The relationship between the golf swing plane and ball impact characteristics using trajectory ellipse fitting

Andrew Morrison, Denise McGrath, Eric S Wallace

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The trajectory of the clubhead close to ball impact during the golf swing has previously been shown to be planar. However, the relationship between the plane orientation and the orientation characteristics of the clubhead at ball impact has yet to be defined. Fifty-two male golfers (27 high skilled, 25 intermediate skilled) hit 40 drives each in an indoor biomechanics laboratory. This study successfully fitted the trajectory of the clubhead near impact to an ellipse for each swing for players of different skill levels to help better explain this relationship. Additionally, the eccentricities of the ellipses were investigated for links to skill level. The trajectory of the clubhead was found to fit to an ellipse with RMSE of 1.2 mm. The eccentricity of the ellipse was found to be greater in the high-skilled golfers. The club path and angle of attack generated from the ellipse fitted clubhead trajectory were found to have a normalised bias-corrected RMSE of 2% and 3%, respectively. A set of “rule of thumb” values for the relationship between the club path, angle of attack and delivery plane angle was generated for use by coaches.
LanguageEnglish
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
Volume1
Early online date15 Mar 2017
DOIs
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 15 Mar 2017

Fingerprint

ellipse
trajectory
eccentricity
biomechanics
golf

Keywords

  • Plane fitting
  • trajectory
  • eccentricity
  • striking
  • performance

Cite this

@article{b8262b08221a43e39801dcd600a0a93f,
title = "The relationship between the golf swing plane and ball impact characteristics using trajectory ellipse fitting",
abstract = "The trajectory of the clubhead close to ball impact during the golf swing has previously been shown to be planar. However, the relationship between the plane orientation and the orientation characteristics of the clubhead at ball impact has yet to be defined. Fifty-two male golfers (27 high skilled, 25 intermediate skilled) hit 40 drives each in an indoor biomechanics laboratory. This study successfully fitted the trajectory of the clubhead near impact to an ellipse for each swing for players of different skill levels to help better explain this relationship. Additionally, the eccentricities of the ellipses were investigated for links to skill level. The trajectory of the clubhead was found to fit to an ellipse with RMSE of 1.2 mm. The eccentricity of the ellipse was found to be greater in the high-skilled golfers. The club path and angle of attack generated from the ellipse fitted clubhead trajectory were found to have a normalised bias-corrected RMSE of 2{\%} and 3{\%}, respectively. A set of “rule of thumb” values for the relationship between the club path, angle of attack and delivery plane angle was generated for use by coaches.",
keywords = "Plane fitting, trajectory, eccentricity, striking, performance",
author = "Andrew Morrison and Denise McGrath and Wallace, {Eric S}",
note = "Reference text: Betzler, N. F., Monk, S. A., Wallace, E. S., & Otto, S. R. (2012). Variability in clubhead presentation characteristics and ball impact location for golfers’ drives. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30, 439–448. doi:10.1080/ 02640414.2011.653981 Betzler, N. F., Monk, S. A., Wallace, E. S., & Otto, S. R. (2014). The relationships between driver clubhead presentation characteristics, ball launch conditions and golf shot outcomes. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, 228, 242–249. Brown, S. J., Nevill, A. M., Monk, S. A., Otto, S. R., Selbie, W. S., & Wallace, E. S. (2011). Determination of the swing technique characteristics and performance outcome relationship in golf driving for low handicap female golfers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29, 1483–1491. doi:10.1080/ 02640414.2011.605161 Brown, S. J., Selbie, W. S., & Wallace, E. S. (2013). The X-factor: An evaluation of common methods used to analyse major inter-segment kinematics during the golf swing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31, 1156–1163. doi:10.1080/02640414.2013.775474 Burkholder, E. F. (1995). Geodesy. In R. C. Brinker & R. Minnick (Eds.), The surveying handbook (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer. Chai, T., & Draxler, R. R. (2014). Root mean square error (RMSE) or mean absolute error (MAE)? – Arguments against avoiding RMSE in the literature. Geoscientific Model Development, 7, 1247–1250. doi:10.5194/ gmd-7-1247-2014 Chu, Y., Sell, C. T., & Lephart, S. (2010). The relationship between biomechanical variables and driving performance during the golf swing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28, 1251–1259. doi:10.1080/02640414.2010.507249 Coleman, S., & Anderson, D. (2007). An examination of the planar nature of golf club motion in the swings of experienced players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25, 739–748. doi:10.1080/ 02640410601113239 Giakas, G., Baltzopoulos, V., & Bartlett, R. (1997). Improved extrapolation techniques in recursive digital filtering: A comparison of least squares and prediction. Journal of Biomechanics, 31, 87–91. doi:10.1016/S0021- 9290(97)98097-0 Hardy, J., & Andrisani, J. (2005). The plane truth for golfers: breaking down the one-plane swing and the two-plane swing and finding the one that’s right for you. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Contemporary Harper, T. E., Roberts, J. R., & Jones, R. (2005). Driver swingweighting: A worthwhile process? Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 219, 385–393. Hogan, B. (1957). Ben hogan’s five lessons: the modern fundamentals of golf. London, UK: Simon & Schuster. Horan, S. A., & Kavanagh, J. J. (2012). The control of upper body segment speed and velocity during the golf swing. Sports Biomechanics, 11, 165– 174. doi:10.1080/14763141.2011.638390 Jenkins, S. (2007). Golf coaching and swing plane theories. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 2, 1–24. doi:10.1260/ 174795407789705541 Joyce, C., Burnett, A., Cochrane, J., & Ball, K. (2013). Three-dimensional trunk kinematics in golf: between-club differences and relationships to clubhead speed. Sports Biomechanics, 12, 108-120. doi:10.1016/S0021- 9290(07)70275-0 Keogh, J. W. L., & Hume, P. A. (2012). Evidence for biomechanics and motor learning research improving golf performance. Sports Biomechanics, 11, 288–309. doi:10.1080/14763141.2012.671354 Kwon, Y.-H., Como, C. S., Singhal, K., Lee, S., & Han, K. H. (2012). Assessment of planarity of the golf swing based on the functional swing plane of the clubhead and motion planes of the body points. Sports Biomechanics, 11, 127–148. doi:10.1080/14763141.2012.660799 MacKenzie, S. J. (2012). Club position relative to the golfer’s swing plane meaningfully affects swing dynamics. Sports Biomechanics, 11, 1–16. doi:10.1080/14763141.2011.638388 Morrison, A., McGrath, D., & Wallace, E. S. (2014). Changes in club head trajectory and planarity throughout the golf swing. Procedia Engineering, 72, 144–149. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2014.06.083 PGA. (2012). PGA study guide: Golf Coaching I. Sutton Coldfield, UK: The Professional Golfers Association Ltd. Sinclair, J., Currigan, G., Fewtrell, D. J., & Taylor, P. J. (2014). Biomechanical correlates of club-head velocity during the golf swing. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 14, 54–63. Suttie, J. K. (2005). Your perfect swing. Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Sweeney, M., Mills, P., Alderson, J., & Elliott, B. (2013). The influence of clubhead kinematics on early ball flight characteristics in the golf drive. Sports Biomechanics, 12, 247–258. doi:10.1080/14763141.2013.772225 Tucker, C. B., Anderson, R., & Kenny, I. C. (2013). Is outcome related to movement variability in golf? Sports Biomechanics, 12, 343-354. doi:10.1046/j.1460-2687.2002.00093.x Vint, P. F., &Hinrichs, R. N. (1996). Endpoint error in smoothing and differentiating raw kinematic data: An evaluation of four popular methods. Journal of Biomechanics, 29, 1637–1642. doi:10.1016/S0021-9290(96)80018-2 Winter, D. A. (2009). Biomechanics and motor control of human movement (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Wiren, G. (1991). The PGA manual of golf: The professional’s way to play better golf. Somerset, NJ: Hungry Minds. Zatsiorsky, V. M. (2002). Kinetics of human motion. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.",
year = "2017",
month = "3",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1080/02640414.2017.1303187",
language = "English",
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journal = "Journal of Sports Sciences",
issn = "0264-0414",

}

The relationship between the golf swing plane and ball impact characteristics using trajectory ellipse fitting. / Morrison, Andrew; McGrath, Denise; Wallace, Eric S.

In: Journal of Sports Sciences, Vol. 1, 15.03.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The relationship between the golf swing plane and ball impact characteristics using trajectory ellipse fitting

AU - Morrison, Andrew

AU - McGrath, Denise

AU - Wallace, Eric S

N1 - Reference text: Betzler, N. F., Monk, S. A., Wallace, E. S., & Otto, S. R. (2012). Variability in clubhead presentation characteristics and ball impact location for golfers’ drives. Journal of Sports Sciences, 30, 439–448. doi:10.1080/ 02640414.2011.653981 Betzler, N. F., Monk, S. A., Wallace, E. S., & Otto, S. R. (2014). The relationships between driver clubhead presentation characteristics, ball launch conditions and golf shot outcomes. Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part P: Journal of Sports Engineering and Technology, 228, 242–249. Brown, S. J., Nevill, A. M., Monk, S. A., Otto, S. R., Selbie, W. S., & Wallace, E. S. (2011). Determination of the swing technique characteristics and performance outcome relationship in golf driving for low handicap female golfers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 29, 1483–1491. doi:10.1080/ 02640414.2011.605161 Brown, S. J., Selbie, W. S., & Wallace, E. S. (2013). The X-factor: An evaluation of common methods used to analyse major inter-segment kinematics during the golf swing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31, 1156–1163. doi:10.1080/02640414.2013.775474 Burkholder, E. F. (1995). Geodesy. In R. C. Brinker & R. Minnick (Eds.), The surveying handbook (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Springer. Chai, T., & Draxler, R. R. (2014). Root mean square error (RMSE) or mean absolute error (MAE)? – Arguments against avoiding RMSE in the literature. Geoscientific Model Development, 7, 1247–1250. doi:10.5194/ gmd-7-1247-2014 Chu, Y., Sell, C. T., & Lephart, S. (2010). The relationship between biomechanical variables and driving performance during the golf swing. Journal of Sports Sciences, 28, 1251–1259. doi:10.1080/02640414.2010.507249 Coleman, S., & Anderson, D. (2007). An examination of the planar nature of golf club motion in the swings of experienced players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25, 739–748. doi:10.1080/ 02640410601113239 Giakas, G., Baltzopoulos, V., & Bartlett, R. (1997). Improved extrapolation techniques in recursive digital filtering: A comparison of least squares and prediction. Journal of Biomechanics, 31, 87–91. doi:10.1016/S0021- 9290(97)98097-0 Hardy, J., & Andrisani, J. (2005). The plane truth for golfers: breaking down the one-plane swing and the two-plane swing and finding the one that’s right for you. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Contemporary Harper, T. E., Roberts, J. R., & Jones, R. (2005). Driver swingweighting: A worthwhile process? Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part B: Journal of Engineering Manufacture, 219, 385–393. Hogan, B. (1957). Ben hogan’s five lessons: the modern fundamentals of golf. London, UK: Simon & Schuster. Horan, S. A., & Kavanagh, J. J. (2012). The control of upper body segment speed and velocity during the golf swing. Sports Biomechanics, 11, 165– 174. doi:10.1080/14763141.2011.638390 Jenkins, S. (2007). Golf coaching and swing plane theories. International Journal of Sports Science and Coaching, 2, 1–24. doi:10.1260/ 174795407789705541 Joyce, C., Burnett, A., Cochrane, J., & Ball, K. (2013). Three-dimensional trunk kinematics in golf: between-club differences and relationships to clubhead speed. Sports Biomechanics, 12, 108-120. doi:10.1016/S0021- 9290(07)70275-0 Keogh, J. W. L., & Hume, P. A. (2012). Evidence for biomechanics and motor learning research improving golf performance. Sports Biomechanics, 11, 288–309. doi:10.1080/14763141.2012.671354 Kwon, Y.-H., Como, C. S., Singhal, K., Lee, S., & Han, K. H. (2012). Assessment of planarity of the golf swing based on the functional swing plane of the clubhead and motion planes of the body points. Sports Biomechanics, 11, 127–148. doi:10.1080/14763141.2012.660799 MacKenzie, S. J. (2012). Club position relative to the golfer’s swing plane meaningfully affects swing dynamics. Sports Biomechanics, 11, 1–16. doi:10.1080/14763141.2011.638388 Morrison, A., McGrath, D., & Wallace, E. S. (2014). Changes in club head trajectory and planarity throughout the golf swing. Procedia Engineering, 72, 144–149. doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2014.06.083 PGA. (2012). PGA study guide: Golf Coaching I. Sutton Coldfield, UK: The Professional Golfers Association Ltd. Sinclair, J., Currigan, G., Fewtrell, D. J., & Taylor, P. J. (2014). Biomechanical correlates of club-head velocity during the golf swing. International Journal of Performance Analysis in Sport, 14, 54–63. Suttie, J. K. (2005). Your perfect swing. Leeds, UK: Human Kinetics. Sweeney, M., Mills, P., Alderson, J., & Elliott, B. (2013). The influence of clubhead kinematics on early ball flight characteristics in the golf drive. Sports Biomechanics, 12, 247–258. doi:10.1080/14763141.2013.772225 Tucker, C. B., Anderson, R., & Kenny, I. C. (2013). Is outcome related to movement variability in golf? Sports Biomechanics, 12, 343-354. doi:10.1046/j.1460-2687.2002.00093.x Vint, P. F., &Hinrichs, R. N. (1996). Endpoint error in smoothing and differentiating raw kinematic data: An evaluation of four popular methods. Journal of Biomechanics, 29, 1637–1642. doi:10.1016/S0021-9290(96)80018-2 Winter, D. A. (2009). Biomechanics and motor control of human movement (4th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley. Wiren, G. (1991). The PGA manual of golf: The professional’s way to play better golf. Somerset, NJ: Hungry Minds. Zatsiorsky, V. M. (2002). Kinetics of human motion. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

PY - 2017/3/15

Y1 - 2017/3/15

N2 - The trajectory of the clubhead close to ball impact during the golf swing has previously been shown to be planar. However, the relationship between the plane orientation and the orientation characteristics of the clubhead at ball impact has yet to be defined. Fifty-two male golfers (27 high skilled, 25 intermediate skilled) hit 40 drives each in an indoor biomechanics laboratory. This study successfully fitted the trajectory of the clubhead near impact to an ellipse for each swing for players of different skill levels to help better explain this relationship. Additionally, the eccentricities of the ellipses were investigated for links to skill level. The trajectory of the clubhead was found to fit to an ellipse with RMSE of 1.2 mm. The eccentricity of the ellipse was found to be greater in the high-skilled golfers. The club path and angle of attack generated from the ellipse fitted clubhead trajectory were found to have a normalised bias-corrected RMSE of 2% and 3%, respectively. A set of “rule of thumb” values for the relationship between the club path, angle of attack and delivery plane angle was generated for use by coaches.

AB - The trajectory of the clubhead close to ball impact during the golf swing has previously been shown to be planar. However, the relationship between the plane orientation and the orientation characteristics of the clubhead at ball impact has yet to be defined. Fifty-two male golfers (27 high skilled, 25 intermediate skilled) hit 40 drives each in an indoor biomechanics laboratory. This study successfully fitted the trajectory of the clubhead near impact to an ellipse for each swing for players of different skill levels to help better explain this relationship. Additionally, the eccentricities of the ellipses were investigated for links to skill level. The trajectory of the clubhead was found to fit to an ellipse with RMSE of 1.2 mm. The eccentricity of the ellipse was found to be greater in the high-skilled golfers. The club path and angle of attack generated from the ellipse fitted clubhead trajectory were found to have a normalised bias-corrected RMSE of 2% and 3%, respectively. A set of “rule of thumb” values for the relationship between the club path, angle of attack and delivery plane angle was generated for use by coaches.

KW - Plane fitting

KW - trajectory

KW - eccentricity

KW - striking

KW - performance

U2 - 10.1080/02640414.2017.1303187

DO - 10.1080/02640414.2017.1303187

M3 - Article

VL - 1

JO - Journal of Sports Sciences

T2 - Journal of Sports Sciences

JF - Journal of Sports Sciences

SN - 0264-0414

ER -