An electroplating process has been employed to grow high-quality thin films of copper on tin oxide transparent semiconductor withexcellent adhesion. It is shown that electrolysis reduction as a surface modification process prior to the electrodeposition is essential forgood adhesion of the resulting copper coating. Experimental results obtained for electrolysis, argon plasma cleaning, and surface roughnessmeasurements indicate that the formation of a monolayer of low valence tin oxide may be significant to the improvements in plating processand deposit adhesion. A mechanism whereby SnOx formation may facilitate improved adhesion is proposed.
Liu, JS., Laverty, SJ., Maguire, PD., McLaughlin, JAD., & Molloy, J. (1994). The Role of an Electrolysis Reduction in Copper-Electroplating on Transparent Semiconductor Tin Oxide. Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 141(4), L38. https://doi.org/10.1149/1.2054872