The role of specific alcohol-related problems in predicting depressive experiences in a cross-sectional national household survey

Orla McBride, H.G. Cheng, M.T. Lynskey, T. Slade

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Aims: This study examines the type of alcohol-related problems that commonly occur before the onset of depressive experiences to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the alcohol-depression comorbidity relationship. Methods: Data were from the 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Analytical sample comprised of drinkers with a prior to past year (PPY) history of alcohol-related problems with or without any experiences of depressed mood in the past year (PY). The prevalence of PPY alcohol-related problems was examined, as well as the ability of specific alcohol problems to predict PY experiences of depressed mood. The type of depressed mood experienced by drinkers with PPY history of alcohol-related problems was compared to those without. Results: All but one alcohol-related problem PPY was more frequently endorsed among drinkers with PY experiences of depressed mood. Controlling for confounders, five alcohol-related problems experienced PPY were significantly predictive of depressed mood PY: tolerance, drinking longer than intended, inability to perform important social and occupational roles/obligations, as well as drinking in physically hazardous situations. Drinkers with alcohol-related problems PPY more frequently experienced difficulties with concentration, energy, and thoughts of death, than those without. Conclusions: Alcohol-related problems are likely associated with depressive experiences through a complex network, whereby experiences of physical dependence and negative consequences increase the likelihood of negative affect. Novel study designs are necessary to fully understand the complex mechanisms underlying this comorbidity.
LanguageEnglish
Pages655–663
Number of pages9
JournalAlcohol & Alcoholism
Volume51
Issue number6
Early online date26 Oct 2016
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 26 Nov 2016

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Alcohols
Drinking
Comorbidity
Surveys and Questionnaires
Aptitude
Depression

Keywords

  • alcohol
  • depression
  • comorbidity
  • temporal ordering
  • sequence

Cite this

@article{c8f10dccef26464f91c02bc0553bb9db,
title = "The role of specific alcohol-related problems in predicting depressive experiences in a cross-sectional national household survey",
abstract = "Aims: This study examines the type of alcohol-related problems that commonly occur before the onset of depressive experiences to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the alcohol-depression comorbidity relationship. Methods: Data were from the 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Analytical sample comprised of drinkers with a prior to past year (PPY) history of alcohol-related problems with or without any experiences of depressed mood in the past year (PY). The prevalence of PPY alcohol-related problems was examined, as well as the ability of specific alcohol problems to predict PY experiences of depressed mood. The type of depressed mood experienced by drinkers with PPY history of alcohol-related problems was compared to those without. Results: All but one alcohol-related problem PPY was more frequently endorsed among drinkers with PY experiences of depressed mood. Controlling for confounders, five alcohol-related problems experienced PPY were significantly predictive of depressed mood PY: tolerance, drinking longer than intended, inability to perform important social and occupational roles/obligations, as well as drinking in physically hazardous situations. Drinkers with alcohol-related problems PPY more frequently experienced difficulties with concentration, energy, and thoughts of death, than those without. Conclusions: Alcohol-related problems are likely associated with depressive experiences through a complex network, whereby experiences of physical dependence and negative consequences increase the likelihood of negative affect. Novel study designs are necessary to fully understand the complex mechanisms underlying this comorbidity.",
keywords = "alcohol, depression, comorbidity, temporal ordering, sequence",
author = "Orla McBride and H.G. Cheng and M.T. Lynskey and T. Slade",
note = "Reference text: Aggen SH, Neale MC, Kendler KS (2005) DSM criteria for major depression: evaluating symptom patterns using latent-trait item response models. Psychol Med 35: 475-87. Archer KJ, Lemeshow S, Hosmer DW (2007) Goodness-of-fit tests for logistic regression models when data are collected using a complex sampling design. Comput Stat Data An 51: 4450-64. Bell S and Britton A (2014) An exploration of the dynamic longitudinal relationship between mental health and alcohol consumption: a prospective cohort study. BMC Med 12: 1. Bentall RP, Wickham S, Shevlin M, Varese F (2012) Do specific early-life adversities lead to specific symptoms of psychosis? A study from the 2007 the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Schizophr Bull 38: 734-40. Boden JM and Fergusson DM (2011) Alcohol and depression. Addiction 106: 906-14. Borsboom D and Cramer AO (2013) Network analysis: an integrative approach to the structure of psychopathology. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 9: 91-121. Borsboom D, Cramer AO, Schmittmann VD, Epskamp S, Waldorp LJ (2011) The small world of psychopathology. PLoS One 6: e27407. Boschloo L, van Borkulo CD, Rhemtulla M, Keyes KM, Borsboom D, Schoevers RA (2015) The Network Structure of Symptoms of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. PLoS One 10: e0137621. Boschloo L, Vogelzangs N, van den Brink W et al. (2012) Alcohol use disorders and the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Br J Psychiatry 200: 476-84. Carragher N, Mewton L, Slade T, Teesson M (2011) An item response analysis of the DSM-IV criteria for major depression: findings from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. J Affect Disord 130: 92-98. Conner KR (2011) Clarifying the relationship between alcohol and depression. Addiction 106: 915-16. Conner KR, Pinquart M, Gamble SA (2009) Meta-analysis of depression and substance use among individuals with alcohol use disorders. J Subst Abuse Treat 37: 127-37. Cramer AO, Waldorp LJ, van der Maas HL, Borsboom D (2010) Comorbidity: A network perspective. Behav Brain Sci 33: 137-50. Cuijpers P and Smit F (2004) Subthreshold depression as a risk indicator for major depressive disorder: a systematic review of prospective studies. Acta Psychiatr Scand 109: 325-31. Davis L, Uezato A, Newell JM, Frazier E (2008) Major depression and comorbid substance use disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatry 21: 14-18. de Graaf R, ten Have M, Tuithof M, van Dorsselaer S (2013) First-incidence of DSM-IV mood, anxiety and substance use disorders and its determinants: Results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2. J Affect Disord 149: 100-07. Fairman BJ and Anthony JC (2012) Are early-onset cannabis smokers at an increased risk of depression spells? J Affect Disord 138: 54-62. Falk DE, Yi H-y, Hilton ME (2008) Age of onset and temporal sequencing of lifetime DSM-IV alcohol use disorders relative to comorbid mood and anxiety disorders. Drug Alcohol Depend 94: 234-45. Fergusson DM, Boden JM, Horwood LJ (2009) Tests of causal links between alcohol abuse or dependence and major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 66: 260-66. Flensborg-Madsen T, Mortensen EL, Knop J, Becker U, Sher L, Gr{\o}nb{\ae}k M (2009) Comorbidity and temporal ordering of alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric disorders: results from a Danish register-based study. Compr Psychiatry 50: 307-14. Fried E, Nesse R, Guille C, Sen S (2015) The differential influence of life stress on individual symptoms of depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 131: 465-71. Fried E, Nesse R, Zivin K, Guille C, Sen S (2013) Depression is more than the sum score of its parts: individual DSM symptoms have different risk factors. Psychol Med: 1-10. Fried E, Nesse R, Zivin K, Guille C, Sen S (2014) Depression is more than the sum score of its parts: individual DSM symptoms have different risk factors. Psychol Med 44: 2067-76. Gilman SE and Abraham HD (2001) A longitudinal study of the order of onset of alcohol dependence and major depression. Drug Alcohol Depend 63: 277-86. Grant B, Hasin D, Dawson D (1996a) The relationship between DSM-IV alcohol use disorders and DSM-IV major depression: examination of the primary-secondary distinction in a general population sample. J Affect Disord 38: 113-28. Grant BF and Harford TC (1995) Comorbidity between DSM-IV alcohol use disorders and major depression: results of a national survey. Drug Alcohol Depend 39: 197-206. Grant BF and Hasin D (1992) The Alcohol Use Disorder amd Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Grant BF, Hasin DS, Dawson DA (1996b) The relationship between DSM-IV alcohol use disorders and DSM-IV major depression: examination of the primary-secondary distinction in a general population sample. J Affect Disord 38: 113-28. Hasin DS, O’Brien CP, Auriacombe M et al. (2013) DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorders: recommendations and rationale. Am J Psychiatry. Hosmer DW and Lemesbow S (1980) Goodness of fit tests for the multiple logistic regression model. Communications in Statistics-Theory and Methods 9: 1043-69. Howe LD, Tilling K, Galobardes B, Lawlor DA (2013) Loss to follow-up in cohort studies: bias in estimates of socioeconomic inequalities. Epidemiology 24: 1-9. Kessler RC, Crum RM, Warner LA, Nelson CB, Schulenberg J, Anthony JC (1997) Lifetime co-occurrence of DSM-III-R alcohol abuse and dependence with other psychiatric disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 54: 313-21. Khantzian EJ (1985) The self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders: focus on heroin and cocaine dependence. Am J Psychiatry 142: 1259-64. Kuo P-H, Gardner CO, Kendler KS, Prescott CA (2006) The temporal relationship of the onsets of alcohol dependence and major depression: using a genetically informative study design. Psychol Med 36: 1153-62. Lane SP and Sher KJ (2014) Limits of Current Approaches to Diagnosis Severity Based on Criterion Counts An Example With DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder. Clinical Psychological Science: 1-17. Lembke A (2012) Time to abandon the self-medication hypothesis in patients with psychiatric disorders. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 38: 524-29. Lembke A (2013) From self‐medication to intoxication: time for a paradigm shift. Addiction 108: 670-71. Lynskey MT (1998) The comorbidity of alcohol dependence and affective disorders: treatment implications. Drug Alcohol Depend 52: 201-09. McBride O, Adamson G, Bunting BP, McCann S (2009) Assessing the general health of diagnostic orphans using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12v2): a latent variable modelling approach. Alcohol Alcohol 44: 67-76. McBride O, Teesson M, Baillie A, Slade T (2011) Assessing the dimensionality of lifetime DSM-IV alcohol use disorders and a quantity–frequency alcohol use criterion in the Australian population: a factor mixture modelling approach. Alcohol Alcohol 46: 333-41. Merikangas KR, Mehta RL, Molnar BE et al. (1998) Comorbidity of substance use disorders with mood and anxiety disorders: results of the International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology. Addict Behav 23: 893-907. Os J, Delespaul P, Wigman J, Myin-Germeys I, Wichers M (2013) Beyond DSM and ICD: introducing “precision diagnosis” for psychiatry using momentary assessment technology. World Psychiatry 12: 113-17. Raimo EB and Schuckit MA (1998) Alcohol dependence and mood disorders. Addict Behav 23: 933-46. Schmittmann VD, Cramer AO, Waldorp LJ, Epskamp S, Kievit RA, Borsboom D (2013) Deconstructing the construct: A network perspective on psychological phenomena. New Ideas Psychol 31: 43-53. Slade T, McEvoy P, Chapman C, Grove R, Teesson M (2013) Onset and temporal sequencing of lifetime anxiety, mood and substance use disorders in the general population. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci: 1-9. Sribney W (2005) Why should I not do a likelihood-ratio test after an ML estimation (e.g., logit, probit) with clustering or pweights?, Vol. 2014. Stinson FS, Yi H-Y, Grant BF et al. (1998) Drinking in the United States: Main findings from the 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey (NLAES). U.S. Alcohol Epidemiologic Data Reference Manual, Report 99-3519. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Treeby M and Bruno R (2012) Shame and guilt-proneness: Divergent implications for problematic alcohol use and drinking to cope with anxiety and depression symptomatology. Pers Individ Dif 53: 613-17. van Os J, Lataster T, Delespaul P, Wichers M, Myin-Germeys I (2014) Evidence That a Psychopathology Interactome Has Diagnostic Value, Predicting Clinical Needs: An Experience Sampling Study. PLoS One 9: e86652. Wichers M (2014) The dynamic nature of depression: a new micro-level perspective of mental disorder that meets current challenges. Psychol Med 44: 1349-60. Wichers M, Lothmann C, Simons CJ, Nicolson NA, Peeters F (2012) The dynamic interplay between negative and positive emotions in daily life predicts response to treatment in depression: a momentary assessment study. Br J Clin Psychol 51: 206-22.",
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month = "11",
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doi = "10.1093/alcalc/agw010",
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pages = "655–663",
journal = "Alcohol and Alcoholism",
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The role of specific alcohol-related problems in predicting depressive experiences in a cross-sectional national household survey. / McBride, Orla; Cheng, H.G.; Lynskey, M.T.; Slade, T.

In: Alcohol & Alcoholism, Vol. 51, No. 6, 26.11.2016, p. 655–663.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The role of specific alcohol-related problems in predicting depressive experiences in a cross-sectional national household survey

AU - McBride, Orla

AU - Cheng, H.G.

AU - Lynskey, M.T.

AU - Slade, T.

N1 - Reference text: Aggen SH, Neale MC, Kendler KS (2005) DSM criteria for major depression: evaluating symptom patterns using latent-trait item response models. Psychol Med 35: 475-87. Archer KJ, Lemeshow S, Hosmer DW (2007) Goodness-of-fit tests for logistic regression models when data are collected using a complex sampling design. Comput Stat Data An 51: 4450-64. Bell S and Britton A (2014) An exploration of the dynamic longitudinal relationship between mental health and alcohol consumption: a prospective cohort study. BMC Med 12: 1. Bentall RP, Wickham S, Shevlin M, Varese F (2012) Do specific early-life adversities lead to specific symptoms of psychosis? A study from the 2007 the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. Schizophr Bull 38: 734-40. Boden JM and Fergusson DM (2011) Alcohol and depression. Addiction 106: 906-14. Borsboom D and Cramer AO (2013) Network analysis: an integrative approach to the structure of psychopathology. Annu Rev Clin Psychol 9: 91-121. Borsboom D, Cramer AO, Schmittmann VD, Epskamp S, Waldorp LJ (2011) The small world of psychopathology. PLoS One 6: e27407. Boschloo L, van Borkulo CD, Rhemtulla M, Keyes KM, Borsboom D, Schoevers RA (2015) The Network Structure of Symptoms of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. PLoS One 10: e0137621. Boschloo L, Vogelzangs N, van den Brink W et al. (2012) Alcohol use disorders and the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Br J Psychiatry 200: 476-84. Carragher N, Mewton L, Slade T, Teesson M (2011) An item response analysis of the DSM-IV criteria for major depression: findings from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. J Affect Disord 130: 92-98. Conner KR (2011) Clarifying the relationship between alcohol and depression. Addiction 106: 915-16. Conner KR, Pinquart M, Gamble SA (2009) Meta-analysis of depression and substance use among individuals with alcohol use disorders. J Subst Abuse Treat 37: 127-37. Cramer AO, Waldorp LJ, van der Maas HL, Borsboom D (2010) Comorbidity: A network perspective. Behav Brain Sci 33: 137-50. Cuijpers P and Smit F (2004) Subthreshold depression as a risk indicator for major depressive disorder: a systematic review of prospective studies. Acta Psychiatr Scand 109: 325-31. Davis L, Uezato A, Newell JM, Frazier E (2008) Major depression and comorbid substance use disorders. Curr Opin Psychiatry 21: 14-18. de Graaf R, ten Have M, Tuithof M, van Dorsselaer S (2013) First-incidence of DSM-IV mood, anxiety and substance use disorders and its determinants: Results from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2. J Affect Disord 149: 100-07. Fairman BJ and Anthony JC (2012) Are early-onset cannabis smokers at an increased risk of depression spells? J Affect Disord 138: 54-62. Falk DE, Yi H-y, Hilton ME (2008) Age of onset and temporal sequencing of lifetime DSM-IV alcohol use disorders relative to comorbid mood and anxiety disorders. Drug Alcohol Depend 94: 234-45. Fergusson DM, Boden JM, Horwood LJ (2009) Tests of causal links between alcohol abuse or dependence and major depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 66: 260-66. Flensborg-Madsen T, Mortensen EL, Knop J, Becker U, Sher L, Grønbæk M (2009) Comorbidity and temporal ordering of alcohol use disorders and other psychiatric disorders: results from a Danish register-based study. Compr Psychiatry 50: 307-14. Fried E, Nesse R, Guille C, Sen S (2015) The differential influence of life stress on individual symptoms of depression. Acta Psychiatr Scand 131: 465-71. Fried E, Nesse R, Zivin K, Guille C, Sen S (2013) Depression is more than the sum score of its parts: individual DSM symptoms have different risk factors. Psychol Med: 1-10. Fried E, Nesse R, Zivin K, Guille C, Sen S (2014) Depression is more than the sum score of its parts: individual DSM symptoms have different risk factors. Psychol Med 44: 2067-76. Gilman SE and Abraham HD (2001) A longitudinal study of the order of onset of alcohol dependence and major depression. Drug Alcohol Depend 63: 277-86. Grant B, Hasin D, Dawson D (1996a) The relationship between DSM-IV alcohol use disorders and DSM-IV major depression: examination of the primary-secondary distinction in a general population sample. J Affect Disord 38: 113-28. Grant BF and Harford TC (1995) Comorbidity between DSM-IV alcohol use disorders and major depression: results of a national survey. Drug Alcohol Depend 39: 197-206. Grant BF and Hasin D (1992) The Alcohol Use Disorder amd Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule. Rockville, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Grant BF, Hasin DS, Dawson DA (1996b) The relationship between DSM-IV alcohol use disorders and DSM-IV major depression: examination of the primary-secondary distinction in a general population sample. J Affect Disord 38: 113-28. Hasin DS, O’Brien CP, Auriacombe M et al. (2013) DSM-5 criteria for substance use disorders: recommendations and rationale. Am J Psychiatry. Hosmer DW and Lemesbow S (1980) Goodness of fit tests for the multiple logistic regression model. Communications in Statistics-Theory and Methods 9: 1043-69. Howe LD, Tilling K, Galobardes B, Lawlor DA (2013) Loss to follow-up in cohort studies: bias in estimates of socioeconomic inequalities. Epidemiology 24: 1-9. Kessler RC, Crum RM, Warner LA, Nelson CB, Schulenberg J, Anthony JC (1997) Lifetime co-occurrence of DSM-III-R alcohol abuse and dependence with other psychiatric disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey. Arch Gen Psychiatry 54: 313-21. Khantzian EJ (1985) The self-medication hypothesis of addictive disorders: focus on heroin and cocaine dependence. Am J Psychiatry 142: 1259-64. Kuo P-H, Gardner CO, Kendler KS, Prescott CA (2006) The temporal relationship of the onsets of alcohol dependence and major depression: using a genetically informative study design. Psychol Med 36: 1153-62. Lane SP and Sher KJ (2014) Limits of Current Approaches to Diagnosis Severity Based on Criterion Counts An Example With DSM-5 Alcohol Use Disorder. Clinical Psychological Science: 1-17. Lembke A (2012) Time to abandon the self-medication hypothesis in patients with psychiatric disorders. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 38: 524-29. Lembke A (2013) From self‐medication to intoxication: time for a paradigm shift. Addiction 108: 670-71. Lynskey MT (1998) The comorbidity of alcohol dependence and affective disorders: treatment implications. Drug Alcohol Depend 52: 201-09. McBride O, Adamson G, Bunting BP, McCann S (2009) Assessing the general health of diagnostic orphans using the Short Form Health Survey (SF-12v2): a latent variable modelling approach. Alcohol Alcohol 44: 67-76. McBride O, Teesson M, Baillie A, Slade T (2011) Assessing the dimensionality of lifetime DSM-IV alcohol use disorders and a quantity–frequency alcohol use criterion in the Australian population: a factor mixture modelling approach. Alcohol Alcohol 46: 333-41. Merikangas KR, Mehta RL, Molnar BE et al. (1998) Comorbidity of substance use disorders with mood and anxiety disorders: results of the International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology. Addict Behav 23: 893-907. Os J, Delespaul P, Wigman J, Myin-Germeys I, Wichers M (2013) Beyond DSM and ICD: introducing “precision diagnosis” for psychiatry using momentary assessment technology. World Psychiatry 12: 113-17. Raimo EB and Schuckit MA (1998) Alcohol dependence and mood disorders. Addict Behav 23: 933-46. Schmittmann VD, Cramer AO, Waldorp LJ, Epskamp S, Kievit RA, Borsboom D (2013) Deconstructing the construct: A network perspective on psychological phenomena. New Ideas Psychol 31: 43-53. Slade T, McEvoy P, Chapman C, Grove R, Teesson M (2013) Onset and temporal sequencing of lifetime anxiety, mood and substance use disorders in the general population. Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci: 1-9. Sribney W (2005) Why should I not do a likelihood-ratio test after an ML estimation (e.g., logit, probit) with clustering or pweights?, Vol. 2014. Stinson FS, Yi H-Y, Grant BF et al. (1998) Drinking in the United States: Main findings from the 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey (NLAES). U.S. Alcohol Epidemiologic Data Reference Manual, Report 99-3519. Bethesda, MD: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Treeby M and Bruno R (2012) Shame and guilt-proneness: Divergent implications for problematic alcohol use and drinking to cope with anxiety and depression symptomatology. Pers Individ Dif 53: 613-17. van Os J, Lataster T, Delespaul P, Wichers M, Myin-Germeys I (2014) Evidence That a Psychopathology Interactome Has Diagnostic Value, Predicting Clinical Needs: An Experience Sampling Study. PLoS One 9: e86652. Wichers M (2014) The dynamic nature of depression: a new micro-level perspective of mental disorder that meets current challenges. Psychol Med 44: 1349-60. Wichers M, Lothmann C, Simons CJ, Nicolson NA, Peeters F (2012) The dynamic interplay between negative and positive emotions in daily life predicts response to treatment in depression: a momentary assessment study. Br J Clin Psychol 51: 206-22.

PY - 2016/11/26

Y1 - 2016/11/26

N2 - Aims: This study examines the type of alcohol-related problems that commonly occur before the onset of depressive experiences to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the alcohol-depression comorbidity relationship. Methods: Data were from the 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Analytical sample comprised of drinkers with a prior to past year (PPY) history of alcohol-related problems with or without any experiences of depressed mood in the past year (PY). The prevalence of PPY alcohol-related problems was examined, as well as the ability of specific alcohol problems to predict PY experiences of depressed mood. The type of depressed mood experienced by drinkers with PPY history of alcohol-related problems was compared to those without. Results: All but one alcohol-related problem PPY was more frequently endorsed among drinkers with PY experiences of depressed mood. Controlling for confounders, five alcohol-related problems experienced PPY were significantly predictive of depressed mood PY: tolerance, drinking longer than intended, inability to perform important social and occupational roles/obligations, as well as drinking in physically hazardous situations. Drinkers with alcohol-related problems PPY more frequently experienced difficulties with concentration, energy, and thoughts of death, than those without. Conclusions: Alcohol-related problems are likely associated with depressive experiences through a complex network, whereby experiences of physical dependence and negative consequences increase the likelihood of negative affect. Novel study designs are necessary to fully understand the complex mechanisms underlying this comorbidity.

AB - Aims: This study examines the type of alcohol-related problems that commonly occur before the onset of depressive experiences to shed light on the mechanisms underlying the alcohol-depression comorbidity relationship. Methods: Data were from the 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey. Analytical sample comprised of drinkers with a prior to past year (PPY) history of alcohol-related problems with or without any experiences of depressed mood in the past year (PY). The prevalence of PPY alcohol-related problems was examined, as well as the ability of specific alcohol problems to predict PY experiences of depressed mood. The type of depressed mood experienced by drinkers with PPY history of alcohol-related problems was compared to those without. Results: All but one alcohol-related problem PPY was more frequently endorsed among drinkers with PY experiences of depressed mood. Controlling for confounders, five alcohol-related problems experienced PPY were significantly predictive of depressed mood PY: tolerance, drinking longer than intended, inability to perform important social and occupational roles/obligations, as well as drinking in physically hazardous situations. Drinkers with alcohol-related problems PPY more frequently experienced difficulties with concentration, energy, and thoughts of death, than those without. Conclusions: Alcohol-related problems are likely associated with depressive experiences through a complex network, whereby experiences of physical dependence and negative consequences increase the likelihood of negative affect. Novel study designs are necessary to fully understand the complex mechanisms underlying this comorbidity.

KW - alcohol

KW - depression

KW - comorbidity

KW - temporal ordering

KW - sequence

U2 - 10.1093/alcalc/agw010

DO - 10.1093/alcalc/agw010

M3 - Article

VL - 51

SP - 655

EP - 663

JO - Alcohol and Alcoholism

T2 - Alcohol and Alcoholism

JF - Alcohol and Alcoholism

SN - 0735-0414

IS - 6

ER -