The mainstreaming of disability cricket in England and Wales: Integration ‘One Game’ at a time

Paul James Kitchin, P. D. Howe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Disability sport in Great Britain has, since its genesis over sixty years ago, gained greater public profile with each passing decade. Arguably, this is a result of a more direct, interventionist approach from the British government and the Sport Councils into the field of disability sport over the past twenty years. In this paper we highlight a case of integration within sport by examining the process of mainstreaming disability cricket within England and Wales. Following a review of the extant literature in this area we will draw upon Bourdieu's practice theory in order to examine the impact of the implementation of policy on the management of issues of disability in mainstream cricket. Longitudinal ethnographic data (including participant observation and semi-structured interviews) was collected on the organizations involved in this mainstreaming process. Informants were either involved in the delivery of disability cricket or in the management of disability sports partnerships. Preliminary findings suggest that true integration is still unrealized. Whether the policy seeks true integration or whether mainstreaming is simply another modernizing process seeking greater efficiencies from sport organizations is unclear. Nevertheless a number of institutional pressures from the proximal and distal external environments have provided support for generating mainstreaming initiatives at management levels. In addition to these findings we argue that an additional outcome of this research is to demonstrate the suitability of a relational approach for conceptualizing policy, its interpretation by sport managers and the implementation strategies that follow.
LanguageEnglish
Pages65-77
JournalSport Management Review
Volume17
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2014

Fingerprint

cricket
disability
sport
England
Wales
Cricket
policy

Keywords

  • Integration
  • Mainstreaming
  • Cricket
  • Bourdieu
  • Disability sport

Cite this

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title = "The mainstreaming of disability cricket in England and Wales: Integration ‘One Game’ at a time",
abstract = "Disability sport in Great Britain has, since its genesis over sixty years ago, gained greater public profile with each passing decade. Arguably, this is a result of a more direct, interventionist approach from the British government and the Sport Councils into the field of disability sport over the past twenty years. In this paper we highlight a case of integration within sport by examining the process of mainstreaming disability cricket within England and Wales. Following a review of the extant literature in this area we will draw upon Bourdieu's practice theory in order to examine the impact of the implementation of policy on the management of issues of disability in mainstream cricket. Longitudinal ethnographic data (including participant observation and semi-structured interviews) was collected on the organizations involved in this mainstreaming process. Informants were either involved in the delivery of disability cricket or in the management of disability sports partnerships. Preliminary findings suggest that true integration is still unrealized. Whether the policy seeks true integration or whether mainstreaming is simply another modernizing process seeking greater efficiencies from sport organizations is unclear. Nevertheless a number of institutional pressures from the proximal and distal external environments have provided support for generating mainstreaming initiatives at management levels. In addition to these findings we argue that an additional outcome of this research is to demonstrate the suitability of a relational approach for conceptualizing policy, its interpretation by sport managers and the implementation strategies that follow.",
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note = "Reference text: Adler, P.A.,&Adler,P.(1987). Membership rolesinfieldresearch. BeverlyHills,CA:Sage. Advocacy for Inclusion.(2013). What is the difference between integration and inclusion? Available at http://www.advocacyforinclusion.org/publications/Publications/Information_Sheets/Education/ inclusion_and_integration.pdf, on28.02.2013. Aitchison, C.(2003). From leisure and disability to disability leisure:Developing data,definitions and discourses. Disability & Society,18(7), 955–969. Aitchison, C.(2009). Exclusive discourses:Leisure studies and disability. Leisure Studies,28(4), 375–386. Atkinson, W.(2011). From sociological fictions to social fictions: Some Bourdesian reflections on the concepts of ‘institutional habitus’ and ‘family habitus’. British Journal ofSociologyofEducation,32(3), 331–347. Berry, J.W.(1996). Immigration, acculturation and adaption. Applied Psychology,46, 5–34. Bourdieu, P.(1998). Practical reason. Cambridge:Polity Press. Bourdieu, P.,& Wacquant,L.J.D.(1992). An invitation to reflexive sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press. British Blind Sport.(2012). A history of sight classification in blind and visually impaired sport Accessed at http://www.britishblindsport.org.uk/index.php?id=68 on 7th November 2012. Clegg, S.,Kornberger,M.,&Pitsis,T.(2011). Managing & organizations:An introduction to theory and practice. London:Sage. Crabbe, T.(2007). Reaching the ‘hard to reach’:Engagement, relationship building and social control in sport based social inclusion work. International Journal Sport Management and Marketing, 2, 27–40. Collins, M.(2010). From ‘sport for good ’to‘ sport for sport’s sake’–not a good move for sports development in England? International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 2(3), 367–379. Crossley, N.(2011). Towards relational sociology. London: Routledge. Cunningham, G.B.(2002). Removing the blinders: Toward an integrative model of organizational change in sport and physical activity. Quest, 54, 276–291. Cushion, C.,&Jones,R.L.(2006). Power, discourse, and symbolic violence in professional youth soccer: The case of Albion football club. Sociology of Sport Journal, 23, 142–161. Darcy, S.,&Taylor,T.(2009). Disability citizenship: An Australian human rights analysis of the cultural industries. Leisure Studies, 28(4), 419–441. Department for Culture Media and Sport/Strategy Unit. (2002). Game plan: A strategy for delivering government’s sport and physical activity objectives. London: Strategy Unit. du Gay,P.(2000). Entrepreneurial governance and public management:The anti bureaucrats. In J.Clarke,S.Gewirtz, & E.McLaughlin (Eds.), New managerialism, new welfare (pp. 62–81). London: Sage. Edwards, A.,& Skinner,J.(2009). Qualitative research in sport management. Oxford: Elsevier. Emirbayer, M.(1997). Manifesto for a relational sociology. American Journal of Sociology,103, 281–317. Emirbayer, M.,&Johnson,V.(2008). Bourdieu and organizational analysis. Theory and Society,37, 1–44. Everett, J.(2002). Organizational research and the praxeology of Pierre Bourdieu. Organizational Research Methods,5, 56–80. Fetterman, D.M.(2010). Ethnography: Step by step (3rd edn.). LosAngeles, CA:Sage. Howe, P.D.(2007). Integration of Paralympic Athletes into athletics Canada. International Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue internationald ’etudes candiennes,35, 133–150. Kikulis, L.M.,Slack,T.,&Hinings,B.(1995). Sector specific patterns of organisational design change. Journal of Management Studies,32, 67–100. Kitchin, P.J.(2008). Twenty-20 and English Domestic Cricket. In S.Chadwick & D. Arthur(Eds.), International cases in the business of sport (pp. 105–113). Oxford: Elsevier. Kitchin, P.J.,& Howe, P.D.(2013). How can the social theory of Pierre Bourdieu assists port management research. Sport Management Review http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.smr.2012.09.003 Lusted, J.,& O’Gorman, J.(2010). The impact of New Labour’s modernisation agenda on the English grass-roots football workforce. Managing Leisure,15, 140–154. McDonough, P.M.(1997). Choosing colleges: How social class and schools structure opportunity. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. McDonough, P.(1998). Structuring college opportunities: Across case analysis of organizational cultures, climates and habiti. In C.A.Torress & T.R.Mitchell (Eds.), Sociology of education: Emerging perspectives. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. Misener, K.,& Doherty, A.J.(2009). A case study of organizational capacity in nonprofit community sport. Journal of Sport Management,22(4), 457–482. Mutch, A., Delbridge, R.,&Ventresca, M. (2006). Situating organizational action: The relational sociology of organizations. Organization, 13, 607–625. Norwich, B.(2007). Dilemmas of difference, inclusion and disability: International perspectives and future directions. London: Routledge. Oliver, M.(1990). The politics of disablement. London: MacMillan. Reeves-Sandy, P.(1979). The ethnographicparadigm(s). Administrative Science Quarterly,24, 527–538. Silk, M.,& Amis,J.(2000). Institutional pressures and the production of televised sport. Journal of Sport Management,14, 267–292. Silk, M.,Slack,T.,&Amis,J.(2000). Bread, butter and gravy: An institutional approach to televised sport production. Culture, Sport and Society,3, 1–21. Silverman, D.(2001). Interpreting qualitative data (2nd edn.).London:Sage. Skinner, J.,Stewart,B.,& Edwards,A.(1999). Amateurism to professionalism: Modelling organisational change in sporting organisations. Sport Management Review, 2, 173–192. Slack, T.,& Hinings,C.R.(1992). Understanding change in national sport organizations: Anintegration of theoretical perspectives. Journal of Sport Management, 6, 114–132. Smith, A.(2009). Disability and inclusion policy towards physical education and sport. In H. Fitzgerald (Ed.), Disability and youth sport (pp. 24–38).London: Routledge. Spaaij,R.(2013). Cultural diversity in community sport: An ethno graphic inquiry of SomaliAustralians’ experiences. Sport Management Review,16(1), 29–40. Sport England.(2002). Participation in sport in England: Sports equity index. London:Spor tEngland. Sport England.(2010). NGB Whole Sport Plans 2009–13: Cricket Available at http://www.sportengland.org/funding/ngb_investment/ngb_whole_sport_plans.aspx on 23.07.2011. S{\o}rensen,M.,& Kahrs,N.(2006). Integration of disability sport in the Norwegian sport organizations: Lessons learned. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly,23, 184–202. Stainback, S.,& Stainback, W.(1990). Inclusive schooling. In W. Stainback & S. Stainback (Eds.), Support networks for inclusive schooling: Interdependent integrated education (pp. 2–23).Baltimore,MA:Brookes. Stevens, J.A.,& Slack,T.(1998). Integrating social action and structural constraints. Towards a more holistic explanation of organizational change. International Review for the Sociology of Sport,33, 143–154. Strauss, A.,& Corbin,J.(1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory, procedures,and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. P.J. Kitchin, P.D.Howe/Sport Management Review (2013) Thomas, N.(2003). Disability and sport. In B.Houlihan (Ed.), Sport in society: A student introduction (pp. 105–124). London: Sage. Thomas, N.B.T.(2004). An examination of the disability sport policy network inEngland: A case study of the English Federation of Disability Sport and mainstreaming in seven sports. Loughborough: Unpublished PhD thesis Loughborough University. Tsekeris, C.,& Lydaki,A.(2011). The macro-microdilem main sociology:Perplexities and perspectives. Sociologija, 53(1), 67–82. Vaughan, D.(2008). Bourdieu and organizations:The empirical challenge. Theory and Society,37, 65–81. Yanow, D.,Ybema,S.,& van Hulst,M.(2012). Practising organizational ethnography. In G. Symon & C.Cassell (Eds.), The practice of qualitative organizational research: Core methods and current challenges (pp. 331–350). London:Sage. P.J. Kitchin, P.D.Howe/Sport Managemen tReview (2013)",
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The mainstreaming of disability cricket in England and Wales: Integration ‘One Game’ at a time. / Kitchin, Paul James; Howe, P. D.

Vol. 17, No. 1, 01.02.2014, p. 65-77.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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Bourdieu, P.,& Wacquant,L.J.D.(1992). An invitation to reflexive sociology. Cambridge: Polity Press. British Blind Sport.(2012). A history of sight classification in blind and visually impaired sport Accessed at http://www.britishblindsport.org.uk/index.php?id=68 on 7th November 2012. Clegg, S.,Kornberger,M.,&Pitsis,T.(2011). Managing & organizations:An introduction to theory and practice. London:Sage. Crabbe, T.(2007). Reaching the ‘hard to reach’:Engagement, relationship building and social control in sport based social inclusion work. International Journal Sport Management and Marketing, 2, 27–40. Collins, M.(2010). From ‘sport for good ’to‘ sport for sport’s sake’–not a good move for sports development in England? International Journal of Sport Policy and Politics, 2(3), 367–379. Crossley, N.(2011). Towards relational sociology. London: Routledge. Cunningham, G.B.(2002). Removing the blinders: Toward an integrative model of organizational change in sport and physical activity. Quest, 54, 276–291. Cushion, C.,&Jones,R.L.(2006). Power, discourse, and symbolic violence in professional youth soccer: The case of Albion football club. Sociology of Sport Journal, 23, 142–161. Darcy, S.,&Taylor,T.(2009). Disability citizenship: An Australian human rights analysis of the cultural industries. Leisure Studies, 28(4), 419–441. Department for Culture Media and Sport/Strategy Unit. (2002). Game plan: A strategy for delivering government’s sport and physical activity objectives. London: Strategy Unit. du Gay,P.(2000). Entrepreneurial governance and public management:The anti bureaucrats. In J.Clarke,S.Gewirtz, & E.McLaughlin (Eds.), New managerialism, new welfare (pp. 62–81). London: Sage. Edwards, A.,& Skinner,J.(2009). Qualitative research in sport management. Oxford: Elsevier. Emirbayer, M.(1997). Manifesto for a relational sociology. American Journal of Sociology,103, 281–317. Emirbayer, M.,&Johnson,V.(2008). Bourdieu and organizational analysis. Theory and Society,37, 1–44. Everett, J.(2002). Organizational research and the praxeology of Pierre Bourdieu. Organizational Research Methods,5, 56–80. Fetterman, D.M.(2010). Ethnography: Step by step (3rd edn.). LosAngeles, CA:Sage. Howe, P.D.(2007). Integration of Paralympic Athletes into athletics Canada. International Journal of Canadian Studies/Revue internationald ’etudes candiennes,35, 133–150. Kikulis, L.M.,Slack,T.,&Hinings,B.(1995). Sector specific patterns of organisational design change. Journal of Management Studies,32, 67–100. Kitchin, P.J.(2008). Twenty-20 and English Domestic Cricket. In S.Chadwick & D. Arthur(Eds.), International cases in the business of sport (pp. 105–113). Oxford: Elsevier. Kitchin, P.J.,& Howe, P.D.(2013). How can the social theory of Pierre Bourdieu assists port management research. Sport Management Review http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1016/j.smr.2012.09.003 Lusted, J.,& O’Gorman, J.(2010). The impact of New Labour’s modernisation agenda on the English grass-roots football workforce. Managing Leisure,15, 140–154. McDonough, P.M.(1997). Choosing colleges: How social class and schools structure opportunity. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. McDonough, P.(1998). Structuring college opportunities: Across case analysis of organizational cultures, climates and habiti. In C.A.Torress & T.R.Mitchell (Eds.), Sociology of education: Emerging perspectives. Albany, NY: SUNY Press. Misener, K.,& Doherty, A.J.(2009). A case study of organizational capacity in nonprofit community sport. Journal of Sport Management,22(4), 457–482. Mutch, A., Delbridge, R.,&Ventresca, M. (2006). Situating organizational action: The relational sociology of organizations. Organization, 13, 607–625. Norwich, B.(2007). Dilemmas of difference, inclusion and disability: International perspectives and future directions. London: Routledge. Oliver, M.(1990). The politics of disablement. London: MacMillan. Reeves-Sandy, P.(1979). The ethnographicparadigm(s). Administrative Science Quarterly,24, 527–538. Silk, M.,& Amis,J.(2000). Institutional pressures and the production of televised sport. Journal of Sport Management,14, 267–292. Silk, M.,Slack,T.,&Amis,J.(2000). Bread, butter and gravy: An institutional approach to televised sport production. Culture, Sport and Society,3, 1–21. Silverman, D.(2001). Interpreting qualitative data (2nd edn.).London:Sage. Skinner, J.,Stewart,B.,& Edwards,A.(1999). Amateurism to professionalism: Modelling organisational change in sporting organisations. Sport Management Review, 2, 173–192. Slack, T.,& Hinings,C.R.(1992). Understanding change in national sport organizations: Anintegration of theoretical perspectives. Journal of Sport Management, 6, 114–132. Smith, A.(2009). Disability and inclusion policy towards physical education and sport. In H. Fitzgerald (Ed.), Disability and youth sport (pp. 24–38).London: Routledge. Spaaij,R.(2013). Cultural diversity in community sport: An ethno graphic inquiry of SomaliAustralians’ experiences. Sport Management Review,16(1), 29–40. Sport England.(2002). Participation in sport in England: Sports equity index. London:Spor tEngland. Sport England.(2010). NGB Whole Sport Plans 2009–13: Cricket Available at http://www.sportengland.org/funding/ngb_investment/ngb_whole_sport_plans.aspx on 23.07.2011. Sørensen,M.,& Kahrs,N.(2006). Integration of disability sport in the Norwegian sport organizations: Lessons learned. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly,23, 184–202. Stainback, S.,& Stainback, W.(1990). Inclusive schooling. In W. Stainback & S. Stainback (Eds.), Support networks for inclusive schooling: Interdependent integrated education (pp. 2–23).Baltimore,MA:Brookes. Stevens, J.A.,& Slack,T.(1998). Integrating social action and structural constraints. Towards a more holistic explanation of organizational change. International Review for the Sociology of Sport,33, 143–154. Strauss, A.,& Corbin,J.(1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory, procedures,and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. P.J. Kitchin, P.D.Howe/Sport Management Review (2013) Thomas, N.(2003). Disability and sport. In B.Houlihan (Ed.), Sport in society: A student introduction (pp. 105–124). London: Sage. Thomas, N.B.T.(2004). An examination of the disability sport policy network inEngland: A case study of the English Federation of Disability Sport and mainstreaming in seven sports. Loughborough: Unpublished PhD thesis Loughborough University. Tsekeris, C.,& Lydaki,A.(2011). The macro-microdilem main sociology:Perplexities and perspectives. Sociologija, 53(1), 67–82. Vaughan, D.(2008). Bourdieu and organizations:The empirical challenge. Theory and Society,37, 65–81. Yanow, D.,Ybema,S.,& van Hulst,M.(2012). Practising organizational ethnography. In G. Symon & C.Cassell (Eds.), The practice of qualitative organizational research: Core methods and current challenges (pp. 331–350). London:Sage. P.J. Kitchin, P.D.Howe/Sport Managemen tReview (2013)

PY - 2014/2/1

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N2 - Disability sport in Great Britain has, since its genesis over sixty years ago, gained greater public profile with each passing decade. Arguably, this is a result of a more direct, interventionist approach from the British government and the Sport Councils into the field of disability sport over the past twenty years. In this paper we highlight a case of integration within sport by examining the process of mainstreaming disability cricket within England and Wales. Following a review of the extant literature in this area we will draw upon Bourdieu's practice theory in order to examine the impact of the implementation of policy on the management of issues of disability in mainstream cricket. Longitudinal ethnographic data (including participant observation and semi-structured interviews) was collected on the organizations involved in this mainstreaming process. Informants were either involved in the delivery of disability cricket or in the management of disability sports partnerships. Preliminary findings suggest that true integration is still unrealized. Whether the policy seeks true integration or whether mainstreaming is simply another modernizing process seeking greater efficiencies from sport organizations is unclear. Nevertheless a number of institutional pressures from the proximal and distal external environments have provided support for generating mainstreaming initiatives at management levels. In addition to these findings we argue that an additional outcome of this research is to demonstrate the suitability of a relational approach for conceptualizing policy, its interpretation by sport managers and the implementation strategies that follow.

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KW - Cricket

KW - Bourdieu

KW - Disability sport

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