PURPOSE. A critical event in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy is the inappropriate adherence of leukocytes to the retinal capillaries. Advanced glycation end-products (AGES) are known to play a role in chronic inflammatory processes, and the authors postulated that these adducts may play a role in promoting pathogenic increases in proinflammatory pathways within the retinal microvasculature. METHODS. Retinal microvascular endothelial cells (RMECs) were treated with glycoaldehyde-modified albumin (AGE-Alb) or unmodified albumin (Alb). NFkappaB DNA binding was measured by electromobility shift assay (EMSA) and quantified with an ELISA. In addition, the effect of AGES on leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayers was investigated. Further studies were performed in an attempt to confirm that this was AGE-induced adhesion by co-incubation of AGE-treated cells with soluble receptor for AGE (sRAGE). Parallel in vivo studies of nondiabetic mice assessed the effect of intraperitoneal delivery of AGE-Alb on ICAM-I mRNA expression, NFkappaB DNA-binding activity, leukostasis, and blood-retinal barrier breakdown. RESULTS. Treatment with AGE-Alb significantly enhanced the DNA-binding activity of NFkappaB (P = 0.0045) in retinal endothelial cells (RMECs) and increased the adhesion of leukocytes to RMEC monolayers (P = 0.04). The latter was significantly reduced by co-incubation with sRAGE (P < 0.01). Mice infused with AGE-Alb demonstrated a 1.8-fold increase in ICAM-1 mRNA when compared with control animals (P < 0.001, n = 20) as early as 48 hours, and this response remained for 7 days of treatment. Quantification of retinal NFkappaB demonstrated a threefold increase with AGE-Alb infusion in comparison to control levels (AGE Alb versus Alb, 0.23 vs. 0.076, P < 0.001, n = 10 mice). AGE-Alb treatment of mice also caused a significant increase in leukostasis in the retina (AGE-Alb versus Alb, 6.89 vs. 2.53, n = 12, P < 0.05) and a statistically significant increase in breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (AGE Alb versus Alb, 8.2 vs. 1.6 n = 10, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS. AGES caused upregulation of NFκB in the retinal microvascular endothelium and an AGE-specific increase in leukocyte adhesion in vitro was also observed. In addition, increased leukocyte adherence in vivo was demonstrated that was accompanied by blood-retinal barrier dysfunction. These findings add further evidence to the thinking that AGES may play an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.
Moore, T., Moore, J., Kaji, Y., Frizzell, N., Usui, T., Poulaki, V., ... Pathog, APPACEIT. (2003). The role of advanced glycation end products in retinal microvascular leukostasis. INVESTIGATIVE OPHTHALMOLOGY & VISUAL SCIENCE, 44(10), 4457-4464. https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.02-1063