A grain bridge model is used to provide a physical interpretation of the rate- and state-dependent friction parameters for the simple shear of a granular layer. This model differs from the simpler asperity model in that it recognizes the difference between the fracture of a grain and the fracture of an adhesion between grains, and it explicitly accounts for dilation in the granular layer. The model provides an explanation for the observed differences in the friction of granular layers deformed between rough surfaces and those deformed between smooth surfaces and for the evolution of the friction parameters with displacement. The observed evolution from velocity strengthening to velocity weakening with displacement is interpreted as being due to the change in the micromechanics of strain accommodation from grain crushing to slip between adjacent grains; this change is associated with the observed evolution of a fractal grain structure.
|Journal||Pure and Applied Geophysics|
|Publication status||Published - 1994|