The methionine aminopeptidase 2 inhibitor, TNP-470, enhances the antidiabetic properties of sitagliptin in mice by upregulating xenin

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The therapeutic mechanism of action of methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2) inhibitors for obesity-diabetes has not yet been fully defined. Xenin, a K-cell derived peptide hormone, possesses an N-terminal Met amino acid residue. Thus, elevated xenin levels could represent a potential pharmacological mechanism of MetAP2 inhibitors, since long-acting xenin analogues have been shown to improve obesity-diabetes. The present study has assessed the ability of the MetAP2 inhibitor, TNP-470, to augment the antidiabetic utility of the incretin-enhancer drug, sitagliptin, in high fat fed (HFF) mice. TNP-470 (1 mg/kg) and sitagliptin (25 mg/kg) were administered once-daily alone, or in combination, to diabetic HFF mice (n = 10) for 18 days. Individual therapy with TNP-470 or sitagliptin resulted in numerous metabolic benefits including reduced blood glucose, increased circulating and pancreatic insulin and improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, pyruvate tolerance and overall pancreatic islet architecture. Further assessment of metabolic rate revealed that all treatments reduced respiratory exchange ratio and increased locomotor activity. All sitagliptin treated mice also exhibited increased energy expenditure. In addition, treatment with TNP-470 alone, or in combination with sitagliptin, reduced food intake and body weight, as well as elevating plasma and intestinal xenin. Importantly, combined sitagliptin and TNP-470 therapy was associated with further significant benefits beyond that observed by either treatment alone. This included more rapid restoration of normoglycaemia, superior glucose tolerance, increased circulating GIP concentrations and an enhanced pancreatic beta:alpha cell ratio. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that TNP-470 increases plasma and intestinal xenin levels, and augments the antidiabetic advantages of sitagliptin. [Abstract copyright: Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.]
Original languageEnglish
Article number114355
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalBiochemical Pharmacology
Early online date3 Dec 2020
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 31 Jan 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
These studies were supported by a Department for the Economy, Northern Ireland , PhD Research Scholarship (SLC). Additional support (VAG, PRF and NI) was provided by Ulster University selective research funding.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020 Elsevier Inc.

Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Beta-cell
  • Diabetes
  • Didpeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4)
  • Insulin
  • Methionine aminopeptidase 2 (MetAP2)
  • Sitagliptin
  • TNP-470


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