The Inside Story, Practitioner Perspectives on Teaching in Prison

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

The status of prison educational programmes is described as ‘marginal’ (Reuss1999, p.114) and prisons are portrayed in the worst terms as ‘human dustbins’(Parkinson 1997, p.16). Whilst inside accounts of prison life are rare (Scraton andMoore 2006) some ethnographic reports from practitioners working in prisons have beenpublished (Reuss 1999, 2000, 2003; Pawson 2000). This article adds to the corpus,presenting a personal account of teaching based on six years’ experience working inMaghaberry Prison in Northern Ireland. Successful pedagogical approaches as well aspractical inconveniences faced daily by educationalists working in this environment arepresented.
LanguageEnglish
Pages512-528
JournalHoward Journal of Criminal Justice
Volume47
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2008

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@article{9f2422fd41814a898db552bf2a7a20a7,
title = "The Inside Story, Practitioner Perspectives on Teaching in Prison",
abstract = "The status of prison educational programmes is described as ‘marginal’ (Reuss1999, p.114) and prisons are portrayed in the worst terms as ‘human dustbins’(Parkinson 1997, p.16). Whilst inside accounts of prison life are rare (Scraton andMoore 2006) some ethnographic reports from practitioners working in prisons have beenpublished (Reuss 1999, 2000, 2003; Pawson 2000). This article adds to the corpus,presenting a personal account of teaching based on six years’ experience working inMaghaberry Prison in Northern Ireland. Successful pedagogical approaches as well aspractical inconveniences faced daily by educationalists working in this environment arepresented.",
author = "Tracy Irwin",
note = "Reference text: Adult Learning Inspectorate (2002) Inspection Report: HMP Maghaberry. Available at: http://docs.ali.gov.uk/Inspreps/14/3584DET.PDF (accessed 28 February 2007). Amelin, K. and O’Loan, C. (2005) ‘Northern Ireland prison population projections 2005–2009’, Research and Statistical Bulletin 12/2005, Belfast: Research and Statistics Branch, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Balatti, J. and Falk, I. (2001) Socioeconomic Contributions of Adult Learning to Community: A Social Capital Perspective, Wider Benefits of Learning Conference. Available at: http://www.crlra.utas.edu.au/files/discussion/2001/D10-2001.pdf (accessed 1 February 2007). Barton, D. and Papen, U. (2005) Linking Literacy and Numeracy Programmes in Developing Countries and the UK, London: National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy; Institute of Education. Available at: http:// www.nrdc.org.uk/publications_details.asp?ID=22 (accessed 1 February 2007). Bayliss, P. (2003) ‘Learning behind bars: time to liberate prison education’, Studies in the Education of Adults, 35(2), 157–72. Boud, D. and Middleton, H. (2003) ‘Learning from others at work: communities of practice and informal learning’, Journal of Workplace Learning, 15(5), 194–202. Braggins, J. (2004) Inside Track: All-Party Parliamentary Group Report on Prisoner Education. Available at: http://www.aoc.co.uk/aoc/Members/admin/files2/APPG{\%}20 report{\%}20final{\%}20formatted.doc (accessed 10 February 2007). Braggins, J. and Talbot, J. (2006) Wings of Learning: The Role of the Prison Officer in Supporting Prisoner Education, London: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies, King’s College London. Available at: http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/rel/ccjs/wings-oflearning. pdf (accessed 25 January 2007). Bruce, S. (1995) The Red Hand: Protestant Paramilitaries in Northern Ireland, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Burke, P.J. (2006) ‘Men accessing education: gendered aspirations’, British Educational Research Journal, 32(5), 719–33. Carlen, P. (1994) ‘Why study women’s imprisonment? Or anyone else’s? An indefinite article’, British Journal of Criminology, 34, 131–9. Carmody, P. (1996) A Study of Irish Female Prisoners, Dublin: Dublin Stationery Office. Chase, S. (1995) ‘Taking narrative seriously: consequences for method and theory in interview studies’, in: R. Josselson and A. Lieblich (Eds.), Interpreting Experience: The Narrative Study of Lives, Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. Coffield, F. (2000a) ‘The structure below the surface: reassessing the significance of informal learning’, in: F. Coffield (Ed.), The Necessity of Informal Learning, Bristol: Policy Press. Coffield, F. (2000b) ‘A critical analysis of the concept of lifelong learning’, in: F. Coffield (Ed.), Differing Visions of a Learning Society: Research Findings, vol. 1, Bristol: Policy Press. Coffield, F. (2000c) ‘Lifelong learning as a lever on structural change? Evaluation of White Paper: Learning to Succeed: A New Framework for Post-16 Learning’, Journal of Education Policy, 15(2), 237–46. Cowburn, M. (1998) ‘A man’s world: gender issues in working with male sex offenders in prison’, Howard Journal, 37, 234–51. Crothers, J. (1998) Reintegration: The Problems and the Issues (Ex-Prisoner’s Interpretative Centre Research Document No 2), Belfast: EPIC Print. Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2005) The Offender’s Learning Journey: Learning and Skills Provision for Adult Offenders in England. Available at: http:// www.dfes.gov.uk/offenderlearning/uploads/documents/adult_OLJ_V0.5a.doc (accessed 22 February 2007). Dhillon, J. (2004) ‘An exploration of adult learners’ perspectives of using learndirect centres as sites for learning’, Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 9(1), 147–58. Falk, I. and Harrison, L. (1998) ‘Community learning and social capital: ‘‘Just having a little chat’’ ’, Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 50(4), 609–27. Falk, I. and Kilpatrick, S. (1999) What is Social Capital? A Study of Interaction in a Rural Community. Available at: http://www.crlra.utas.edu.au/files/discussion/1999/D05-1999. pdf (accessed 25 February 2007). Field, J. and Schuller, T. (2000) ‘Networks, norms and trust: explaining patterns of lifelong learning in Scotland and Northern Ireland’, in: F. Coffield (Ed.), Differing Visions of a Learning Society: Research Findings, vol. 2, Bristol: The Policy Press. Fletcher, B., Shaver, L. and Moon, D. (1993) Women Prisoners: A Forgotten Population, Westport: Praeger. Flynn, N. and Price, D. (1995) Education in Prisons: A National Survey, London: Prison Reform Trust. Foley, G. (2001) ‘Radical adult education and learning’, International Journal of Lifelong Education, 20(1/2), 71–88. Forster, W. (1998) ‘The prison service and education in England and Wales’, in: W. Forster (Ed.), Education Behind Bars: International Comparisons, Leicester: National Institute for Adult Continuing Education (NIACE). Gormally, B., McEvoy, K. and Wall, D. (1993) ‘Criminal justice in a divided society: Northern Ireland prisons’, Crime and Justice, 17, 51–135. Hague, L. and Willis, M. (2001) ‘The Northern Ireland prison population in 2000’, Research and Statistical Bulletin 7/2001, Belfast: Research and Statistics Branch, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Hansard (2006) The United Kingdom Parliament: Prison Service. Available at: http:// www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200506/cmhansard/cm060621/text/60621 (accessed 12 December 2006). Healey, T. and Slowey, M. (2006) ‘Social exclusion and adult engagement in lifelong learning: some comparative implications for European states based on Ireland’s celtic tiger experience’, Compare, 36(3), 359–78. Higgins, J. (2004) ‘Sharing sociological stories: reflections on teaching sociology in prison’, International Journal of Lifelong Education, 23(3), 243–57. Home Office (1991) The National Prison Survey 1991: Main Findings (Research Study 128), London: HMSO. Home Office (2005) Reducing Re-offending Through Skills and Employment, Norwich: HMSO. Available at: http://www.dfes.gov.uk/offenderlearning/uploads/documents/green_ paper_reducing_re-offending_through_skills_{\%}20and_employment_final_version.pdf (accessed 25 February 2007). House of Commons (2004) ‘Northern Ireland Affairs Committee’, The Separation of Paramilitary Prisoners at HMP Maghaberry, London: HMSO. Irwin, T. (2003) ‘Prison education in Northern Ireland: learning from our paramilitary past’, Howard Journal, 42, 471–84. Kilpatrick, S., Bell, R. and Falk, I. (1999) ‘The role of group learning in building social capital’, Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 51(1), 129–44. Levy, M. (2004) ‘No bars on learning’, Training Journal, September, 18–21. Lieb, S. (1991) Principles of Adult Learning. Available at: http://www.hawaii. edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/adults-2.htm (accessed 23 March 2007). Mahan, S. (1984) ‘Imposition of despair: an ethnography of women in prison’, Justice Quarterly, 1(3), 357–83. McClenaghan, P. (2000) ‘Social capital: exploring the theoretical foundations of community development education’, British Educational Research Journal, 26(5), 565–82. McGivney, V. (2003) Understanding ‘Persistence’ in Adult Learning. Available at: http:// kn.open.ac.uk/public/index.cfm?wpid=1887 (accessed 23 March 2007). McKeown, L. (1999) Out of Time: Irish Republican Prisoners Long Kesh 1972–2000, Belfast: Beyond the Pale Publications. Mellar, H., Kambouri, M., Sanderson, M. and Pavlov, V. (2004) ICTand Adult Literacy, Numeracy and ESOL, London: National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, Institute of Education. Miles, M. and Huberman, A. (1994) Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook, Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. Morgan, S. (1999) ‘Prison lives: critical issues in reading prisoner autobiography’, Howard Journal, 38, 328–40. National Association of Teachers in Further and Higher Education (NATFHE) (2004) Submission to the Education and Skills Select Committee Inquiry into Prison Education. Available at: http://www.natfhe.org.uk/temp_downloads/f11o133z103g90s39q 92l137s2w59x106t117a91y85m120i67/prisedsub04.doc (accessed 15 December 2006). Northern Ireland Office (1976) Education and Vocational Training in Penal Establishments in Northern Ireland, Belfast: HMSO. Northern Ireland Prison Service (2007) Website at: http://niprisonservice.gov.uk/ index.cfm/area/information/page/education (accessed 24 March 2007). O’Donnell, I. and Edgar, K. (1998) ‘Routine victimisation in prisons’, Howard Journal, 37, 266–79. O’Loan, C. and Amelin, K. (2006) ‘The Northern Ireland prison population in 2005’, Research and Statistical Bulletin 2/2006, Belfast: Research and Statistics Branch, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Parker, C., Hazel, P. and Watson, J. (2000) Prison Education Beyond 2000: A Review of Educational Provision for Prisoners in Northern Ireland. Available at: http://www. niprisonservice.gov.uk/module.cfm/opt/5/area/Publications/page/publications/archive/true/ download (accessed 24 March 2007). Parkinson, E. (1997) Educating Adults in Prison. Available at: http://www.leeds.ac.uk/ educol/documents/00002623.doc (accessed 10 August 2007). Parsons, M. and Langenbach, M. (1993) ‘The reasons inmates indicate they participate in prison education programs: another look at Boshier’s PEPs’, Journal of Correctional Education, 44(1), 38–41. Pawson, R. (2000) ‘The evaluator’s tale’, in: D. Wilson and A. Reuss (Eds.), Prison(er) Education: Stories of Change and Transformation, Winchester: Waterside Press. Peckham, M. (1995) ‘Self managed learning theory and practice’, Management Development Review, 8(4), 23–6. Pollock, J. (1997) Prisons Today and Tomorrow, Guithersburg, MA.: Aspen. Quinn, J., Thomas, L., Slack, K., Casey, L., Thexton, W. and Noble, J. (2006) ‘Lifting the hood: lifelong learning and young, white, provincial working-class masculinities’, British Educational Research Journal, 32(5), 735–50. Rees, G., Fevre, R., Furlong, J. and Gorard, S. (1997) ‘History, place and the learning society: towards a sociology of lifetime learning’, Journal of Education Policy, 12(6), 485–97. Reuss, A. (1999) ‘Prison(er) education’, Howard Journal, 38, 113–27. Reuss, A. (2000) ‘The researcher’s tale’, in: D. Wilson and A. Reuss (Eds.), Prison(er) Education: Stories of Change and Transformation, Winchester: Waterside Press. Reuss, A. (2003) ‘Taking a long hard look at imprisonment’, Howard Journal, 42, 426– 36. Roberts, J. and Hough, M. (2005) ‘The state of the prisons: exploring public knowledge and opinion’, Howard Journal, 44, 286–306. Rocks, P. (1985) ‘Attitudes to participation in education of adult prisoners in HMP Maze (Compounds) and HMP Belfast’, International Journal of Lifelong Education, 4(1), 69–82. Rogers, C. (1969) Freedom to Learn, Westerville: Merrill. Schuller, T. (2001) ‘The complementary roles of human and social capital’, Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2(1), 18–24. Schuller, T. and Bamford, C. (2000) ‘A social capital approach to the analysis of continuing education: evidence from the UK learning society research programme’, Oxford Review of Education, 26(2), 5–19. Scraton, P. and Moore, L. (2006) ‘Degradation, harm and survival in a women’s prison’, Social Policy and Society, 5, 67–78. Smith, M. (1999) ‘The intellectual internment of conflict: the forgotten war in Northern Ireland’, International Affairs, 75(1), 77–97. Spradley, J. (1979) The Ethnographic Interview, Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College. Torre, M.E. and Fine, M. (2005) ‘Bar none: extending affirmative action to higher education in prison’, Journal of Social Issues, 61(3), 569–86. Warner, K. (1998) ‘The ‘‘prisoners are people’’ perspective: and the problems of promoting learning where this outlook is rejected’, Journal of Correctional Education, 49(3), 118–32. Wengraf, T. (2001) Qualitative Research Interviewing: Biographic Narrative and Semi- Structured Methods, London: Sage. Whitmore, E. (1994) ‘To tell the truth: working with oppressed groups in participatory approaches to inquiry’, in: P. Reason (Ed.), Participation in Human Inquiry, London: Sage. Zepke, N. and Leach, L. (2006) ‘Improving learner outcomes in lifelong education: formal pedagogies in non-formal learning contexts’, International Journal of Lifelong Education, 25(5), 507–18.",
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language = "English",
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The Inside Story, Practitioner Perspectives on Teaching in Prison. / Irwin, Tracy.

In: Howard Journal of Criminal Justice, Vol. 47, No. 5, 2008, p. 512-528.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - The Inside Story, Practitioner Perspectives on Teaching in Prison

AU - Irwin, Tracy

N1 - Reference text: Adult Learning Inspectorate (2002) Inspection Report: HMP Maghaberry. Available at: http://docs.ali.gov.uk/Inspreps/14/3584DET.PDF (accessed 28 February 2007). Amelin, K. and O’Loan, C. (2005) ‘Northern Ireland prison population projections 2005–2009’, Research and Statistical Bulletin 12/2005, Belfast: Research and Statistics Branch, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Balatti, J. and Falk, I. (2001) Socioeconomic Contributions of Adult Learning to Community: A Social Capital Perspective, Wider Benefits of Learning Conference. Available at: http://www.crlra.utas.edu.au/files/discussion/2001/D10-2001.pdf (accessed 1 February 2007). Barton, D. and Papen, U. (2005) Linking Literacy and Numeracy Programmes in Developing Countries and the UK, London: National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy; Institute of Education. Available at: http:// www.nrdc.org.uk/publications_details.asp?ID=22 (accessed 1 February 2007). Bayliss, P. (2003) ‘Learning behind bars: time to liberate prison education’, Studies in the Education of Adults, 35(2), 157–72. Boud, D. and Middleton, H. (2003) ‘Learning from others at work: communities of practice and informal learning’, Journal of Workplace Learning, 15(5), 194–202. Braggins, J. (2004) Inside Track: All-Party Parliamentary Group Report on Prisoner Education. Available at: http://www.aoc.co.uk/aoc/Members/admin/files2/APPG%20 report%20final%20formatted.doc (accessed 10 February 2007). Braggins, J. and Talbot, J. (2006) Wings of Learning: The Role of the Prison Officer in Supporting Prisoner Education, London: Centre for Crime and Justice Studies, King’s College London. Available at: http://www.kcl.ac.uk/depsta/rel/ccjs/wings-oflearning. pdf (accessed 25 January 2007). Bruce, S. (1995) The Red Hand: Protestant Paramilitaries in Northern Ireland, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Burke, P.J. (2006) ‘Men accessing education: gendered aspirations’, British Educational Research Journal, 32(5), 719–33. Carlen, P. (1994) ‘Why study women’s imprisonment? Or anyone else’s? An indefinite article’, British Journal of Criminology, 34, 131–9. Carmody, P. (1996) A Study of Irish Female Prisoners, Dublin: Dublin Stationery Office. Chase, S. (1995) ‘Taking narrative seriously: consequences for method and theory in interview studies’, in: R. Josselson and A. Lieblich (Eds.), Interpreting Experience: The Narrative Study of Lives, Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. Coffield, F. (2000a) ‘The structure below the surface: reassessing the significance of informal learning’, in: F. Coffield (Ed.), The Necessity of Informal Learning, Bristol: Policy Press. Coffield, F. (2000b) ‘A critical analysis of the concept of lifelong learning’, in: F. Coffield (Ed.), Differing Visions of a Learning Society: Research Findings, vol. 1, Bristol: Policy Press. Coffield, F. (2000c) ‘Lifelong learning as a lever on structural change? Evaluation of White Paper: Learning to Succeed: A New Framework for Post-16 Learning’, Journal of Education Policy, 15(2), 237–46. Cowburn, M. (1998) ‘A man’s world: gender issues in working with male sex offenders in prison’, Howard Journal, 37, 234–51. Crothers, J. (1998) Reintegration: The Problems and the Issues (Ex-Prisoner’s Interpretative Centre Research Document No 2), Belfast: EPIC Print. Department for Education and Skills (DfES) (2005) The Offender’s Learning Journey: Learning and Skills Provision for Adult Offenders in England. Available at: http:// www.dfes.gov.uk/offenderlearning/uploads/documents/adult_OLJ_V0.5a.doc (accessed 22 February 2007). Dhillon, J. (2004) ‘An exploration of adult learners’ perspectives of using learndirect centres as sites for learning’, Research in Post-Compulsory Education, 9(1), 147–58. Falk, I. and Harrison, L. (1998) ‘Community learning and social capital: ‘‘Just having a little chat’’ ’, Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 50(4), 609–27. Falk, I. and Kilpatrick, S. (1999) What is Social Capital? A Study of Interaction in a Rural Community. Available at: http://www.crlra.utas.edu.au/files/discussion/1999/D05-1999. pdf (accessed 25 February 2007). Field, J. and Schuller, T. (2000) ‘Networks, norms and trust: explaining patterns of lifelong learning in Scotland and Northern Ireland’, in: F. Coffield (Ed.), Differing Visions of a Learning Society: Research Findings, vol. 2, Bristol: The Policy Press. Fletcher, B., Shaver, L. and Moon, D. (1993) Women Prisoners: A Forgotten Population, Westport: Praeger. Flynn, N. and Price, D. (1995) Education in Prisons: A National Survey, London: Prison Reform Trust. Foley, G. (2001) ‘Radical adult education and learning’, International Journal of Lifelong Education, 20(1/2), 71–88. Forster, W. (1998) ‘The prison service and education in England and Wales’, in: W. Forster (Ed.), Education Behind Bars: International Comparisons, Leicester: National Institute for Adult Continuing Education (NIACE). Gormally, B., McEvoy, K. and Wall, D. (1993) ‘Criminal justice in a divided society: Northern Ireland prisons’, Crime and Justice, 17, 51–135. Hague, L. and Willis, M. (2001) ‘The Northern Ireland prison population in 2000’, Research and Statistical Bulletin 7/2001, Belfast: Research and Statistics Branch, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Hansard (2006) The United Kingdom Parliament: Prison Service. Available at: http:// www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200506/cmhansard/cm060621/text/60621 (accessed 12 December 2006). Healey, T. and Slowey, M. (2006) ‘Social exclusion and adult engagement in lifelong learning: some comparative implications for European states based on Ireland’s celtic tiger experience’, Compare, 36(3), 359–78. Higgins, J. (2004) ‘Sharing sociological stories: reflections on teaching sociology in prison’, International Journal of Lifelong Education, 23(3), 243–57. Home Office (1991) The National Prison Survey 1991: Main Findings (Research Study 128), London: HMSO. Home Office (2005) Reducing Re-offending Through Skills and Employment, Norwich: HMSO. Available at: http://www.dfes.gov.uk/offenderlearning/uploads/documents/green_ paper_reducing_re-offending_through_skills_%20and_employment_final_version.pdf (accessed 25 February 2007). House of Commons (2004) ‘Northern Ireland Affairs Committee’, The Separation of Paramilitary Prisoners at HMP Maghaberry, London: HMSO. Irwin, T. (2003) ‘Prison education in Northern Ireland: learning from our paramilitary past’, Howard Journal, 42, 471–84. Kilpatrick, S., Bell, R. and Falk, I. (1999) ‘The role of group learning in building social capital’, Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 51(1), 129–44. Levy, M. (2004) ‘No bars on learning’, Training Journal, September, 18–21. Lieb, S. (1991) Principles of Adult Learning. Available at: http://www.hawaii. edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/adults-2.htm (accessed 23 March 2007). Mahan, S. (1984) ‘Imposition of despair: an ethnography of women in prison’, Justice Quarterly, 1(3), 357–83. McClenaghan, P. (2000) ‘Social capital: exploring the theoretical foundations of community development education’, British Educational Research Journal, 26(5), 565–82. McGivney, V. (2003) Understanding ‘Persistence’ in Adult Learning. Available at: http:// kn.open.ac.uk/public/index.cfm?wpid=1887 (accessed 23 March 2007). McKeown, L. (1999) Out of Time: Irish Republican Prisoners Long Kesh 1972–2000, Belfast: Beyond the Pale Publications. Mellar, H., Kambouri, M., Sanderson, M. and Pavlov, V. (2004) ICTand Adult Literacy, Numeracy and ESOL, London: National Research and Development Centre for Adult Literacy and Numeracy, Institute of Education. Miles, M. and Huberman, A. (1994) Qualitative Data Analysis: An Expanded Sourcebook, Thousand Oaks, CA.: Sage. Morgan, S. (1999) ‘Prison lives: critical issues in reading prisoner autobiography’, Howard Journal, 38, 328–40. National Association of Teachers in Further and Higher Education (NATFHE) (2004) Submission to the Education and Skills Select Committee Inquiry into Prison Education. Available at: http://www.natfhe.org.uk/temp_downloads/f11o133z103g90s39q 92l137s2w59x106t117a91y85m120i67/prisedsub04.doc (accessed 15 December 2006). Northern Ireland Office (1976) Education and Vocational Training in Penal Establishments in Northern Ireland, Belfast: HMSO. Northern Ireland Prison Service (2007) Website at: http://niprisonservice.gov.uk/ index.cfm/area/information/page/education (accessed 24 March 2007). O’Donnell, I. and Edgar, K. (1998) ‘Routine victimisation in prisons’, Howard Journal, 37, 266–79. O’Loan, C. and Amelin, K. (2006) ‘The Northern Ireland prison population in 2005’, Research and Statistical Bulletin 2/2006, Belfast: Research and Statistics Branch, Northern Ireland Statistics and Research Agency. Parker, C., Hazel, P. and Watson, J. (2000) Prison Education Beyond 2000: A Review of Educational Provision for Prisoners in Northern Ireland. Available at: http://www. niprisonservice.gov.uk/module.cfm/opt/5/area/Publications/page/publications/archive/true/ download (accessed 24 March 2007). Parkinson, E. (1997) Educating Adults in Prison. Available at: http://www.leeds.ac.uk/ educol/documents/00002623.doc (accessed 10 August 2007). Parsons, M. and Langenbach, M. (1993) ‘The reasons inmates indicate they participate in prison education programs: another look at Boshier’s PEPs’, Journal of Correctional Education, 44(1), 38–41. Pawson, R. (2000) ‘The evaluator’s tale’, in: D. Wilson and A. Reuss (Eds.), Prison(er) Education: Stories of Change and Transformation, Winchester: Waterside Press. Peckham, M. (1995) ‘Self managed learning theory and practice’, Management Development Review, 8(4), 23–6. Pollock, J. (1997) Prisons Today and Tomorrow, Guithersburg, MA.: Aspen. Quinn, J., Thomas, L., Slack, K., Casey, L., Thexton, W. and Noble, J. (2006) ‘Lifting the hood: lifelong learning and young, white, provincial working-class masculinities’, British Educational Research Journal, 32(5), 735–50. Rees, G., Fevre, R., Furlong, J. and Gorard, S. (1997) ‘History, place and the learning society: towards a sociology of lifetime learning’, Journal of Education Policy, 12(6), 485–97. Reuss, A. (1999) ‘Prison(er) education’, Howard Journal, 38, 113–27. Reuss, A. (2000) ‘The researcher’s tale’, in: D. Wilson and A. Reuss (Eds.), Prison(er) Education: Stories of Change and Transformation, Winchester: Waterside Press. Reuss, A. (2003) ‘Taking a long hard look at imprisonment’, Howard Journal, 42, 426– 36. Roberts, J. and Hough, M. (2005) ‘The state of the prisons: exploring public knowledge and opinion’, Howard Journal, 44, 286–306. Rocks, P. (1985) ‘Attitudes to participation in education of adult prisoners in HMP Maze (Compounds) and HMP Belfast’, International Journal of Lifelong Education, 4(1), 69–82. Rogers, C. (1969) Freedom to Learn, Westerville: Merrill. Schuller, T. (2001) ‘The complementary roles of human and social capital’, Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2(1), 18–24. Schuller, T. and Bamford, C. (2000) ‘A social capital approach to the analysis of continuing education: evidence from the UK learning society research programme’, Oxford Review of Education, 26(2), 5–19. Scraton, P. and Moore, L. (2006) ‘Degradation, harm and survival in a women’s prison’, Social Policy and Society, 5, 67–78. Smith, M. (1999) ‘The intellectual internment of conflict: the forgotten war in Northern Ireland’, International Affairs, 75(1), 77–97. Spradley, J. (1979) The Ethnographic Interview, Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College. Torre, M.E. and Fine, M. (2005) ‘Bar none: extending affirmative action to higher education in prison’, Journal of Social Issues, 61(3), 569–86. Warner, K. (1998) ‘The ‘‘prisoners are people’’ perspective: and the problems of promoting learning where this outlook is rejected’, Journal of Correctional Education, 49(3), 118–32. Wengraf, T. (2001) Qualitative Research Interviewing: Biographic Narrative and Semi- Structured Methods, London: Sage. Whitmore, E. (1994) ‘To tell the truth: working with oppressed groups in participatory approaches to inquiry’, in: P. Reason (Ed.), Participation in Human Inquiry, London: Sage. Zepke, N. and Leach, L. (2006) ‘Improving learner outcomes in lifelong education: formal pedagogies in non-formal learning contexts’, International Journal of Lifelong Education, 25(5), 507–18.

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