The present study aimed to determine whether there was a systematic relationship between Rogers'(1957) core conditions of empathy, acceptance and genuineness, and counsellors' use of specific behaviours or skills which have been isolated for training. Video recordings of 12 counsellors' performance in 'naturalistic' counselling interactions were analysed. Counsellor, client and judges' ratings of the core conditions were obtained. Skill assessment included molar ratings of eight skill areas and molecular measures of 29 behaviours. The results indicated that there were few significant relationships. It is concluded that there is a discrepancy between specification of the skills or behaviours which are thought to communicate the core conditions and those which have been empirically demonstrated to do so. Implications for counsellor training and proposals for future research are discussed.