The Influence of Visual Contextual Information on the Emergence of the Especial Skill in Basketball

Tino Stöckel, Gavin Breslin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

8 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We examined whether basketball throwing performance in general and motor skill specificity from the free throw distance in particular are influenced by visual contextual information. Experienced basketball players (N = 36) performed basketball set shots at five distances from the basket. Of particular interest was the performance from the free throw distance (4.23 m), at which experienced basketball players are expected to show superior performance compared with nearby locations as a result of massive amounts of practice. Whereas a control group performed the shots on a regular basketball court, the distance between the rim and the free throw line was either increased or decreased by 30 cm in two experimental groups. Findings showed that only the control group had a superior performance from the free throw distance, and the experimental groups did not. Moreover, all groups performed more accurately from the perceived free throw line (independent of its location) compared with nearby locations. The findings suggest that visual context information influences the presence of specificity effects in experienced performers. The findings have theoretical implications for explaining the memory representation underlying the especial skill effect in basketball.
LanguageEnglish
Pages536-541
JournalJournal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Volume35
Publication statusPublished - 3 Oct 2013

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@article{c7bb6798217048a0b49a6e469f07b705,
title = "The Influence of Visual Contextual Information on the Emergence of the Especial Skill in Basketball",
abstract = "We examined whether basketball throwing performance in general and motor skill specificity from the free throw distance in particular are influenced by visual contextual information. Experienced basketball players (N = 36) performed basketball set shots at five distances from the basket. Of particular interest was the performance from the free throw distance (4.23 m), at which experienced basketball players are expected to show superior performance compared with nearby locations as a result of massive amounts of practice. Whereas a control group performed the shots on a regular basketball court, the distance between the rim and the free throw line was either increased or decreased by 30 cm in two experimental groups. Findings showed that only the control group had a superior performance from the free throw distance, and the experimental groups did not. Moreover, all groups performed more accurately from the perceived free throw line (independent of its location) compared with nearby locations. The findings suggest that visual context information influences the presence of specificity effects in experienced performers. The findings have theoretical implications for explaining the memory representation underlying the especial skill effect in basketball.",
author = "Tino St{\"o}ckel and Gavin Breslin",
note = "Reference text: Breslin, G., Hodges, N., Steenson, A., & Williams, A.M. (2012). Constant or variable practice: Recreating the especial skill effect. Acta Psychologica, 140, 154–157. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2012.04.002 Breslin, G., Hodges, N.J., Kennedy, R., Hanlon, M., & Williams, A.M. (2010). An especial skill: Support for a learned parameters hypothesis. Acta Psychologica, 134, 55–60. PubMed doi:10.1016/j.actpsy.2009.12.004 Breslin, G., Schmidt, R.A., & Lee, T.D. (2012). Especial skills: Generality and specificity in motor learning. In A.M. Williams, and N.J. Hodges (Eds.) Skill acquisition in sport: Research theory and practice (2nd Edition). London: Routledge. de Oliveira, R.F., Oudejans, R.R.D., & Beek, P.J. (2009). Experts appear to use angle of elevation information inbasketball shooting. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 35, 750–761. PubMed Fay, K., Breslin, G., Czyz˙, S.H., & Pizlo, Z. (2013). An especial skill in elite wheelchair basketball players. Human Movement Science, 32(4), 708–718. PubMed doi:10.1016/j. humov.2012.08.005 Keetch, K.M., Schmidt, R.A., Lee, T.D., & Young, D.E. (2005). Especial skills: Their emergence with massive amounts of practice. Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance, 31, 970–978. PubMed doi:10.1037/0096-1523.31.5.970 Keetch, K.M., Lee, T.D., & Schmidt, R.A. (2008). Especial skills: Specificity embedded within generality. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 30, 723–736. PubMed Oldfield, R.C. (1971). The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia, 9, 97–113. PubMed doi:10.1016/0028-3932(71)90067-4 Oudejans, R.R.D., van de Langenberg, R.W., & Hutter, R.I. (2002). Aiming at a far target under different viewing conditions: Visual control in basketball jump shooting. Human Movement Science, 21, 457–480. PubMed doi:10.1016/Schmidt, R.A. (1975). Schema theory of discrete motor skill learning. Psychological Review, 82, 225–260. doi:10.1037/ h0076770 Schmidt, R.A. (2003). Motor schema theory after 27 years: Reflections and implications for a new theory. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 74, 366–375. PubMed doi:10.1080/02701367.2003.10609106 Simons, J.P., Wilson, J.M., Wilson, G.J., & Theall, S. (2009). Challenges to cognitive bases for an especial motor skill at the regulation baseball pitching distance. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 80, 469–479. PubMed St{\"o}ckel, T., & Fries, U. (2013). Motor adaptation in complex sports – The influence of visual context information on the adaptation of the three-point shot to altered task demands in expert basketball players. Journal of Sports Sciences, 31, 750–758. PubMed doi:10.1080/02640414.2012.750003 Wright, D.L., & Shea, C.H. (1991). Contextual dependencies in motor skills. Memory & Cognition, 19, 361–370. PubMed doi:10.3758/BF03197140",
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The Influence of Visual Contextual Information on the Emergence of the Especial Skill in Basketball. / Stöckel, Tino; Breslin, Gavin.

In: Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, Vol. 35, 03.10.2013, p. 536-541.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Stöckel, Tino

AU - Breslin, Gavin

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Y1 - 2013/10/3

N2 - We examined whether basketball throwing performance in general and motor skill specificity from the free throw distance in particular are influenced by visual contextual information. Experienced basketball players (N = 36) performed basketball set shots at five distances from the basket. Of particular interest was the performance from the free throw distance (4.23 m), at which experienced basketball players are expected to show superior performance compared with nearby locations as a result of massive amounts of practice. Whereas a control group performed the shots on a regular basketball court, the distance between the rim and the free throw line was either increased or decreased by 30 cm in two experimental groups. Findings showed that only the control group had a superior performance from the free throw distance, and the experimental groups did not. Moreover, all groups performed more accurately from the perceived free throw line (independent of its location) compared with nearby locations. The findings suggest that visual context information influences the presence of specificity effects in experienced performers. The findings have theoretical implications for explaining the memory representation underlying the especial skill effect in basketball.

AB - We examined whether basketball throwing performance in general and motor skill specificity from the free throw distance in particular are influenced by visual contextual information. Experienced basketball players (N = 36) performed basketball set shots at five distances from the basket. Of particular interest was the performance from the free throw distance (4.23 m), at which experienced basketball players are expected to show superior performance compared with nearby locations as a result of massive amounts of practice. Whereas a control group performed the shots on a regular basketball court, the distance between the rim and the free throw line was either increased or decreased by 30 cm in two experimental groups. Findings showed that only the control group had a superior performance from the free throw distance, and the experimental groups did not. Moreover, all groups performed more accurately from the perceived free throw line (independent of its location) compared with nearby locations. The findings suggest that visual context information influences the presence of specificity effects in experienced performers. The findings have theoretical implications for explaining the memory representation underlying the especial skill effect in basketball.

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