Low carbon technologies are necessary to address global warming issues through electricity decabonisation, but their large-scale integration challenges the stability and security of electricity supply. Energy storage can support this transition by bringing flexibility to the grid but since it represents high capital investments, the right choices must be made in terms of the technology and the location point in the network. Most of the potential for storage is achieved when connected further from the load, and Battery Energy Storage Systems (BESS) are a strong candidate for behind-the-meter integration. This work reviews and evaluates the state-of-the-art development of BESS, analysing the benefits and barriers to a wider range of applications in the domestic sector. Existing modelling tools that are key for a better assessment of the impacts of BESS to the grid are also reviewed. It is shown that the technology exists and has potential for including Electric Vehicle battery reuse, however it is still mostly applied to optimise domestic photovoltaic electricity utilisation. The barriers to a wider integration are financial, economic, technical, as well as market and regulation. Increased field trials and robust numerical modelling should be the next step to gain investment confidence and allow BESS to reach their potential.
- batteries energy storage systems;
- grid services
- electricity network