The Politics of Post-Conflict Space: The Mysterious Case of Missing Graffiti in “Post-Troubles” Northern Ireland

Kenneth Bush

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    7 Citations (Scopus)

    Abstract

    Why is there so little graffiti in Northern Ireland compared to cities in North America and Europe -- including Great Britain, to which it is politically connected, and Ireland, with which it is geographically connected? This question is particularly perplexing given the highly developed political mural tradition on both sides of the sectarian divide in the North, and the almost 15 years that have passed since the signing of the Peace Agreement ending some three decades of militarized conflict. This paper explores the connections between the absence of graffiti, and the street-level structures and processes of reconciliation or conflict – with a specific focus on the geopolitics of paramilitary control within communities throughout Northern Ireland. The contributions of the paper are three-fold: (1) it highlights the importance of graffiti as a (usually neglected) lens for assessing the degree to which the expected benefits of a peace agreement are experienced at the street level; (2) it addresses the methodological challenge of how to examine something that is not there (specifically, it studies the absence of graffiti in Northern Ireland by comparing it to the logic, mechanics and meanings of graffiti elsewhere); and (3) it questions the well-marketed representation of Northern Ireland as a unqualified case of successful post-agreement peace.
    LanguageEnglish
    Pages3-27
    JournalContemporary Politics
    Volume19
    Issue number2
    Publication statusPublished - 2013

    Fingerprint

    graffiti
    politics
    peace
    geopolitics
    mechanic
    reconciliation
    Ireland
    community

    Keywords

    • graffiti
    • political geography
    • Northern Ireland
    • political murals
    • ethnic conflict
    • paramilitaries

    Cite this

    @article{9cb5d8defba24cf985d559aeac8de878,
    title = "The Politics of Post-Conflict Space: The Mysterious Case of Missing Graffiti in “Post-Troubles” Northern Ireland",
    abstract = "Why is there so little graffiti in Northern Ireland compared to cities in North America and Europe -- including Great Britain, to which it is politically connected, and Ireland, with which it is geographically connected? This question is particularly perplexing given the highly developed political mural tradition on both sides of the sectarian divide in the North, and the almost 15 years that have passed since the signing of the Peace Agreement ending some three decades of militarized conflict. This paper explores the connections between the absence of graffiti, and the street-level structures and processes of reconciliation or conflict – with a specific focus on the geopolitics of paramilitary control within communities throughout Northern Ireland. The contributions of the paper are three-fold: (1) it highlights the importance of graffiti as a (usually neglected) lens for assessing the degree to which the expected benefits of a peace agreement are experienced at the street level; (2) it addresses the methodological challenge of how to examine something that is not there (specifically, it studies the absence of graffiti in Northern Ireland by comparing it to the logic, mechanics and meanings of graffiti elsewhere); and (3) it questions the well-marketed representation of Northern Ireland as a unqualified case of successful post-agreement peace.",
    keywords = "graffiti, political geography, Northern Ireland, political murals, ethnic conflict, paramilitaries",
    author = "Kenneth Bush",
    note = "Reference text: Abel, E. L., & Buckley, B. E. (1977). The handwriting on the wall. Westport: Greenwood Press. Alderman, D. and Ward, H. (2008). “Writing on the Plywood: Towards an Analysis of Hurricane Graffiti,” 36(1), 1-18. Alonso, A. (1998). Urban Graffiti on the City Landscape, Graduate Paper, University of Southern California. <http://www.streetgangs.com/academic/alonsograffiti.pdf> ARK (2008). Research Update: Intimate Mixing – Bridging the Gap. Catholic-Protestant Relationshisp in Northern Ireland. No 54 (April). BIP/ Belfast Interface Project (2012). Belfast Interfaces: Security Barriers and Defensive Use of Space, Belfast: Belfast Interface Project. Baudrillard, J. (1972). For a critique of the political economy of the sign. St Louis, MO, Telos Press. Bell, Peter. (1993). Northern Ireland: A Crucial Test for a Europe of Peaceful Regions?, Norway, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs. Buchanan, S. (2008). ‘Transforming Conflict in Northern Ireland and the Border Counties: some lessons from the Peace Programmes on valuing participative democracy’ Irish Political Studies, 23 (3): 387-409. Byrne, S. and Irvin, C. (2001) ‘Economic aid and policy making: building the peace dividend in Northern Ireland’ Policy & Politics 29 (4): 413-429. Byrne, Jonny, Hansson, Ulf & Bell, John, (2006). Shared Living: Mixed residential communities in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Institute for Conflict Research. Byrne, S., Mislav, M. & Fissuh, E. (2007) ‘The European Union Peace and Reconciliation Fund Impact on Northern Ireland’ International Journal on World Peace 24 (2): 85-98. Byrne, S., Arnold, J., Fissuh, E., Standish, K., Irvin, C. & Tennent, P. (2009) ‘The EU Peace II Fund and the International Fund for Ireland: Nurturing Cross-Community Contact and Reconciliation in Northern Ireland’ Geopolitics 14: 630-652. Byrne et al (2012). Attitudes to Peace Walls. www.ark.ac.uk/peacewalls2012/ Castleman, Craig (1982). Getting Up: Subway Graffiti in New York (Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press). Clair, R. P., and A Rodrigues (1999). Graffiti as Communication: Exploring the discursive tensions of anonymous texts,” The Southern Communication Journal, 65, pp. 1-15. Cook, E.A., Dutcher, L.W., Hargrove, S.M., and Stocker, T.L. (1972). “Social Analysis of Graffiti,” The Journal of American Folklore, 85, pp. 356-366. Cullen, Kevin (2010). A Segregated Peace: Is this How Northern Ireland was supposed to Turn Out?, Boston, Boston Globe. <http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/ideas/articles/2010/03/14/a_segregated_peace/?page=3> Darby, John (1997). Scorpions in a Bottle – Conflicting Cultures in Northern Ireland. London, Minority Rights Publications. Doherty, Gareth (2011). Bahrain’s Polvocality and Landscape as a Medium. In Egoz et al (eds) The Right to Landscape: Contesting Landscape and Human Rights. Burlington, Ashgate Publications. Droney, D. (2010). “The Business of 'Getting Up:' Street art and Marketing in Los Angeles,” Visual Anthropology, 23(2), 98-114. Edwards , I. (2009). “Banksy's graffiti : a not - so - simple case of criminal damage ?” Journal of Criminal Law, 73(4). Evans, Jocelyn & Jonathan Tonge (2012): Menace Without Mandate? Is There Any Sympathy for “Dissident” Irish Republicanism in Northern Ireland?, Terrorism and Political Violence, 24:1, 61-78 Feldman, A. 1991, Formations of violence: The narrative of the body and political terror in Northern Ireland. Chicago, University of Chicago Press Ferrell, Jeff. (1996). Crimes of style: Urban graffiti and the politics of criminality, New York, Garland. Ferrell, Jeff. (2009). ‘Hiding in the Light: Graffiti and the Visual,’ Criminal Justice Matters (cjm), 78:1 (December), pp. 23-25. Frampton, Martyn (2012). “Dissident Irish Republican Violence: A Resurgent Threat?” The Political Quarterly, Vol. 83, No. 2, April–June 2012, 227-237 Frenett, Ross & M. L. R. Smith (2012) IRA 2.0: Continuing the Long War—Analyzing the Factors Behind Anti-GFA Violence, Terrorism and Political Violence, 24:3, 375-395 Gadsby, J.M. (1995). Looking at the Writing on the Wall: A Critical Review and Taxonomy of Graffiti Texts. http://www.graffiti.org/faq/critical.review.html Ganz, Nicholas (2004). Graffiti World: Street Art from Five Continents, New York, Abrams. Gastman, Roger & Caleb Neelon (2012). The History of American Graffiti, New York, Harper Collins. Gopnik, Blake (2011). “Revolution in a Can,” Foreign Policy. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/10/11/revolution_in_a_can Gross, D. D., & Gross, T. D. (1993). ‘Tagging: Changing visual patterns and the rhetorical implications of a new form of graffiti.’ Etcetera, (Fall), 251-264. Gross, D. D., Walkosz, B., & Gross, T. D. (1997). ‘Language boundaries and discourse stability: Tagging as a form of graffiti spanning international borders.’ Etcetera, (Fall), 275-285. Grove Art Online. Retrieved March 19, 2007, from http://www.groveart.com/LOGIN?sessionid=140c2ea442fdb791babfc1168ec58698&authstatuscode=400 Halsey , Mark & Pederick, Ben (2010): ‘The game of fame: Mural, graffiti, erasure’, City: analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action, 14:1-2, pp. 82-98 Halsey, M., & Young, A. (2006). Our desires are ungovernable: Writing graffiti in urban space. Theoretical Criminology, 10, 275-306. Havatny, M. (2005). “The 'Totem Poles' of Saint Roch: Graffiti, Material Culture, and the Re-Appropriation of a Popular Landscape,” Revue de l'Histoire de la Culture Materielle, 62. Healy, John R. & Healy, John A. (2013). ‘Interpreting and Evaluating Nonprofit Organizing in a Divided Society: A Funder’s Perspective’, in Kenneth Bush and Colleen Duggan (eds) Evaluation in Extremis: The Politics and Impact of Research in Violently Divided Societies, Delhi, SAGE. (forthcoming) Hermer, J. and Hunt, A. (1996). ‘Official graffiti of the everyday.’ Law and Society Review, 30, 455-480. Horgan, John & John F. Morrison (2011): Here to Stay? The Rising Threat of Violent Dissident Republicanism in Northern Ireland, Terrorism and Political Violence, 23:4, 642-669 Hung J., Ly, K and Ngo, V. (2010). Graffiti in the Urban Everyday: Comparing Graffiti Occurrence with Crime Rates, Land Use, and Socio-Economic Indicators in Vancouver, BC.’ Geography 270 (201): Introduction to Geographic Information Science. April 19th 2010 . Downloaded from http://eaves.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/Vancouver{\%}20Graffiti{\%}20Analysis.pdf IMC/ Independent Monitoring Commission (2011). The 26th and Final Report of the Independent Monitoring Commission, 2004-2011, Changes, Impact and Lessons. Downloaded from //www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/hc1012/hc11/1149/1149.asp Independent Research Solutions (2009). Evaluation of the Re-Imaging Communities Programme: A Report to The Arts Council of Northern Ireland. Jarman, N, 1992, 'Troubled images: the iconography of loyalism'. Critique of Anthropology 12, 133-45 Jarman, Neil (2005). ‘Painting Landscapes: The Place of Murals in the Symbolic Construction of Urban Space’, in Michael E. Geisler (ed), National Symbols, Fractured Identities: Contesting the National Narrative, Lebanon, New Hampshire, Middlebury College Press. Pp. 172-191. Jarman, Neil (2008) ‘Security and Segregation – Interface Barriers in Belfast’, Shared Space. Jarman, Neil & Bell, John (2009). Routine Divisions, Segregations, and Daily Life in Northern Ireland,” IBIS Working Paper No 87, Institute for British-Irish Studies, University College, Dublin. Khalid, Nama (2012). ‘Art and the Arab Awakening’, Foreign Policy in Focus. 2 August 2012. http://www.fpif.org/articles/art_and_the_arab_awakening Accessed 4 August 2012 Knox, Colin (2012). “From the Margins to the Mainstream: Community Restorative Justice iin Northern Ireland,” msc. (5 November 2012) Knox, Colin (2002). ‘See No Evil: Insidious Parmilitary Violence in Northern Ireland,’,British Journal of Criminology, Vol. 42, pp 164-185 Lachmann, R. (1988). Graffiti as career and ideology. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 229-250. Lachmann, R. (1995). “Review: ‘Crimes of Style: Urban Graffiti and the politics of Criminality’”, Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 3(4)) 98-101 Lewisohn Cedar (2008) Street Art: The Graffiti Revolution, Tate Museum, London, England. McCormick, Carlo, Marc and Saa Schiller, and Ethel Seno (2010). TRESPASS: A History of Uncommissioned Urban Art, New York, Taschen. McDonald, Henry (2012). ‘Derry: City of Culture, City of Fear’, The Guardian. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2012/may/13/derry-city-of-culture-fear> McGarry, J. & O’Leary B. (1995). ‘Explaining Northern Ireland: Broken Images’, Oxford, Blackwell Press. McKittrick, D. and David McVea (2001). Making Sense of the Troubles: The Story of the Conflict in Northern Ireland (London: Penguin). Mitchell, A. and Liam Kelly (2011). “Peaceful Spaces? ‘‘Walking’’ through the New Liminal Spaces of Peacebuilding and Development in North Belfast,” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 36(4), 307-325 Meegan, Rua and Lauren Teeling (2010). Irish street art: stencils, paste ups, murals & portraits, Dublin, Visual Feast Productions Ireland. Neef, S. (2007). Killing kool: The graffiti museum. Art History, 30, 418-431. NIO/ Northern Ireland Office (2006). Views on Organised Crime in Northern Ireland: Findings from the January 2006 Northern Ireland Omnibus Survey. Research and Statistical Bulletin 5/2006, Prepared by M. Wilson. Nolan, Paul (2012). Northern Ireland Peace Monitoring Report, Number One, Belfast: Community Relations Council. Notaro, Anna, (2010). “The Spectacle of Urban Consumption: the Role of Urban Art in the Reconfiguration of the Public Sphere,” CM/ Communication Management Qtly. 14:V. pp. 5-32 NSW/ New South Wales Government (2009). Graffiti Vandalism - The Motivations and Modus Operandi of Persons who do Grafitti. NSW Department of Justice and Attorney General. NSW Government. October. Pachenkov, Oleg and Lilia Voronkova (2010). “Urban Public Space in the Context of Mobility and Aestheticization: Setting the Problem,” Workshop Introductory Speech, ‘URBAN PUBLIC SPACE IN THE CONTEXT OF MOBILITY AND AESTHETICIZATION: FACING CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES,’ Institute for European Ethnology, Humboldt University, Berlin, Friday, 23 April 2010 Peace III Operational Programme (Undated) Peace III: EU programme for Peace and Reconciliation 2007–2013, Northern Ireland and the Border Region of Ireland. Available at www.seupb.eu Peteet, J. (1996), The Writing on the Walls: The Graffiti of the Intifada. Cultural Anthropology, 11: 139–159. Phillips, Susan, A. (1999). Wallbangin’: Graffiti and Gangs in L.A., Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Polk, Patrick (2010). The Beautiful Walls: Photographic Elevations of Street Art in Los Angeles, Berlin, and Paris – Photography by Larry Yust, Los Angeles, CA., The Fowler Museum at UCL. Rolston, Bill (1991). Politics and painting: murals and conflict in Northern Ireland. Cranbury, N J, Associated University Presses. Rolston, Bill (1992). Drawing Support: Murals in the North of Ireland, Belfast, Beyond the Pale Publications). Rolston, Bill (1995). Drawing Support 2: Murals in the North of Ireland, Belfast, Beyond the Pale Publications). Rolston, Bill (2012) “Reimaging: Mural Painting and the State in Northern Ireland,” International Journal of Cultural Studies , 15 (5). pp. 447-466. Romens, A. ( 2007) Re-Imaging Communities or Re-Imaging Heritage? A Look at Northern Ireland’s Latest Transformation Program. http://www.saic.edu/pdf/degrees/pdf_files/aap/2007_Anne_Romans.pdf (accessed 6 August 2012) Russell, Emma (2008). ‘Writing on the Wall: The Form, Function, and Meaning of Tagging,’ Journal of Occupational Science, 15:2, pp. 87-97 Salinger, J.D (1951). Catcher In The Rye, Little Brown and Company, New York, USA. Salopek, Paul (2011). “Conflict Graffiti: the art of war,” Foreign Policy, 189. pp. 94-95 Scheper-Hughes, Nancy and Philippe Bourgois (2004). “Introduction: Making Sense of Violence” in their (eds.) Violence in War and Peace: An Anthology (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing), pp 1-32. Schwartzman, Allan (1985) Street Art (New York: The Dial Press, Doubleday & Co). Shaw, P. & Hudson, J. (2009). The Qualities of Informal Space: (Re)appropriation within the informal, interstitial spaces of the city. Proceedings of the Conference Occupation: Negotiations with Constructed Space. Brighton, University of Brighton. Gallaher, Carol & Peter Shirlow (2006). “The geography of loyalist paramilitary feuding in Belfast,” Space and Polity, 10:2, 149-169 Sluka, Jeffery (1997). 'The writings on the wall: peace process images, symbols and murals in Northern Ireland'. Critique of Anthropology 16, 4. Taylor, Myra Frances (2012). ‘Addicted to the Risk, Recognition and Respect that the Graffiti Lifestyle Provides: Towards and Understanding of the Reasons for Graffiti Engagement,’ International Journal of Mental Health Addiction, 10, pp. 54-68 Topping, John and Jonny Byrne (2012). Paramilitary Punishments in Belfast: Policing Beneath the Peace. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 4 (1). pp. 41-59. Truman, E.J. (2010). ‘The (In)Visible Artist: Stencil Graffiti, Activist Art and the Value of Visual Public Space’, Shift: Queen's Journal of Material and Visual Culture, 3. http://www.shiftjournal.org/archives/articles/2010/truman.pdf Trumer, C. (2005). “Public Art as Political Practice in Santiago, Chile, 1970-73,” Silvia Nagy-Zekmi and, Fernando Ignacio Leiva (eds), Democracy in Chile – The Legacy of September 11, 1973 (Brighton, UK: Sussex Academic Press). Varnedoe, K. and A. Gopnik. (1991) High & Low: Modern Art and Popular Culture. New York, The Musuem of Modern Art Voronkova, L. and Pachenkov, A. (2011). Open/Closed – Public Space in Modern Cities. Berkeley Planning Journal: Berkeley. Walde, Claudia (2007). Sticker City. The Paper Graffiti Generation (Street Graphics / Street Art). New York, Thames & Hudson Walde, Claudia (2011). Graffiti Alphabets: Street Fonts from Around the World, London and New York, Thames and Hudson. Whyte, John (1991). Interpreting Northern Ireland (Oxford: Clarendon Press).",
    year = "2013",
    language = "English",
    volume = "19",
    pages = "3--27",
    journal = "Contemporary Politics",
    issn = "1356-9775",
    number = "2",

    }

    The Politics of Post-Conflict Space: The Mysterious Case of Missing Graffiti in “Post-Troubles” Northern Ireland. / Bush, Kenneth.

    In: Contemporary Politics, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2013, p. 3-27.

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

    TY - JOUR

    T1 - The Politics of Post-Conflict Space: The Mysterious Case of Missing Graffiti in “Post-Troubles” Northern Ireland

    AU - Bush, Kenneth

    N1 - Reference text: Abel, E. L., & Buckley, B. E. (1977). The handwriting on the wall. Westport: Greenwood Press. Alderman, D. and Ward, H. (2008). “Writing on the Plywood: Towards an Analysis of Hurricane Graffiti,” 36(1), 1-18. Alonso, A. (1998). Urban Graffiti on the City Landscape, Graduate Paper, University of Southern California. <http://www.streetgangs.com/academic/alonsograffiti.pdf> ARK (2008). Research Update: Intimate Mixing – Bridging the Gap. Catholic-Protestant Relationshisp in Northern Ireland. No 54 (April). BIP/ Belfast Interface Project (2012). Belfast Interfaces: Security Barriers and Defensive Use of Space, Belfast: Belfast Interface Project. Baudrillard, J. (1972). For a critique of the political economy of the sign. St Louis, MO, Telos Press. Bell, Peter. (1993). Northern Ireland: A Crucial Test for a Europe of Peaceful Regions?, Norway, Norwegian Institute of International Affairs. Buchanan, S. (2008). ‘Transforming Conflict in Northern Ireland and the Border Counties: some lessons from the Peace Programmes on valuing participative democracy’ Irish Political Studies, 23 (3): 387-409. Byrne, S. and Irvin, C. (2001) ‘Economic aid and policy making: building the peace dividend in Northern Ireland’ Policy & Politics 29 (4): 413-429. Byrne, Jonny, Hansson, Ulf & Bell, John, (2006). Shared Living: Mixed residential communities in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Institute for Conflict Research. Byrne, S., Mislav, M. & Fissuh, E. (2007) ‘The European Union Peace and Reconciliation Fund Impact on Northern Ireland’ International Journal on World Peace 24 (2): 85-98. Byrne, S., Arnold, J., Fissuh, E., Standish, K., Irvin, C. & Tennent, P. (2009) ‘The EU Peace II Fund and the International Fund for Ireland: Nurturing Cross-Community Contact and Reconciliation in Northern Ireland’ Geopolitics 14: 630-652. Byrne et al (2012). Attitudes to Peace Walls. www.ark.ac.uk/peacewalls2012/ Castleman, Craig (1982). Getting Up: Subway Graffiti in New York (Cambridge, Massachusetts, MIT Press). Clair, R. P., and A Rodrigues (1999). Graffiti as Communication: Exploring the discursive tensions of anonymous texts,” The Southern Communication Journal, 65, pp. 1-15. Cook, E.A., Dutcher, L.W., Hargrove, S.M., and Stocker, T.L. (1972). “Social Analysis of Graffiti,” The Journal of American Folklore, 85, pp. 356-366. Cullen, Kevin (2010). A Segregated Peace: Is this How Northern Ireland was supposed to Turn Out?, Boston, Boston Globe. <http://www.boston.com/bostonglobe/ideas/articles/2010/03/14/a_segregated_peace/?page=3> Darby, John (1997). Scorpions in a Bottle – Conflicting Cultures in Northern Ireland. London, Minority Rights Publications. Doherty, Gareth (2011). Bahrain’s Polvocality and Landscape as a Medium. In Egoz et al (eds) The Right to Landscape: Contesting Landscape and Human Rights. Burlington, Ashgate Publications. Droney, D. (2010). “The Business of 'Getting Up:' Street art and Marketing in Los Angeles,” Visual Anthropology, 23(2), 98-114. Edwards , I. (2009). “Banksy's graffiti : a not - so - simple case of criminal damage ?” Journal of Criminal Law, 73(4). Evans, Jocelyn & Jonathan Tonge (2012): Menace Without Mandate? Is There Any Sympathy for “Dissident” Irish Republicanism in Northern Ireland?, Terrorism and Political Violence, 24:1, 61-78 Feldman, A. 1991, Formations of violence: The narrative of the body and political terror in Northern Ireland. Chicago, University of Chicago Press Ferrell, Jeff. (1996). Crimes of style: Urban graffiti and the politics of criminality, New York, Garland. Ferrell, Jeff. (2009). ‘Hiding in the Light: Graffiti and the Visual,’ Criminal Justice Matters (cjm), 78:1 (December), pp. 23-25. Frampton, Martyn (2012). “Dissident Irish Republican Violence: A Resurgent Threat?” The Political Quarterly, Vol. 83, No. 2, April–June 2012, 227-237 Frenett, Ross & M. L. R. Smith (2012) IRA 2.0: Continuing the Long War—Analyzing the Factors Behind Anti-GFA Violence, Terrorism and Political Violence, 24:3, 375-395 Gadsby, J.M. (1995). Looking at the Writing on the Wall: A Critical Review and Taxonomy of Graffiti Texts. http://www.graffiti.org/faq/critical.review.html Ganz, Nicholas (2004). Graffiti World: Street Art from Five Continents, New York, Abrams. Gastman, Roger & Caleb Neelon (2012). The History of American Graffiti, New York, Harper Collins. Gopnik, Blake (2011). “Revolution in a Can,” Foreign Policy. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/10/11/revolution_in_a_can Gross, D. D., & Gross, T. D. (1993). ‘Tagging: Changing visual patterns and the rhetorical implications of a new form of graffiti.’ Etcetera, (Fall), 251-264. Gross, D. D., Walkosz, B., & Gross, T. D. (1997). ‘Language boundaries and discourse stability: Tagging as a form of graffiti spanning international borders.’ Etcetera, (Fall), 275-285. Grove Art Online. Retrieved March 19, 2007, from http://www.groveart.com/LOGIN?sessionid=140c2ea442fdb791babfc1168ec58698&authstatuscode=400 Halsey , Mark & Pederick, Ben (2010): ‘The game of fame: Mural, graffiti, erasure’, City: analysis of urban trends, culture, theory, policy, action, 14:1-2, pp. 82-98 Halsey, M., & Young, A. (2006). Our desires are ungovernable: Writing graffiti in urban space. Theoretical Criminology, 10, 275-306. Havatny, M. (2005). “The 'Totem Poles' of Saint Roch: Graffiti, Material Culture, and the Re-Appropriation of a Popular Landscape,” Revue de l'Histoire de la Culture Materielle, 62. Healy, John R. & Healy, John A. (2013). ‘Interpreting and Evaluating Nonprofit Organizing in a Divided Society: A Funder’s Perspective’, in Kenneth Bush and Colleen Duggan (eds) Evaluation in Extremis: The Politics and Impact of Research in Violently Divided Societies, Delhi, SAGE. (forthcoming) Hermer, J. and Hunt, A. (1996). ‘Official graffiti of the everyday.’ Law and Society Review, 30, 455-480. Horgan, John & John F. Morrison (2011): Here to Stay? The Rising Threat of Violent Dissident Republicanism in Northern Ireland, Terrorism and Political Violence, 23:4, 642-669 Hung J., Ly, K and Ngo, V. (2010). Graffiti in the Urban Everyday: Comparing Graffiti Occurrence with Crime Rates, Land Use, and Socio-Economic Indicators in Vancouver, BC.’ Geography 270 (201): Introduction to Geographic Information Science. April 19th 2010 . Downloaded from http://eaves.ca/wp-content/uploads/2010/Vancouver%20Graffiti%20Analysis.pdf IMC/ Independent Monitoring Commission (2011). The 26th and Final Report of the Independent Monitoring Commission, 2004-2011, Changes, Impact and Lessons. Downloaded from //www.official-documents.gov.uk/document/hc1012/hc11/1149/1149.asp Independent Research Solutions (2009). Evaluation of the Re-Imaging Communities Programme: A Report to The Arts Council of Northern Ireland. Jarman, N, 1992, 'Troubled images: the iconography of loyalism'. Critique of Anthropology 12, 133-45 Jarman, Neil (2005). ‘Painting Landscapes: The Place of Murals in the Symbolic Construction of Urban Space’, in Michael E. Geisler (ed), National Symbols, Fractured Identities: Contesting the National Narrative, Lebanon, New Hampshire, Middlebury College Press. Pp. 172-191. Jarman, Neil (2008) ‘Security and Segregation – Interface Barriers in Belfast’, Shared Space. Jarman, Neil & Bell, John (2009). Routine Divisions, Segregations, and Daily Life in Northern Ireland,” IBIS Working Paper No 87, Institute for British-Irish Studies, University College, Dublin. Khalid, Nama (2012). ‘Art and the Arab Awakening’, Foreign Policy in Focus. 2 August 2012. http://www.fpif.org/articles/art_and_the_arab_awakening Accessed 4 August 2012 Knox, Colin (2012). “From the Margins to the Mainstream: Community Restorative Justice iin Northern Ireland,” msc. (5 November 2012) Knox, Colin (2002). ‘See No Evil: Insidious Parmilitary Violence in Northern Ireland,’,British Journal of Criminology, Vol. 42, pp 164-185 Lachmann, R. (1988). Graffiti as career and ideology. American Journal of Sociology, 94, 229-250. Lachmann, R. (1995). “Review: ‘Crimes of Style: Urban Graffiti and the politics of Criminality’”, Journal of Criminal Justice and Popular Culture, 3(4)) 98-101 Lewisohn Cedar (2008) Street Art: The Graffiti Revolution, Tate Museum, London, England. McCormick, Carlo, Marc and Saa Schiller, and Ethel Seno (2010). TRESPASS: A History of Uncommissioned Urban Art, New York, Taschen. McDonald, Henry (2012). ‘Derry: City of Culture, City of Fear’, The Guardian. <http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2012/may/13/derry-city-of-culture-fear> McGarry, J. & O’Leary B. (1995). ‘Explaining Northern Ireland: Broken Images’, Oxford, Blackwell Press. McKittrick, D. and David McVea (2001). Making Sense of the Troubles: The Story of the Conflict in Northern Ireland (London: Penguin). Mitchell, A. and Liam Kelly (2011). “Peaceful Spaces? ‘‘Walking’’ through the New Liminal Spaces of Peacebuilding and Development in North Belfast,” Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 36(4), 307-325 Meegan, Rua and Lauren Teeling (2010). Irish street art: stencils, paste ups, murals & portraits, Dublin, Visual Feast Productions Ireland. Neef, S. (2007). Killing kool: The graffiti museum. Art History, 30, 418-431. NIO/ Northern Ireland Office (2006). Views on Organised Crime in Northern Ireland: Findings from the January 2006 Northern Ireland Omnibus Survey. Research and Statistical Bulletin 5/2006, Prepared by M. Wilson. Nolan, Paul (2012). Northern Ireland Peace Monitoring Report, Number One, Belfast: Community Relations Council. Notaro, Anna, (2010). “The Spectacle of Urban Consumption: the Role of Urban Art in the Reconfiguration of the Public Sphere,” CM/ Communication Management Qtly. 14:V. pp. 5-32 NSW/ New South Wales Government (2009). Graffiti Vandalism - The Motivations and Modus Operandi of Persons who do Grafitti. NSW Department of Justice and Attorney General. NSW Government. October. Pachenkov, Oleg and Lilia Voronkova (2010). “Urban Public Space in the Context of Mobility and Aestheticization: Setting the Problem,” Workshop Introductory Speech, ‘URBAN PUBLIC SPACE IN THE CONTEXT OF MOBILITY AND AESTHETICIZATION: FACING CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES,’ Institute for European Ethnology, Humboldt University, Berlin, Friday, 23 April 2010 Peace III Operational Programme (Undated) Peace III: EU programme for Peace and Reconciliation 2007–2013, Northern Ireland and the Border Region of Ireland. Available at www.seupb.eu Peteet, J. (1996), The Writing on the Walls: The Graffiti of the Intifada. Cultural Anthropology, 11: 139–159. Phillips, Susan, A. (1999). Wallbangin’: Graffiti and Gangs in L.A., Chicago, University of Chicago Press. Polk, Patrick (2010). The Beautiful Walls: Photographic Elevations of Street Art in Los Angeles, Berlin, and Paris – Photography by Larry Yust, Los Angeles, CA., The Fowler Museum at UCL. Rolston, Bill (1991). Politics and painting: murals and conflict in Northern Ireland. Cranbury, N J, Associated University Presses. Rolston, Bill (1992). Drawing Support: Murals in the North of Ireland, Belfast, Beyond the Pale Publications). Rolston, Bill (1995). Drawing Support 2: Murals in the North of Ireland, Belfast, Beyond the Pale Publications). Rolston, Bill (2012) “Reimaging: Mural Painting and the State in Northern Ireland,” International Journal of Cultural Studies , 15 (5). pp. 447-466. Romens, A. ( 2007) Re-Imaging Communities or Re-Imaging Heritage? A Look at Northern Ireland’s Latest Transformation Program. http://www.saic.edu/pdf/degrees/pdf_files/aap/2007_Anne_Romans.pdf (accessed 6 August 2012) Russell, Emma (2008). ‘Writing on the Wall: The Form, Function, and Meaning of Tagging,’ Journal of Occupational Science, 15:2, pp. 87-97 Salinger, J.D (1951). Catcher In The Rye, Little Brown and Company, New York, USA. Salopek, Paul (2011). “Conflict Graffiti: the art of war,” Foreign Policy, 189. pp. 94-95 Scheper-Hughes, Nancy and Philippe Bourgois (2004). “Introduction: Making Sense of Violence” in their (eds.) Violence in War and Peace: An Anthology (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing), pp 1-32. Schwartzman, Allan (1985) Street Art (New York: The Dial Press, Doubleday & Co). Shaw, P. & Hudson, J. (2009). The Qualities of Informal Space: (Re)appropriation within the informal, interstitial spaces of the city. Proceedings of the Conference Occupation: Negotiations with Constructed Space. Brighton, University of Brighton. Gallaher, Carol & Peter Shirlow (2006). “The geography of loyalist paramilitary feuding in Belfast,” Space and Polity, 10:2, 149-169 Sluka, Jeffery (1997). 'The writings on the wall: peace process images, symbols and murals in Northern Ireland'. Critique of Anthropology 16, 4. Taylor, Myra Frances (2012). ‘Addicted to the Risk, Recognition and Respect that the Graffiti Lifestyle Provides: Towards and Understanding of the Reasons for Graffiti Engagement,’ International Journal of Mental Health Addiction, 10, pp. 54-68 Topping, John and Jonny Byrne (2012). Paramilitary Punishments in Belfast: Policing Beneath the Peace. Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression, 4 (1). pp. 41-59. Truman, E.J. (2010). ‘The (In)Visible Artist: Stencil Graffiti, Activist Art and the Value of Visual Public Space’, Shift: Queen's Journal of Material and Visual Culture, 3. http://www.shiftjournal.org/archives/articles/2010/truman.pdf Trumer, C. (2005). “Public Art as Political Practice in Santiago, Chile, 1970-73,” Silvia Nagy-Zekmi and, Fernando Ignacio Leiva (eds), Democracy in Chile – The Legacy of September 11, 1973 (Brighton, UK: Sussex Academic Press). Varnedoe, K. and A. Gopnik. (1991) High & Low: Modern Art and Popular Culture. New York, The Musuem of Modern Art Voronkova, L. and Pachenkov, A. (2011). Open/Closed – Public Space in Modern Cities. Berkeley Planning Journal: Berkeley. Walde, Claudia (2007). Sticker City. The Paper Graffiti Generation (Street Graphics / Street Art). New York, Thames & Hudson Walde, Claudia (2011). Graffiti Alphabets: Street Fonts from Around the World, London and New York, Thames and Hudson. Whyte, John (1991). Interpreting Northern Ireland (Oxford: Clarendon Press).

    PY - 2013

    Y1 - 2013

    N2 - Why is there so little graffiti in Northern Ireland compared to cities in North America and Europe -- including Great Britain, to which it is politically connected, and Ireland, with which it is geographically connected? This question is particularly perplexing given the highly developed political mural tradition on both sides of the sectarian divide in the North, and the almost 15 years that have passed since the signing of the Peace Agreement ending some three decades of militarized conflict. This paper explores the connections between the absence of graffiti, and the street-level structures and processes of reconciliation or conflict – with a specific focus on the geopolitics of paramilitary control within communities throughout Northern Ireland. The contributions of the paper are three-fold: (1) it highlights the importance of graffiti as a (usually neglected) lens for assessing the degree to which the expected benefits of a peace agreement are experienced at the street level; (2) it addresses the methodological challenge of how to examine something that is not there (specifically, it studies the absence of graffiti in Northern Ireland by comparing it to the logic, mechanics and meanings of graffiti elsewhere); and (3) it questions the well-marketed representation of Northern Ireland as a unqualified case of successful post-agreement peace.

    AB - Why is there so little graffiti in Northern Ireland compared to cities in North America and Europe -- including Great Britain, to which it is politically connected, and Ireland, with which it is geographically connected? This question is particularly perplexing given the highly developed political mural tradition on both sides of the sectarian divide in the North, and the almost 15 years that have passed since the signing of the Peace Agreement ending some three decades of militarized conflict. This paper explores the connections between the absence of graffiti, and the street-level structures and processes of reconciliation or conflict – with a specific focus on the geopolitics of paramilitary control within communities throughout Northern Ireland. The contributions of the paper are three-fold: (1) it highlights the importance of graffiti as a (usually neglected) lens for assessing the degree to which the expected benefits of a peace agreement are experienced at the street level; (2) it addresses the methodological challenge of how to examine something that is not there (specifically, it studies the absence of graffiti in Northern Ireland by comparing it to the logic, mechanics and meanings of graffiti elsewhere); and (3) it questions the well-marketed representation of Northern Ireland as a unqualified case of successful post-agreement peace.

    KW - graffiti

    KW - political geography

    KW - Northern Ireland

    KW - political murals

    KW - ethnic conflict

    KW - paramilitaries

    M3 - Article

    VL - 19

    SP - 3

    EP - 27

    JO - Contemporary Politics

    T2 - Contemporary Politics

    JF - Contemporary Politics

    SN - 1356-9775

    IS - 2

    ER -