The moderating impact of childhood adversity profiles and conflict on psychological health and suicidal behavior in the Northern Ireland population

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Abstract

Childhood adversities are key etiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. In Northern Ireland the Troubles also impacted on the population’s psychological health. This study used data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress a collaborative epidemiological study which used the WMH-CIDI to assess mental health disorders in a nationally representative sample (Part 2, n=1,986). The aims of the study were to assess cooccurrences of childhood adversities and investigate the impact of adversity profiles and conflict experience on psychopathology and suicidal behavior. Latent Class Analysis uncovered 3 discrete childhood adversity profiles, a low, medium, and high risk class. Individuals from higher risk adversity profiles displayed significantly increased odds of having psychological problems, with conflict exposure also impacting on psychopathology. However, the study revealed that the impact of conflict exposure on suicidal behaviour was moderated by latent class membership and that some adversity may actually be protective. The findings highlight the need to consider that, while adversity can have a negative impact on psychopathology, a lack of adversity early in life may hinder some people from developing adequate coping strategies. Further research is required to identify adversity patterns and other interacting factors that are protective.
LanguageEnglish
Pages213-220
JournalPsychiatry research
Volume262
Early online date12 Feb 2018
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2018

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Northern Ireland
Psychopathology
Psychology
Health
Population
Mental Disorders
Epidemiologic Studies
Mental Health
Conflict (Psychology)
Research

Keywords

  • mental health
  • suicidality
  • childhood adversities
  • ACEs

Cite this

@article{a3bd82dbe6224c0aace2f20608a6c2b5,
title = "The moderating impact of childhood adversity profiles and conflict on psychological health and suicidal behavior in the Northern Ireland population",
abstract = "Childhood adversities are key etiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. In Northern Ireland the Troubles also impacted on the population’s psychological health. This study used data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress a collaborative epidemiological study which used the WMH-CIDI to assess mental health disorders in a nationally representative sample (Part 2, n=1,986). The aims of the study were to assess cooccurrences of childhood adversities and investigate the impact of adversity profiles and conflict experience on psychopathology and suicidal behavior. Latent Class Analysis uncovered 3 discrete childhood adversity profiles, a low, medium, and high risk class. Individuals from higher risk adversity profiles displayed significantly increased odds of having psychological problems, with conflict exposure also impacting on psychopathology. However, the study revealed that the impact of conflict exposure on suicidal behaviour was moderated by latent class membership and that some adversity may actually be protective. The findings highlight the need to consider that, while adversity can have a negative impact on psychopathology, a lack of adversity early in life may hinder some people from developing adequate coping strategies. Further research is required to identify adversity patterns and other interacting factors that are protective.",
keywords = "mental health, suicidality, childhood adversities, ACEs",
author = "{Mc Lafferty}, Margaret and Siobhan O'Neill and Sam Murphy and Cherie Armour and Finola Ferry and Brendan Bunting",
note = "Reference text: References Afifi, T.O., Boman, J., Fleisher, W., Sareen, J., 2009. The relationship between child abuse, parental divorce, and lifetime mental disorders and suicidality in a nationally representative adult sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 139–147. Afifi, T.O., Mota, N.P., Dasiewicz, P., MacMillan, H.L., Sareen, J., 2012. Physical punishment and mental disorders: Results from a nationally representative US sample. Pediatrics, 130, 184-192. Andridge, R.R., Little, R.J.A., 2010. A review of Hot Deck Imputation for Survey non-response. International Statistical Review, 78, 40–64. doi:10.1111/j.1751-5823.2010.00103.x. Armour, C., Elklit, A., Christoffersen, M.N., 2014. A latent class analysis of childhood maltreatment: identifying abuse typologies. Journal of Loss and Trauma: International Perspectives on Stress and Coping, 19(10), 23-29. doi: 10.1080/15325024.2012.734205 Betancourt, T.S., Khan, K.T., 2008. The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: Protective processes and pathways to resilience. International Review of Psychiatry, 20(3), 317-328. Retrieved online at: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09540260802090363 Bonanno, G.A., 2004. Loss, trauma and human resilience. Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59, 20-28. doi:10.1037/003-066X.59.1.20 Bruffaerts, R., Demyttenaere, K., Borges, G., Haro, J.M., Chiu, W.T., Hwang, I., … Nock, M.K., 2010. Childhood adversities as risk factors for onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 197, 20-27. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.109.074716 Bunting, B.P., Ferry, F.R., Murphy, S.D., O’Neill, S.M., Bolton, D., 2013. Trauma Associated with Civil Conflict and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 134-141. Buka, S.L., Stichick, T.L., Birdthistle, I., Earls, F.J., 2001. Youth exposure to violence: Prevalence, risk, and consequences. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 71, 298–310. Cavanaugh, C.E., Petras, H., Martins, S.S., 2015. Gender-specific profiles of adverse childhood experiences, past year mental and substance use disorders, and their associations among a national sample of adults in the United States. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50, 1257-1266. doi: 10.1007/s00127- 015-1024-3 Cecil, C.A.M., Viding, E., Barker, E.D., Guiney, J., McCrory, E.J., 2014. Double disadvantage: the influence of childhood maltreatment and community violence exposure on adolescent mental health. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(7), 839-848. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12213 Courtney, M.E., Piliavin, I., Grogan-Kaylor, A., Nesmith, A., 1998. Foster youth transitions to adulthood: A longitudinal view of youth leaving care. Institute for Research on Poverty, Madison, WI. Retrieved online at: http://www.thenightministry.org/070_facts_figures/030_research_links/060_homeless_youth/courtneyfosteryouthtransitions.pdf Cummings, E. M., Schermerhorn, A. C., Merrilees, C. E., Goeke-Morey, M. C., Shirlow, P., Cairns, E., 2010. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social–ecological model including single-and two-parent families. Developmental psychology, 46(4), 827-841. doi: 10.1037/a0019668 de Jong, J. T. V. M., Komproe, I. H., Van Ommeren, M., 2003. Common mental disorders in post-conflict settings. The Lancet, 361, 2128–2130. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13692-6 Eaton, N.R., Krueger, R.F., Keyes, K.M., Hasin, D.S., Balsis, S., Skodol, A.E., Markon, K.E., Grant, B.F., 2012. An Invariant Dimensional Liability Model of Gender Differences in Mental Disorder Prevalence: Evidence from a National Sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 282-288. Retrieved online at: http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/abn-121-1-282.pdf Endicott, J., Andreasen, N., Spitzer, R.L., 1978. Family history research diagnostic criteria. Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York. Ethier, L., Lemelin, J.P., Lacharite, C., 2004. A longitudinal study of the effects of chronic maltreatment on children’s behavioural and emotional problems. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28, 1265-1278. Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R., K., Turner, H.A., Hamby, S.L., 2005. Measuring poly-victimisation using the Juvenile Victimisation Questionnaire. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29(11), 1297-1312. Ford, J.D., Grasso, D.J., Hawke, J., Chapman, J.F., 2013. Poly-victimization among juvenile justice-involved youths. Child Abuse and Neglect, 37, 788-800. Fryers, T., Brugha, T., 2013. Childhood Determinants of Adult Psychiatric Disorder. Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, 9, 1-50. Gallagher, E., Hamber, B., Joy, E., 2012. Perspectives and Possibilities: Mental Health in post-Agreement Northern Ireland. Shared Space: A research journal on peace, conflict and community relations in Northern Ireland, 13, 63-78. Gilbert, R., Widom, C.S., Browne, K., Fergusson, D., Webb, E., Janson, S., 2009. Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high in-come countries. Lancet, 373, 68-81. Gorman-Smith, D., Henry, D.B., Tolan, P.H., 2004. Exposure to community violence and violence perpetration: The protective effects of family functioning. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(3), 439-449. Green, J.G., McLaughlin, K.A., Berglund, P.A., Gruber, M.J., Sampson, N.A., Zaslavsky, A.M., Kessler, R.C., 2010. Childhood adversities and adult psychiatric disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication 1: associations with first onset of DSM-IV disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(2), 113-123. Hagenaars, J.A., McCucheon, A.L., 2002. Applied Latent Class Analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Hardt, J., Sidor, A., Nickel, R., Kappis, B., Petrak, P., Egle, U.T., 2008. Childhood adversities and suicide attempts: A retrospective study. Journal of Family Violence, 23, 713-718. http://doi: 10.1007/s10896-008-9196-1 Jaffee, S. R., Maikovich-Fong, A.K., 2011. Effects of Chronic Maltreatment and Maltreatment Timing on Children’s Behavior and Cognitive Abilities. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 52(2), 184–194. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02304.x Karam, E.G., Mneimneh, Z.N., Karam, A.N., Fayyand, J.A., Nasser, S.C., Dimassi, H., ……. Salamoun, M., 2008. Mental disorders and war in Lebanon, in: Kessler, R.C., {\"U}st{\"u}n, T.B. (Eds.), The WHO world mental health surveys: global perspectives on the epidemiology of mental disorders. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 511-521. Kendler, K.S., Silberg, J.L., Neale, M.C., Kessler, R.C., Heath, A.C., Eaves, L.J., 1991. The family history method: whose psychiatric history measured? American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 1501–1504. Kessler, R.C., McGonagle, K.A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C.B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., Wittchen, H.U., Kendler, K.S., 1994. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III--R psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8–19. Kessler, R. C., McLaughlin, K.A., Green, J.G., Gruber, M.J., Sampson, N.A., Zaslavsky, A.M., … Williams, D.R., 2010. Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. British Journal of Psychiatry, 197, 378-385. Kessler, R.C., {\"U}st{\"u}n, T.B., 2004. The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative Version of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CICI). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 13(2), 93-121. Kessler, R.C., {\"U}st{\"u}n, T.B., 2008. The WHO world mental health surveys: global perspectives on the epidemiology of mental disorders. Cambridge University Press, New York. Keyes, K.M., Eaton, N.R., Krueger, R.F., McLaughlin, K.A., Wall, M.M., Grant, B.F., Hasin, D.S., 2012. Childhood maltreatment and the structure of common psychiatric disorders. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 200(2), 107–115. http://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.111.093062 Lanza, S.T., Collins, L.M., Lemmon, D.R., Schafer, J.L.,2007. PROC LCA: A SAS Procedure for Latent Class Analysis. Structural Equation Modelling, 14(4), 671-694. Lee, S., Guo, W.J., Tsang, A., He, Y.L., Huang, Y.Q., Zhang, M.Y., … Kessler, R.C., 2011. The prevalence of family childhood adversities and their association with first onset of DSM-IV disorders in metropolitan China. Psychological Medicine, 41, 85-96. Liu, R.T., 2015. A developmentally informed perspective on the relation between stress and psychopathology: when the problem with stress is that there is not enough. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 124, 80-92. doi: 10.1037/abn0000043 McLafferty, M., Armour, C., McKenna, A., O’Neill, S., Murphy, S., Bunting, B., 2015. Childhood adversity profiles and adult psychopathology in a representative Northern Ireland study. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 35, 42-48. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2015.07.004 McLafferty, M., Armour, C., O’Neill, S., Murphy, S., Ferry, F., Bunting, B., 2016. Suicidality and profiles of childhood adversities, conflict related trauma and psychopathology in the Northern Ireland population. Journal of Affective Disorders, 200, 97-102. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2016.04.031 McLaughlin, K.A., Green, J.G., Gruber, M.J., Sampson, N.A., Zaslavsky, A.M., Kessler, R.C., 2010a. Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) II: Associations with persistence of DSM-IV disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(2), 124-132. 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doi = "10.1016/j.psychres.2018.02.024",
language = "English",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - The moderating impact of childhood adversity profiles and conflict on psychological health and suicidal behavior in the Northern Ireland population

AU - Mc Lafferty, Margaret

AU - O'Neill, Siobhan

AU - Murphy, Sam

AU - Armour, Cherie

AU - Ferry, Finola

AU - Bunting, Brendan

N1 - Reference text: References Afifi, T.O., Boman, J., Fleisher, W., Sareen, J., 2009. The relationship between child abuse, parental divorce, and lifetime mental disorders and suicidality in a nationally representative adult sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 139–147. Afifi, T.O., Mota, N.P., Dasiewicz, P., MacMillan, H.L., Sareen, J., 2012. Physical punishment and mental disorders: Results from a nationally representative US sample. Pediatrics, 130, 184-192. Andridge, R.R., Little, R.J.A., 2010. A review of Hot Deck Imputation for Survey non-response. International Statistical Review, 78, 40–64. doi:10.1111/j.1751-5823.2010.00103.x. Armour, C., Elklit, A., Christoffersen, M.N., 2014. A latent class analysis of childhood maltreatment: identifying abuse typologies. Journal of Loss and Trauma: International Perspectives on Stress and Coping, 19(10), 23-29. doi: 10.1080/15325024.2012.734205 Betancourt, T.S., Khan, K.T., 2008. The mental health of children affected by armed conflict: Protective processes and pathways to resilience. International Review of Psychiatry, 20(3), 317-328. Retrieved online at: http://informahealthcare.com/doi/pdf/10.1080/09540260802090363 Bonanno, G.A., 2004. Loss, trauma and human resilience. Have we underestimated the human capacity to thrive after extremely aversive events? American Psychologist, 59, 20-28. doi:10.1037/003-066X.59.1.20 Bruffaerts, R., Demyttenaere, K., Borges, G., Haro, J.M., Chiu, W.T., Hwang, I., … Nock, M.K., 2010. Childhood adversities as risk factors for onset and persistence of suicidal behaviour. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 197, 20-27. doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.109.074716 Bunting, B.P., Ferry, F.R., Murphy, S.D., O’Neill, S.M., Bolton, D., 2013. Trauma Associated with Civil Conflict and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Evidence from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 26, 134-141. Buka, S.L., Stichick, T.L., Birdthistle, I., Earls, F.J., 2001. Youth exposure to violence: Prevalence, risk, and consequences. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 71, 298–310. Cavanaugh, C.E., Petras, H., Martins, S.S., 2015. Gender-specific profiles of adverse childhood experiences, past year mental and substance use disorders, and their associations among a national sample of adults in the United States. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 50, 1257-1266. doi: 10.1007/s00127- 015-1024-3 Cecil, C.A.M., Viding, E., Barker, E.D., Guiney, J., McCrory, E.J., 2014. Double disadvantage: the influence of childhood maltreatment and community violence exposure on adolescent mental health. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 55(7), 839-848. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12213 Courtney, M.E., Piliavin, I., Grogan-Kaylor, A., Nesmith, A., 1998. Foster youth transitions to adulthood: A longitudinal view of youth leaving care. Institute for Research on Poverty, Madison, WI. Retrieved online at: http://www.thenightministry.org/070_facts_figures/030_research_links/060_homeless_youth/courtneyfosteryouthtransitions.pdf Cummings, E. M., Schermerhorn, A. C., Merrilees, C. E., Goeke-Morey, M. C., Shirlow, P., Cairns, E., 2010. Political violence and child adjustment in Northern Ireland: Testing pathways in a social–ecological model including single-and two-parent families. Developmental psychology, 46(4), 827-841. doi: 10.1037/a0019668 de Jong, J. T. V. M., Komproe, I. H., Van Ommeren, M., 2003. Common mental disorders in post-conflict settings. The Lancet, 361, 2128–2130. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13692-6 Eaton, N.R., Krueger, R.F., Keyes, K.M., Hasin, D.S., Balsis, S., Skodol, A.E., Markon, K.E., Grant, B.F., 2012. An Invariant Dimensional Liability Model of Gender Differences in Mental Disorder Prevalence: Evidence from a National Sample. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 282-288. Retrieved online at: http://www.apa.org/pubs/journals/releases/abn-121-1-282.pdf Endicott, J., Andreasen, N., Spitzer, R.L., 1978. Family history research diagnostic criteria. Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute, New York. Ethier, L., Lemelin, J.P., Lacharite, C., 2004. A longitudinal study of the effects of chronic maltreatment on children’s behavioural and emotional problems. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28, 1265-1278. Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R., K., Turner, H.A., Hamby, S.L., 2005. Measuring poly-victimisation using the Juvenile Victimisation Questionnaire. Child Abuse & Neglect, 29(11), 1297-1312. Ford, J.D., Grasso, D.J., Hawke, J., Chapman, J.F., 2013. Poly-victimization among juvenile justice-involved youths. Child Abuse and Neglect, 37, 788-800. Fryers, T., Brugha, T., 2013. Childhood Determinants of Adult Psychiatric Disorder. Clinical Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, 9, 1-50. Gallagher, E., Hamber, B., Joy, E., 2012. Perspectives and Possibilities: Mental Health in post-Agreement Northern Ireland. Shared Space: A research journal on peace, conflict and community relations in Northern Ireland, 13, 63-78. Gilbert, R., Widom, C.S., Browne, K., Fergusson, D., Webb, E., Janson, S., 2009. Burden and consequences of child maltreatment in high in-come countries. Lancet, 373, 68-81. Gorman-Smith, D., Henry, D.B., Tolan, P.H., 2004. Exposure to community violence and violence perpetration: The protective effects of family functioning. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33(3), 439-449. Green, J.G., McLaughlin, K.A., Berglund, P.A., Gruber, M.J., Sampson, N.A., Zaslavsky, A.M., Kessler, R.C., 2010. Childhood adversities and adult psychiatric disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication 1: associations with first onset of DSM-IV disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(2), 113-123. Hagenaars, J.A., McCucheon, A.L., 2002. Applied Latent Class Analysis. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Hardt, J., Sidor, A., Nickel, R., Kappis, B., Petrak, P., Egle, U.T., 2008. Childhood adversities and suicide attempts: A retrospective study. Journal of Family Violence, 23, 713-718. http://doi: 10.1007/s10896-008-9196-1 Jaffee, S. R., Maikovich-Fong, A.K., 2011. Effects of Chronic Maltreatment and Maltreatment Timing on Children’s Behavior and Cognitive Abilities. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 52(2), 184–194. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02304.x Karam, E.G., Mneimneh, Z.N., Karam, A.N., Fayyand, J.A., Nasser, S.C., Dimassi, H., ……. Salamoun, M., 2008. Mental disorders and war in Lebanon, in: Kessler, R.C., Üstün, T.B. (Eds.), The WHO world mental health surveys: global perspectives on the epidemiology of mental disorders. Cambridge University Press, New York, pp. 511-521. Kendler, K.S., Silberg, J.L., Neale, M.C., Kessler, R.C., Heath, A.C., Eaves, L.J., 1991. The family history method: whose psychiatric history measured? American Journal of Psychiatry, 148, 1501–1504. Kessler, R.C., McGonagle, K.A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C.B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., Wittchen, H.U., Kendler, K.S., 1994. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III--R psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8–19. Kessler, R. C., McLaughlin, K.A., Green, J.G., Gruber, M.J., Sampson, N.A., Zaslavsky, A.M., … Williams, D.R., 2010. Childhood adversities and adult psychopathology in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. British Journal of Psychiatry, 197, 378-385. Kessler, R.C., Üstün, T.B., 2004. The World Mental Health (WMH) Survey Initiative Version of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CICI). International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research, 13(2), 93-121. Kessler, R.C., Üstün, T.B., 2008. The WHO world mental health surveys: global perspectives on the epidemiology of mental disorders. Cambridge University Press, New York. Keyes, K.M., Eaton, N.R., Krueger, R.F., McLaughlin, K.A., Wall, M.M., Grant, B.F., Hasin, D.S., 2012. Childhood maltreatment and the structure of common psychiatric disorders. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 200(2), 107–115. http://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.111.093062 Lanza, S.T., Collins, L.M., Lemmon, D.R., Schafer, J.L.,2007. PROC LCA: A SAS Procedure for Latent Class Analysis. Structural Equation Modelling, 14(4), 671-694. Lee, S., Guo, W.J., Tsang, A., He, Y.L., Huang, Y.Q., Zhang, M.Y., … Kessler, R.C., 2011. The prevalence of family childhood adversities and their association with first onset of DSM-IV disorders in metropolitan China. Psychological Medicine, 41, 85-96. Liu, R.T., 2015. A developmentally informed perspective on the relation between stress and psychopathology: when the problem with stress is that there is not enough. 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PY - 2018/4

Y1 - 2018/4

N2 - Childhood adversities are key etiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. In Northern Ireland the Troubles also impacted on the population’s psychological health. This study used data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress a collaborative epidemiological study which used the WMH-CIDI to assess mental health disorders in a nationally representative sample (Part 2, n=1,986). The aims of the study were to assess cooccurrences of childhood adversities and investigate the impact of adversity profiles and conflict experience on psychopathology and suicidal behavior. Latent Class Analysis uncovered 3 discrete childhood adversity profiles, a low, medium, and high risk class. Individuals from higher risk adversity profiles displayed significantly increased odds of having psychological problems, with conflict exposure also impacting on psychopathology. However, the study revealed that the impact of conflict exposure on suicidal behaviour was moderated by latent class membership and that some adversity may actually be protective. The findings highlight the need to consider that, while adversity can have a negative impact on psychopathology, a lack of adversity early in life may hinder some people from developing adequate coping strategies. Further research is required to identify adversity patterns and other interacting factors that are protective.

AB - Childhood adversities are key etiological factors in the onset and persistence of psychopathology. In Northern Ireland the Troubles also impacted on the population’s psychological health. This study used data from the Northern Ireland Study of Health and Stress a collaborative epidemiological study which used the WMH-CIDI to assess mental health disorders in a nationally representative sample (Part 2, n=1,986). The aims of the study were to assess cooccurrences of childhood adversities and investigate the impact of adversity profiles and conflict experience on psychopathology and suicidal behavior. Latent Class Analysis uncovered 3 discrete childhood adversity profiles, a low, medium, and high risk class. Individuals from higher risk adversity profiles displayed significantly increased odds of having psychological problems, with conflict exposure also impacting on psychopathology. However, the study revealed that the impact of conflict exposure on suicidal behaviour was moderated by latent class membership and that some adversity may actually be protective. The findings highlight the need to consider that, while adversity can have a negative impact on psychopathology, a lack of adversity early in life may hinder some people from developing adequate coping strategies. Further research is required to identify adversity patterns and other interacting factors that are protective.

KW - mental health

KW - suicidality

KW - childhood adversities

KW - ACEs

U2 - 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.02.024

DO - 10.1016/j.psychres.2018.02.024

M3 - Article

VL - 262

SP - 213

EP - 220

ER -