NA.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The Security-Threat-Community

AU - Coyles, David

N1 - Reference text: Abaza, M. (2014) Post January revolution Cairo: Urban wars and the reshaping of public space. Theory, Culture & Society, 31 163-183. Alcorn, D. (1982) Who Plans Belfast?'. Scope, 52 4-6. Alonso, R. (2004) Pathways out of terrorism in Northern Ireland and the Basque Country: the misrepresentation of the Irish model. Terrorism and Political Violence, 16 (4), 695-713. Anderson, B. (2011) Facing the Future Enemy US Counterinsurgency Doctrine and the Pre-insurgent. Theory, Culture & Society, 28 (7-8), 216-240. Berseford, D. (1982) Security Forces build on Belfast’s sectarian divide. The Guardian, 13 March, 13. Birchall, C. (2011) Introduction to ‘Secrecy and Transparency’ The Politics of Opacity and Openness. Theory, Culture & Society, 28 (7-8), 7-25. Bloomfield, K. (1994) Stormont in crisis: a memoir. Belfast: Blackstaff Press. Boal, F.W. (1969) Territoriality on the shankill‐falls divide, Belfast. Irish Geography, 6 (1), 30-50. Boano, C. (2011) ‘Violent spaces’: production and reproduction of security and vulnerabilities. The Journal of Architecture, 16 (1), 37-55. Bollens, S.A. (2000) On Narrow Ground: Urban Policy and Ethnic Conflict in Jerusalem and Belfast. Albany: State. Bollens, S.A. (1999) Urban Peacebuilding in Divided Societies: Belfast and Johannesburg. Boulder, Colorado. USA: Westview Press Inc. Bradley, C. and Murtagh, B. (2007) Good Practice in Local Area Planning in the Context of Promoting Good Relations. Belfast City Council. Brett, C.E.B. (1986) Housing a divided community. Dublin: Institute of Public Administration. Byrne, J., Heenan, C.G. and Robinson, G. (2012) Attitudes to peace walls. Belfast: Northern Ireland Executive. Callaghan, J. (1973) A house divided: the dilemma of Northern Ireland. London: Collins. Calme, J. and Charlesworth, E. (2008) Divided Cities: Belfast, Beirut, Jerusalem, Mostar and Nicosia. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press. Cammaerts, B. (2013) The mediation of insurrectionary symbolic damage: the 2010 UK student protests. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 525-548. Campbell, C. and Connelly, I. (2003) A model for the ‘war against terrorism’? Military intervention in Northern Ireland and the 1970 Falls Curfew. Journal of law and society, 30 (3), 341-375. Campbell, J. (2013) Setting the Truth Free: Inside the Bloody Sunday Justice Campaign. Dublin: Liberties Press. Chang, N. (2002) Silencing political dissent: How post-September 11 anti-terrorism measures threaten our civil liberties. London: Turnaround. Coaffee, J. and Murakami Wood, D. (2006) Security is Coming Home: Rethinking Scale and Constructing Resilience in the Global Urban Response to Terrorist Risk. International Relations, 20 503-517. Cowan, R. (1982) Belfast’s Hidden Planners. Town and Country Planning, 6 (56), 163-167. Coyles, D. (2017) Journeys through the Hidden City: Giving visibility to the Material Events of conflict. Environment and Planning D: Society & Space, Coyles, D. (2013) Reflections on Titanic Quarter: the cultural and material legacy of an historic Belfast brand. The Journal of Architecture, 18 (3), 331-363. Coyles, D., Wylie, D. and Spier, S. (2013) Connected Communities: Communities as constructs of people and architecture. Online: Arts and Humanities Research Council. Dawson, G.M. (1984) Defensive Planning in Belfast. Irish Geography, 1 (17), 27. Department of Justice (2012) Building Safer, Shared and Confident Communities: A Community Safety Strategy for Northern Ireland 2012-2017. Belfast: Northern Ireland Executive. Dixon, P. (2009) ‘Hearts and Minds’? British counter-insurgency strategy in Northern Ireland. The Journal of Strategic Studies, 32 (3), 445-474. Douglas, S. (2011) Between Constitutional Mo (nu) ments: Memorialising Past, Present and Future at the District Six Museum and Constitution Hill. Law and Critique, 22 (2), 171-187. Edwards, A. (2010) Misapplying lessons learned? Analysing the utility of British counterinsurgency strategy in Northern Ireland, 1971–76. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 21 (2), 303-330. Edwards, J. and Knottnerus, J.D. (2010) The orange order: Parades, other rituals, and their outcomes. Sociological Focus, 43 (1), 1-23. Foucault, M. (1980) Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972-1977. Brighton: Harvester Press. Gaffikin, F., Karelse, C., Morrissey, M., Mulholland, C. and Sterrett, K. (2016) Making Space for Each Other: Civic Place-Making in a Divided Society. Belfast: Queen's University Belfast. Gaffikin, F. and Morrissey, M. (2011) Planning in Divided Cities: collaborative shaping of contested space. Oxford: Blackwell. Garland, D. (2014) What is a “history of the present”? On Foucault’s genealogies and their critical preconditions. Punishment & Society, 16 (4), 365-384. Garland, D. (1997) 'Governmentality' and the problem of crime: Foucault, criminology, sociology. Theoretical criminology, 1 (2), 173-214. Graham, S. (2011) Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism. London: Verso. Graham, S. (2009) Cities as battlespace: the new military urbanism. City, 13 (4), 383-402. Graham, S. and Wood, D. (2003) Digitizing surveillance: categorization, space, inequality. Critical Social Policy, 23 (2), 227-248. Hart, D.M. (1988) Political manipulation of urban space: the razing of District Six, Cape Town. Urban Geography, 9 (6), 603-628. Hepburn, A.C. (1996) A past apart: studies in the history of Catholic Belfast, 1850-1950. Belfast: Ulster Historical Foundation. Höing, N. and Razzaque, J. (2012) Unacknowledged and unwanted? ‘Environmental refugees’ in search of legal status. Journal of Global Ethics, 8 (1), 19-40. Ignatieff, M. (2013) The lesser evil: Political ethics in an age of terror. Princeton: Princeton University Press. International Fund For Ireland (2012) Peace Walls Programme. Available from: https://www.internationalfundforireland.com/peace-walls-programme/102-what-we-do/peace-walls-programme-case-study/556-peace-walls-programme21 Jones, E. (1960) A social geography of Belfast. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Long, K. (2013) When refugees stopped being migrants: Movement, labour and humanitarian protection. Migration Studies, 1 4-26. Lundy, P. (2009) Can the Past Be Policed: Lessons from the Historical Enquiries Team Northern Ireland. Law and Social Challenges, 11 109. Maddalena, K. and Packer, J. (2014) The Digital Body: Telegraphy as Discourse Network. Theory, Culture & Society, 93-117. Mann, M. (2012) The sources of social power: Volume 3, global empires and revolution, 1890-1945. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. Mann, M. (2006) The sources of social power revisited: a response to criticism. In: Hall, J. and Schroeder, R., eds. An anatomy of power: the social theory of Michael Mann. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 343-396. Mann, M. (1984) The autonomous power of the state: its origins, mechanisms and results. European journal of sociology, 25 (02), 185-213. Mann, M. and Haugaard, M. (2011) Reflections on the sources of power. Journal of Political Power, 4 (2), 169-178. McAlister, R. (2010) Putting the ‘community’ into community planning: assessing community inclusion in Northern Ireland. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 34 (3), 533-547. McGovern, M. (2013) Inquiring into collusion? Collusion, the state and the management of truth recovery In Northern Ireland. State Crime Journal, 2 (1), 4-29. Meade, T. (2011) Violence and domestic space: demolition and destruction of homes in the occupied Palestinian territories. The Journal of Architecture, 16 (1), 71-87. Monaghan, R. and Shirlow, P. (2011) Forward to the past? Loyalist paramilitarism in Northern Ireland since 1994. Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 34 (8), 649-665. Murtagh, B. (2011) Ethno-religious segregation in post-conflict Belfast. Built Environment, 37 (2), 213-225. Murtagh, B. (2008) New Spaces and Old in ‘Post-Conflict’ Belfast. Divided Cities/Contested States: Working Paper Series, (5), Murtagh, B. (2002) The politics of territory: Policy and segregation in Northern Ireland. New York: Palgrave. Office of First Minister and deputy First Minister of the Northern Ireland Executive (2013) Together: Building a United Community Strategy. Belfast: OFMDFM. Packer, J. (2006) Becoming bombs: mobilizing mobility in the war of terror. Cultural studies, 20 (4-5), 378-399. Piquard, B. and Swenarton, M. (2011) Learning from Architecture and Conflict. The Journal of Architecture, 16 (1), 1-13. Pruijt, H. (2013) The logic of urban squatting. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 37 (1), 19-45. Pullan, W. (2011) Frontier urbanism: the periphery at the centre of contested cities. The Journal of Architecture, 16 (1), 15-35. Sanyal, R. (2010) Squatting in camps: building and insurgency in spaces of refuge. Urban Studies, Sassen, S. (2010a) A savage sorting of winners and losers: contemporary versions of primitive accumulation. Globalizations, 7 (1-2), 23-50. Sassen, S. (2010b) When the city itself becomes a technology of war. Theory, Culture & Society, 27 (6), 33-50. Sassen, S. (2006) Territory, authority, rights: from medieval to global assemblages. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Sassen, S. (2002) Governance Hotspots Challenges We Must Confront in the Post-september 11 World. Theory, culture & society, 19 (4), 233-244. Savitch, H.V. (2005) An Anatomy of Urban Terror: Lessons from Jerusalem and Elsewhere. Urban Studies, (3), 395. Shirlow, P. and Murtagh, B. (2006) Belfast: Segregation, violence and the city. London: Pluto Press. Spindler, Z.A. and Nathan, C.D. (2001) Squatting as a transition problem in South Africa. Economics of Transition, 9 (3), Sterrett, K., Hackett, M. and Hill, D. (2012) The social consequences of broken urban structures: a case study of Belfast. Journal of Transport Geography, 21 49-61. Sterrett, K., Hackett, M. and Hill, D. (2011) Agitating for a design and regeneration agenda in a post-conflict city: the case of Belfast. The Journal of Architecture, 16 (1), 99-119. Thornton, R. (2007) Getting it wrong: The crucial mistakes made in the early stages of the British Army's deployment to Northern Ireland (August 1969 to March 1972). The Journal of Strategic Studies, 30 (1), 73-107. Tonge, J., Evans, J., Jeffery, R. and McAuley, J.W. (2011) New Order: Political Change and the Protestant Orange Tradition in Northern Ireland. The British Journal of Politics & International Relations, 13 (3), 400-419. Tuck, C. (2007) Northern Ireland and the British approach to counter-insurgency. Defense & Security Analysis, 23 (2), 165-183. Weizman, E. (2012) The Least of All Possible Evils: Humanitarian Violence from Arendt to Gaza. London: Verso. Weizman, E. (2010) Legislative Attack. Theory, Culture & Society, 27 (6), 11-22. Weizman, E. (2007) Hollow Land: Israel’s Architecture of Occupation. London: Verso. Weizman, E. and Segal, R. (2003) A Civilian Occupation: The Politics of Israeli Architecture. London: Verso. Wiener, R. (1976) The rape and plunder of the Shankill in Belfast: people and planning. Belfast: Nothems Press. Wilkinson, P. (2011) Terrorism versus democracy: The liberal state response. Third ed. Oxon: Routledge. Wither, J.K. (2009) Basra's not Belfast: the British Army, ‘Small Wars’ and Iraq. Small Wars & Insurgencies, 20 (3-4), 611-635.

PY - 2018/1/15

Y1 - 2018/1/15

N2 - At the height of ‘the Troubles’ in 1976 social-housing in Belfast was in a crisis situation as communities consolidated along ethnic boundaries, often with violent consequences, with some communities becoming drastically overcrowded and others falling into abject dereliction. Using declassified government documentation this paper examines how these events legitimised an emergent confluence of housing and security policy which brought into being the security-threat-community; a socio-material construct where every person is a potential insurgent and every dwelling a potential security-threat. Crucially, the paper problematises the complex entanglement of political, military, paramilitary, economic and ideological forces which shaped its formation. The discussion traces a descent through contingent events within a wider dispositif and reveals the formation of the Standing Committee on the Security Implications of Housing, a confidential government body which assessed the viability of social-housing procurement within communities in terms of the security-threat it might present rather than the housing-need that it would address. As a complement to post-911 discourses concerning increasingly ‘globalised conflicts’ the security-threat-community reinforces the complexities of local discursvities. The paper makes visible the sophisticated socio-material effects of these operations and illustrates how they remain embedded within contemporary community structures. The paper concludes by reflecting on how this permits conflict-era forces to remain active, but largely unacknowledged, within the post-conflict era. Ultimately the paper argues for a ‘revaluing of the value’ of this conflict-architecture within post-conflict policy frameworks.

AB - At the height of ‘the Troubles’ in 1976 social-housing in Belfast was in a crisis situation as communities consolidated along ethnic boundaries, often with violent consequences, with some communities becoming drastically overcrowded and others falling into abject dereliction. Using declassified government documentation this paper examines how these events legitimised an emergent confluence of housing and security policy which brought into being the security-threat-community; a socio-material construct where every person is a potential insurgent and every dwelling a potential security-threat. Crucially, the paper problematises the complex entanglement of political, military, paramilitary, economic and ideological forces which shaped its formation. The discussion traces a descent through contingent events within a wider dispositif and reveals the formation of the Standing Committee on the Security Implications of Housing, a confidential government body which assessed the viability of social-housing procurement within communities in terms of the security-threat it might present rather than the housing-need that it would address. As a complement to post-911 discourses concerning increasingly ‘globalised conflicts’ the security-threat-community reinforces the complexities of local discursvities. The paper makes visible the sophisticated socio-material effects of these operations and illustrates how they remain embedded within contemporary community structures. The paper concludes by reflecting on how this permits conflict-era forces to remain active, but largely unacknowledged, within the post-conflict era. Ultimately the paper argues for a ‘revaluing of the value’ of this conflict-architecture within post-conflict policy frameworks.

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KW - Society

KW - Military

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KW - Belfast

KW - Planning

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Coyles D. The Security-Threat-Community. City. 2018 Jan 15;21(6):NA-NA.