The Revolution will be Hacktivated: Turkish Marxist Hacker Groups

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

The democratic rights claimed to be enshrined but curtailed under the AKP government’s repressive regime was counterbalanced by Redhack, a Turkish hacktivist group online. Through their diverse tactics such as resistance, revelation and countering Redhack’s activity led to a digital transformation in Turkish politics. Redhack’s opposition is towards AKP’s neo-liberal patronage policies. The resistance took many forms: (1) defacing government websites that misuse public resources. (2) revelation to counter censorship against traditional media by the AKP government. By revealing documents related to AKP government’s corruption, Redhack led the way for traditional media to bring the issue to public scrutiny. The third tactic of taking direct action in the form of counter-attack came as a result of the Gezi Park Occupy Istanbul movement. Redhack actively used television to voice their agenda and called people to action. A networked discourse analysis that looks at mediation of playful tactics by hacktivists is a new transformative phase in how cyber security shifts from terrorism into information resistance, revelation and countering.
LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationDigital Transformations in Turkey: Current Perspectives in Communication Studies
EditorsBanu Akdenizli
Place of PublicationLanham, MD
Pages275-286
Publication statusPublished - 20 Mar 2015

Fingerprint

hacker
tactics
Group
censorship
clientelism
discourse analysis
corruption
mediation
website
television
terrorism
opposition
regime
politics
resources

Keywords

  • hacktivism
  • REDHACK
  • Turkish media
  • social media

Cite this

Akser, M. (2015). The Revolution will be Hacktivated: Turkish Marxist Hacker Groups. In B. Akdenizli (Ed.), Digital Transformations in Turkey: Current Perspectives in Communication Studies (pp. 275-286). Lanham, MD.
Akser, Murat. / The Revolution will be Hacktivated: Turkish Marxist Hacker Groups. Digital Transformations in Turkey: Current Perspectives in Communication Studies. editor / Banu Akdenizli. Lanham, MD, 2015. pp. 275-286
@inbook{5bab1eb65a6748da9538e5ad320e6b7a,
title = "The Revolution will be Hacktivated: Turkish Marxist Hacker Groups",
abstract = "The democratic rights claimed to be enshrined but curtailed under the AKP government’s repressive regime was counterbalanced by Redhack, a Turkish hacktivist group online. Through their diverse tactics such as resistance, revelation and countering Redhack’s activity led to a digital transformation in Turkish politics. Redhack’s opposition is towards AKP’s neo-liberal patronage policies. The resistance took many forms: (1) defacing government websites that misuse public resources. (2) revelation to counter censorship against traditional media by the AKP government. By revealing documents related to AKP government’s corruption, Redhack led the way for traditional media to bring the issue to public scrutiny. The third tactic of taking direct action in the form of counter-attack came as a result of the Gezi Park Occupy Istanbul movement. Redhack actively used television to voice their agenda and called people to action. A networked discourse analysis that looks at mediation of playful tactics by hacktivists is a new transformative phase in how cyber security shifts from terrorism into information resistance, revelation and countering.",
keywords = "hacktivism, REDHACK, Turkish media, social media",
author = "Murat Akser",
note = "Reference text: Acar, N. O. (2013). {\"O}zg{\"u}rl{\"u}k alanı olarak sunulan sosyal medya ve taksim gezi parkı eylemleri [Social media presented as a freedom space and taksim gezi park protests]. Akdeniz Iletisim, (20)1, 202-217. Akser, M., & Baybars-Hawks, B. (2012). Media and democracy in Turkey: Toward a model of neoliberal media autocracy. Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication, 5(3), 302-321. Akser, M. & Baybars-Hawks, B. (2011). {"}Cyberterror a la turca.{"} In B. Baybars-Hawks & L. Baruh, (Eds.), If it was not for terrorism: crisis, compromise and elite discourse in the age of war on terror (pp. 204-212). Newcastle-upon-tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Albayrak, G. (2013). Si̇ber alan ve uluslararasi hukuk: si̇ber savaş {\cc}aği [Cyberspace and international law: the age of cyberwar] Ankara Strateji Enstitusu. Retrieved from http://www.ankarastrateji.org/misafir-yazar/siber-uzay-ve-uluslar-arasi-hukuk-siber-savas-cagi-15/ Assange, J. (2010, Nov 25). The curious origins of political hacktivism. CounterPunch. Retrieved from http://www.counterpunch.org/2006/11/25/the-curious-origins-of-political-hacktivism/ Bolt, N. (2010). The Leak Before the Storm: What Wikileaks Tells Us About Modern Communication. The RUSI Journal, 155(4), 46-51. BBC News (2011, June 16). LulzSec hackers claim CIA website shutdown. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-13787229 Cammaerts, B. (2013). Networked Resistance: the case of WikiLeaks. Journal of ComputerMediated Communication, 18(4), 420-436. Doi:10.1111/jcc4.12024 Conway, M. (2007). Cyberterrorism: Hype and reality. In L. Armistead (Ed.), Information warfare: Separating hype from reality (pp. 73–94).Washington, DC: Potomac Books. Coleman, G. (2013). Anonymous and the politics of leaking. In B. Brevini, A. Hintz & P. McCurdy (Eds.) Beyond wikileaks: implications for the future of communications, journalism and society (pp. 209-228). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Doi: 10.1057/9781137275745.0019. Cyber attack raises Y{\"O}K corruption allegations. (2013, January 9). Today’s Zaman. Retrieved from: http://www.todayszaman.com/national_cyber-attack-raises-yok-corruption-allegations_303520.html Hacking suspects freed pending trial. (2012, November 27). H{\"u}rriyet Daily News. Retrieved from: http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/hacking-suspects-freed-pending-trial.aspx?pageID=238&nID=35537&NewsCatID=339 E-attack reveals fraud, rift in university system. (2013, January 11). H{\"u}rriyet Daily News. Retrieved from: http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/e-attack-reveals-fraud-rift-in-university-system.aspx?pageID=238&nID=38832&NewsCatID=339 Jensen, E. T. (2012). Cyber deterrence. Emory International Law Review, 26(2), 773-824. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2070438. Jordan, T. (2008). Hacking: digital media and technological determinism. Cambridge: Polity Press. Julian, A. (1999). Computer hacker activism: a new way to justify malicious mischief. EDPACS: The edp audit, control, and security newsletter, 26(9), 7-13. Doi: 10.1201/1079/43246.26.9.19990301/30246.2. Kinikoglu, B. (2014). Evaluating the regulation of access to online content in turkey in the context of freedom of speech. Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology, 9(1), 36-55. Krapp, P. (2005) Terror and play, or what was hacktivism? Grey Room. 21, 70-93. doi:10.1162/152638105774539770. Krapp, P. (2011) Noise channels: glitch and error in digital culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Lindgren S. & R. Lundstr{\"o}m (2011). Pirate culture and hacktivist mobilization: the cultural and social protocols of #wikileaks on twitter. New Media & Society. 13(6), 999-1018. doi: 10.1177/1461444811414833 Ludlow, P. (2013, January 13). What is a ‘hacktivist’. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/01/13/what-is-a-hacktivist/ Lunceford, B. (2012). The rhetoric of the web: the rhetoric of the streets revisited again. Communication Law Review, 12(1), 40-55. Meikle, G. (2002). Future active: media activism and the internet. London: Routledge. Mezzofiore, G. (2012, April 24) Anonymous joins marxist redhack group against turkey internet censors. Retrieved from: http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/anonymous-join-marxist-redhack-group-against-turkey-332422. Milan, S. (2013a) WikiLeaks, Anonymous, and the Exercise of Individuality: Protesting in the Cloud. In B. Brevini, A. Hintz & P. McCurdy (Eds.) Beyond wikileaks: implications for the future of communications, journalism and society (pp. 191-208). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Doi: 10.1057/9781137275745.0018. Milan, S. (2013b). Social movements and their technologies: wiring social change. Palgrave Macmillan. Mills, E (2012, March 30). Old-time hacktivists: Anonymous, you've crossed the line. CNET. Retrieved from: http://www.cnet.com/news/old-time-hacktivists-anonymous-youve-crossed-the-line/ Polat, B., Bakıroğlu, C. T., & Sayın, M. E. D. (2013). Hactivism in turkey: the case of redhack. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4(9), 628-636. Doi:10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n9p628.Redhack (2013). HalkTV Interview. Retrieved from: http://redhackenglish.tumblr.com/post/52569873206/redhack-halktv-interview Reuters (2013, May 11). 43 killed, over 100 injured as blasts rock turkish town on syrian border. Retrieved from: http://rt.com/news/turkey-explosions-syria-border-146/ Saporito, B. (2011, June 23). Hack attack. Retrieved from: http://content.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,2079423,00.html. Schneier, B. (2011, July 21) Is there a hacking epidemic? Retrieved from: https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2011/07/is_there_a_hack.html Suspects in RedHack, Anonymous case released. (2013, November 26). Today’s Zaman. Retrieved from: http://www.todayszaman.com/national_suspects-in-redhack-anonymous-case-released_332451.html TGC condemns media ban on Cihan news agency in Reyhanlı. (2013, May 14). Today’s Zaman. Retrieved from: http://www.todayszaman.com/news-315393-tgc-condemns-media-ban-on-cihan-news-agency-in-reyhanli.html Topak, {\"O}. E. (2013). Governing turkey’s information society. Current Sociology, 61(5-6), 565-583. Doi: 10.1177/0011392113486633. Turkan, I. (2012). Democratisation and new media dilemmas: a case study of press freedom in turkey. Irish Studies in International Affairs, 23(1), 23-35. Turkish hacker group Redhack claims responsibility for all tweets about Gezi protests. (2013, June 20). H{\"u}rriyet Daily News. Retrieved from: http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-hacker-group-redhack-claims-responsibility-for-all-tweets-about-gezi-protests.aspx?pageID=238&nID=49137&NewsCatID=341 Twitter suspends RedHack, 'suggests' another Turkish user deletes political tweet. (2014, July 16). H{\"u}rriyet Daily News. Retrieved from: http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/twitter-suspends-redhack-suggests-another-turkish-user-deletes-political-tweet.aspx?pageID=238&nID=69184&NewsCatID=339 Weisenthal, J. (2011, June 25). Notorious hacker group lulzsec just announced that it's finished. Business Insider. Retrieved from: http://www.businessinsider.com/lulzsec-finished-2011-6.",
year = "2015",
month = "3",
day = "20",
language = "English",
isbn = "9780739191194",
pages = "275--286",
editor = "Banu Akdenizli",
booktitle = "Digital Transformations in Turkey: Current Perspectives in Communication Studies",

}

Akser, M 2015, The Revolution will be Hacktivated: Turkish Marxist Hacker Groups. in B Akdenizli (ed.), Digital Transformations in Turkey: Current Perspectives in Communication Studies. Lanham, MD, pp. 275-286.

The Revolution will be Hacktivated: Turkish Marxist Hacker Groups. / Akser, Murat.

Digital Transformations in Turkey: Current Perspectives in Communication Studies. ed. / Banu Akdenizli. Lanham, MD, 2015. p. 275-286.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

TY - CHAP

T1 - The Revolution will be Hacktivated: Turkish Marxist Hacker Groups

AU - Akser, Murat

N1 - Reference text: Acar, N. O. (2013). Özgürlük alanı olarak sunulan sosyal medya ve taksim gezi parkı eylemleri [Social media presented as a freedom space and taksim gezi park protests]. Akdeniz Iletisim, (20)1, 202-217. Akser, M., & Baybars-Hawks, B. (2012). Media and democracy in Turkey: Toward a model of neoliberal media autocracy. Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication, 5(3), 302-321. Akser, M. & Baybars-Hawks, B. (2011). "Cyberterror a la turca." In B. Baybars-Hawks & L. Baruh, (Eds.), If it was not for terrorism: crisis, compromise and elite discourse in the age of war on terror (pp. 204-212). Newcastle-upon-tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing. Albayrak, G. (2013). Si̇ber alan ve uluslararasi hukuk: si̇ber savaş çaği [Cyberspace and international law: the age of cyberwar] Ankara Strateji Enstitusu. Retrieved from http://www.ankarastrateji.org/misafir-yazar/siber-uzay-ve-uluslar-arasi-hukuk-siber-savas-cagi-15/ Assange, J. (2010, Nov 25). The curious origins of political hacktivism. CounterPunch. Retrieved from http://www.counterpunch.org/2006/11/25/the-curious-origins-of-political-hacktivism/ Bolt, N. (2010). The Leak Before the Storm: What Wikileaks Tells Us About Modern Communication. The RUSI Journal, 155(4), 46-51. BBC News (2011, June 16). LulzSec hackers claim CIA website shutdown. Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/technology-13787229 Cammaerts, B. (2013). Networked Resistance: the case of WikiLeaks. Journal of ComputerMediated Communication, 18(4), 420-436. Doi:10.1111/jcc4.12024 Conway, M. (2007). Cyberterrorism: Hype and reality. In L. Armistead (Ed.), Information warfare: Separating hype from reality (pp. 73–94).Washington, DC: Potomac Books. Coleman, G. (2013). Anonymous and the politics of leaking. In B. Brevini, A. Hintz & P. McCurdy (Eds.) Beyond wikileaks: implications for the future of communications, journalism and society (pp. 209-228). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Doi: 10.1057/9781137275745.0019. Cyber attack raises YÖK corruption allegations. (2013, January 9). Today’s Zaman. Retrieved from: http://www.todayszaman.com/national_cyber-attack-raises-yok-corruption-allegations_303520.html Hacking suspects freed pending trial. (2012, November 27). Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved from: http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/hacking-suspects-freed-pending-trial.aspx?pageID=238&nID=35537&NewsCatID=339 E-attack reveals fraud, rift in university system. (2013, January 11). Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved from: http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/e-attack-reveals-fraud-rift-in-university-system.aspx?pageID=238&nID=38832&NewsCatID=339 Jensen, E. T. (2012). Cyber deterrence. Emory International Law Review, 26(2), 773-824. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2070438. Jordan, T. (2008). Hacking: digital media and technological determinism. Cambridge: Polity Press. Julian, A. (1999). Computer hacker activism: a new way to justify malicious mischief. EDPACS: The edp audit, control, and security newsletter, 26(9), 7-13. Doi: 10.1201/1079/43246.26.9.19990301/30246.2. Kinikoglu, B. (2014). Evaluating the regulation of access to online content in turkey in the context of freedom of speech. Journal of International Commercial Law and Technology, 9(1), 36-55. Krapp, P. (2005) Terror and play, or what was hacktivism? Grey Room. 21, 70-93. doi:10.1162/152638105774539770. Krapp, P. (2011) Noise channels: glitch and error in digital culture. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Lindgren S. & R. Lundström (2011). Pirate culture and hacktivist mobilization: the cultural and social protocols of #wikileaks on twitter. New Media & Society. 13(6), 999-1018. doi: 10.1177/1461444811414833 Ludlow, P. (2013, January 13). What is a ‘hacktivist’. The New York Times. Retrieved from: http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2013/01/13/what-is-a-hacktivist/ Lunceford, B. (2012). The rhetoric of the web: the rhetoric of the streets revisited again. Communication Law Review, 12(1), 40-55. Meikle, G. (2002). Future active: media activism and the internet. London: Routledge. Mezzofiore, G. (2012, April 24) Anonymous joins marxist redhack group against turkey internet censors. Retrieved from: http://www.ibtimes.co.uk/anonymous-join-marxist-redhack-group-against-turkey-332422. Milan, S. (2013a) WikiLeaks, Anonymous, and the Exercise of Individuality: Protesting in the Cloud. In B. Brevini, A. Hintz & P. McCurdy (Eds.) Beyond wikileaks: implications for the future of communications, journalism and society (pp. 191-208). Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan. Doi: 10.1057/9781137275745.0018. Milan, S. (2013b). Social movements and their technologies: wiring social change. Palgrave Macmillan. Mills, E (2012, March 30). Old-time hacktivists: Anonymous, you've crossed the line. CNET. Retrieved from: http://www.cnet.com/news/old-time-hacktivists-anonymous-youve-crossed-the-line/ Polat, B., Bakıroğlu, C. T., & Sayın, M. E. D. (2013). Hactivism in turkey: the case of redhack. Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences, 4(9), 628-636. Doi:10.5901/mjss.2013.v4n9p628.Redhack (2013). HalkTV Interview. Retrieved from: http://redhackenglish.tumblr.com/post/52569873206/redhack-halktv-interview Reuters (2013, May 11). 43 killed, over 100 injured as blasts rock turkish town on syrian border. Retrieved from: http://rt.com/news/turkey-explosions-syria-border-146/ Saporito, B. (2011, June 23). Hack attack. Retrieved from: http://content.time.com/time/business/article/0,8599,2079423,00.html. Schneier, B. (2011, July 21) Is there a hacking epidemic? Retrieved from: https://www.schneier.com/blog/archives/2011/07/is_there_a_hack.html Suspects in RedHack, Anonymous case released. (2013, November 26). Today’s Zaman. Retrieved from: http://www.todayszaman.com/national_suspects-in-redhack-anonymous-case-released_332451.html TGC condemns media ban on Cihan news agency in Reyhanlı. (2013, May 14). Today’s Zaman. Retrieved from: http://www.todayszaman.com/news-315393-tgc-condemns-media-ban-on-cihan-news-agency-in-reyhanli.html Topak, Ö. E. (2013). Governing turkey’s information society. Current Sociology, 61(5-6), 565-583. Doi: 10.1177/0011392113486633. Turkan, I. (2012). Democratisation and new media dilemmas: a case study of press freedom in turkey. Irish Studies in International Affairs, 23(1), 23-35. Turkish hacker group Redhack claims responsibility for all tweets about Gezi protests. (2013, June 20). Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved from: http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkish-hacker-group-redhack-claims-responsibility-for-all-tweets-about-gezi-protests.aspx?pageID=238&nID=49137&NewsCatID=341 Twitter suspends RedHack, 'suggests' another Turkish user deletes political tweet. (2014, July 16). Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved from: http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/twitter-suspends-redhack-suggests-another-turkish-user-deletes-political-tweet.aspx?pageID=238&nID=69184&NewsCatID=339 Weisenthal, J. (2011, June 25). Notorious hacker group lulzsec just announced that it's finished. Business Insider. Retrieved from: http://www.businessinsider.com/lulzsec-finished-2011-6.

PY - 2015/3/20

Y1 - 2015/3/20

N2 - The democratic rights claimed to be enshrined but curtailed under the AKP government’s repressive regime was counterbalanced by Redhack, a Turkish hacktivist group online. Through their diverse tactics such as resistance, revelation and countering Redhack’s activity led to a digital transformation in Turkish politics. Redhack’s opposition is towards AKP’s neo-liberal patronage policies. The resistance took many forms: (1) defacing government websites that misuse public resources. (2) revelation to counter censorship against traditional media by the AKP government. By revealing documents related to AKP government’s corruption, Redhack led the way for traditional media to bring the issue to public scrutiny. The third tactic of taking direct action in the form of counter-attack came as a result of the Gezi Park Occupy Istanbul movement. Redhack actively used television to voice their agenda and called people to action. A networked discourse analysis that looks at mediation of playful tactics by hacktivists is a new transformative phase in how cyber security shifts from terrorism into information resistance, revelation and countering.

AB - The democratic rights claimed to be enshrined but curtailed under the AKP government’s repressive regime was counterbalanced by Redhack, a Turkish hacktivist group online. Through their diverse tactics such as resistance, revelation and countering Redhack’s activity led to a digital transformation in Turkish politics. Redhack’s opposition is towards AKP’s neo-liberal patronage policies. The resistance took many forms: (1) defacing government websites that misuse public resources. (2) revelation to counter censorship against traditional media by the AKP government. By revealing documents related to AKP government’s corruption, Redhack led the way for traditional media to bring the issue to public scrutiny. The third tactic of taking direct action in the form of counter-attack came as a result of the Gezi Park Occupy Istanbul movement. Redhack actively used television to voice their agenda and called people to action. A networked discourse analysis that looks at mediation of playful tactics by hacktivists is a new transformative phase in how cyber security shifts from terrorism into information resistance, revelation and countering.

KW - hacktivism

KW - REDHACK

KW - Turkish media

KW - social media

M3 - Chapter

SN - 9780739191194

SP - 275

EP - 286

BT - Digital Transformations in Turkey: Current Perspectives in Communication Studies

A2 - Akdenizli, Banu

CY - Lanham, MD

ER -

Akser M. The Revolution will be Hacktivated: Turkish Marxist Hacker Groups. In Akdenizli B, editor, Digital Transformations in Turkey: Current Perspectives in Communication Studies. Lanham, MD. 2015. p. 275-286