The level of carbonation of a sugar-sweetened beverage preload affects satiety and short-term energy and food intakes

Anne Moorhead, Barbara Livingstone, Adrian Dunne, RW WELCH

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16 Citations (Scopus)
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The consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages is associated with increased incidence of overweight and obesity, and a factor underlying thisputative link could be the relatively low levels of satiety that may be induced by these beverages. Although many sugar-sweetened beveragesare carbonated, little attention has been given to the potential effects of level of carbonation on satiety and subsequent intakes. We hypothesizedthat increasing the level of carbonation in a sugar-sweetened beverage would increase satiety and decrease intakes in the short term. Using a randomized,within-subject cross-over design, thirty non-obese subjects (fifteen women, fifteen men) participated on three occasions, 1 week apart.Following a standard breakfast, subjects consumed a beverage preload 10 min before consuming a lunch ad libitum. Preloads were the same sugarsweetenedbeverage (400 ml, 639 kJ) with three levels of carbonation, which were low (1·7 volumes), medium (2·5 volumes) and high (3·7volumes). Satiety was assessed using visual analogue scales and intakes were measured at the lunch and for the rest of the day. Comparedwith the beverage with low carbonation, consumption of the beverages with medium and high carbonation led to significantly (P,0·05)higher satiety until lunch, when intakes of food and energy were significantly (P,0·05) lower. There were no significant effects on satiety followinglunch or on intakes for the rest of the day. This short-term study suggests that the level of carbonation may need to be taken into account whenassessing potential effects of beverages on satiety and intake.
Original languageEnglish
Issue number06
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 2008


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