The influence of education on conflict and peace building, Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2011 The Hidden Crisis: Armed conflict and education, Paris: UNESCO.

Research output: Book/ReportCommissioned report

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to identify aspects of education that may have a positive influence on the dynamics of conflict or make a contribution to peacebuilding. The UN Secretary-General’s (2009) report on peacebuilding identifies a number of recurring priorities in conflict-affected situations, ‘establishing security, building confidence in a political process, delivering initial peace dividends and expanding core national capacity’. These priorities include ‘the provision of basic services, such as water and sanitation, health and primary education’. However, in conflict-affected situations education is also about more than service delivery because it is a means of socialization and identity development through the transmission of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes across generations. Education may therefore be a driver of conflict (fuelling grievances, stereotypes, xenophobia and other antagonisms), but can also be a way of contributing to ‘conflict transformation’ and ‘peacebuilding’.
LanguageEnglish
Number of pages30
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2010

Fingerprint

UNESCO
peace
monitoring
education
xenophobia
antagonism
primary education
health promotion
socialization
stereotype
UNO
confidence
driver
water
Values

Keywords

  • EFA
  • education
  • conflict
  • peacebuilding
  • United Nations
  • PBF

Cite this

@book{78708ed38d0e42c08a86498e99a74713,
title = "The influence of education on conflict and peace building, Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2011 The Hidden Crisis: Armed conflict and education, Paris: UNESCO.",
abstract = "The purpose of this paper is to identify aspects of education that may have a positive influence on the dynamics of conflict or make a contribution to peacebuilding. The UN Secretary-General’s (2009) report on peacebuilding identifies a number of recurring priorities in conflict-affected situations, ‘establishing security, building confidence in a political process, delivering initial peace dividends and expanding core national capacity’. These priorities include ‘the provision of basic services, such as water and sanitation, health and primary education’. However, in conflict-affected situations education is also about more than service delivery because it is a means of socialization and identity development through the transmission of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes across generations. Education may therefore be a driver of conflict (fuelling grievances, stereotypes, xenophobia and other antagonisms), but can also be a way of contributing to ‘conflict transformation’ and ‘peacebuilding’.",
keywords = "EFA, education, conflict, peacebuilding, United Nations, PBF",
author = "Alan Smith",
note = "Reference text: Aragon, J. and Vegas, M. (2009) Governance Evidence In Peru: Production and Use in the Education Sector, UNDP, Oslo Governance Centre, Discussion Paper 19. Alexander, H., Pinson, H. Yonah, Y. (2010) Citizenship, Education and Social Conflict, Routledge. Amara, M., Azaiza, F., Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. and Mor-Sommerfeld, A. (2009) A New Bilingual Education in the Conflict-Ridden Israeli Reality, Language and Education, 23 (1): 15–35. Barakat, B., Karpinska, Z., and Paulson, J. (2008) INEE Desk study: Education and fragility. Oxford, UK: Conflict and Education Research Group (CERG). Vargas-Bar{\'o}n, E. and Alarc{\'o}n, H.B. (Eds) (2005) From Bullets to Blackboards. Education for Peace in Latin America and Asia, Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank and the Johns Hopkins University Press Bekerman, Z. (2005) Complex contexts and ideologies: bilingual education in conflict-ridden areas. Journal of Language, Identity and Education, 4(1): 1–20. Bender, P. et al, (2005) In Their Own Language: Education For All. Education Notes Series, Washington, DC: The World Bank. Ben-Porath, S.R. (2006) Citizenship Under Fire. Democratic Education in Times of Conflict, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Bird, L. (2007) Learning about war and peace in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. Research in Comparative and International Education, 2(3), 176-190. Boutros-Ghali, B. (1992) An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peace-keeping Document A/47/277 - S/241111, 17 June 1992, New York: Department of Public Information, United Nations. http://www.un.org/Docs/SG/agpeace.html Buckland, P. (2005) Reshaping the future: Education and postconflict reconstruction. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Buckley-Zistel, S. (2006) Dividing and uniting: The use of citizenship discourses in conflict and reconciliation in Rwanda, Global Society, 20(1): 101-113. Buckley-Zistel, S. (2009) 'Nation, narration, unification? The politics of history teaching after the Rwandan genocide', Journal of Genocide Research, 11(1): 31-53. Burde, D. (2004) Weak state, strong community? Promoting community participation in postconflict countries. Current Issues in Comparative Education, 6(2), 73-87. Bush, K., and Salterelli, D. (Eds.). (2000). The two faces of education in ethnic conflict. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. Cole, E.A. (2007) Teaching the Violent Past. History Education and Reconciliation, Plymouth, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. Colenso, P. (2005) Achieving the education Millennium Development Goals in fragie states – what is the role of aid? Brighton, UK: University of Sussex. Coletta, N.J. & Cullen, M.L. (2000) Violent Conflict and the Transformation of Social Capital: Lessons from Cambodia, Rwanda, Guatemala and Somalia, World Bank, Washington D.C. Connolly, P., Smith, A. and Kells, B. (2002) Too Young to Notice? The Cultural and Political Awareness of 3-6 Year Olds in Northern Ireland, Belfast: Community Relations Council. Davies, L. (2004) Education and conflict: Complexity and chaos. New York, NY: Routledge. Davies, L. (2005) Teaching about Conflict through Citizenship Education, International Journal of Citizenship and Teacher Education, 1(2): 17-34. Davies, L. (2008) Educating Against Extremism. Stoke on Trent: Trentham Demmers, J. (2002) Diaspora and Conflict: Locality, Long-Distance Nationalism, and Delocalisation of Conflict Dynamics, The Public, Vol.9 (1): 85-96. De Ruyter, D. (2001) Fundamentalist Education: A Critical Analysis, Religious Education, 96(2): 193-210. Dwyer, A.M. (2005) Policy Studies 15. The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur Identity, Language Policy, and Political Discourse, Washington DC: East-West Center. Gallagher, T. (2005). Faith schools and Northern Ireland: A review of research. In R. Gardner, J. Cairns, and D. Lawton, D. (Eds.), Faith schools: Consensus or conflict? (pp. 156-165). London: RoutledgeFalmer. Gallagher, T. (2010) Key Issues in Coexistence and Education, Coexistence International, Brandeis University. Galtung, J. (1996) Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilization. London: Sage. Gorard, S. and Smith, E. (2004) An International Comparison of Equity in Education Systems, Comparative Education, 40(1): 15-28. Grare, F. (2007) The Evolution of Sectarian Conflicts in Pakistan and the Ever-Changing Face of Islamic Violence, South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 30(1): 127-143. Green, A., Preston, J. and Sabates, R. (2003) ‘Education, Equality and Social Cohesion: a distributional approach’, Compare, 33 (4): 451-68 Green, A., Preston, J. and Janmaat, J.G. (2006) Education, Equality and Social Cohesion: A Comparative Analysis, Palgrave MacMillan. Gulalp, H. (2006) Citizenship and Ethnic Conflict: Challenging the Nation-State, Routledge Research in Comparative Politics. Golubeva, M. (2009) Divided Education, Divided Citizens? A comparative study of the effects of separate schooling on civil enculturation, Network of Policy Centres that aimed to assess the impact of ethnically segregated schooling on civic education and civic attitudes among students and teachers of segregated schools. The study covered 8 countries: Estonia, Latvia, Romania, Slovakia, Bosnia, Kosovo, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan. Halstead, M., and McLaughlin, T. (2005). Are faith schools divisive? In R. Gardner, J. Cairns, and D. Lawton (Eds.), Faith schools: Consensus or conflict? (pp. 61-73). London: RoutledgeFalmer. Hanf, T. and Bauerle, P. (2009) Factors Determining Democratic Attitudes in Deeply Divided Societies, Beirut: American University Beirut. Hughes, J. and Donnelly, C. (2006) Contact as a policy mechanism for promoting better relations in integrated schools in Northern Ireland and bilingual/bi-national schools in Israel, Journal of Peace Education, 3(1): 79 – 97. Ichilov, Orit (2004) Political Learning and Citizenship Education Under Conflict: The Political Socialization of Israeli and Palestinian Youngsters, Routledge Advances in International Relations and Politics). INEE (2008) Guidance Notes on Teacher Compensation in Fragile States, Situations of Displacement and Post-Crisis Recovery. International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP). (2006). Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning. International Save the Children Alliance. (2007) Last in line, last in school: How donors are failing children in conflict-affected fragile states. Lederach, J.P. (1995) Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation Across Cultures, New York: Syracuse. University Press. Lockheed, M. E and Lewis, M. A., (2007) Inexcusable Absence: Why 60 Million Girls Still Aren't In School and What to do About It, Washington: Center for Global Development. Miall, H. (2004) Conflict Transformation: A Multi-Dimensional Task, Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation. http://www.berghof-handbook.net/ Manby, Bronwen (2009) Struggles for Citizenship in Africa, Zed Books. McGlynn, C. (2005) Integrated and Faith-Based Schooling in Northern Ireland, The Irish Journal of Education / Iris Eireannach an Oideachais, xxxvi: 49-62. Montgomery, A. and McGlynn, C. (2009) New peace, new teachers: Student teachers’ perspectives of diversity and community relations in Northern Ireland, Teaching and Teacher Education, 25: 391–399. Obura, A. (2003) Never Again: Educational reconstruction in Rwanda. Paris: UNESCO, IIEP. Obura, A. (2008) Staying power: Struggling to reconstruct education in Burundi since 1993. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning-UNESCO. O’Connor, U. (2008) Evaluation of the Pilot Introduction of Education for Local and Global Citizenship into the revised Northern Ireland Curriculum, Coleraine: University of Ulster. OECD (2001). DAC Guidelines – Helping Prevent Violent Conflict. http://ineesite.org/uploads/documents/store/doc_1_The_DAC_Guidelineshelping_prevent_violent_conflict.pdf OECD Fragile States Group. (2007). Policy brief: State building in fragile states. http://www.ineesite.org/page.asp?pid=1428 OECD-DAC (2005).Mainstreaming conflict prevention - reconciliation. http://ineesite.org/uploads/documents/store/doc_1_OECDMainstreaming_Conflict_Prevention.pdf OECD-DAC. (2007) Principles for good international engagement in fragile states & situations.http://www.oecd.org/document/12/0,3343,en_2649_33693550_42113676_1_1_1_1,00.html OECD-DAC. (2008) Service delivery in fragile situations: Key concepts, findings, and lessons. www.oecd.org/dataoecd/17/54/40886707.pdf Oglesby (2007) Historical memory and the Limits of Peace Education: Examining Guatamal’a Memory of Silence and the Politics of Curriculum Design, In Cole, E.A. (2007) Teaching the Violent Past. History Education and Reconciliation, Plymouth, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. Open Society (2009) Citizenship Law in Africa, Open Society Justice Initiative & AfriMAP. Paulson, J. (2006) The Educational Recommendations of Truth and Reconciliation Commissions: potential and practice in Sierra Leone, Research in Comparative and International Education, 1(4): 335-350. Paulson, J. (2010) Truth commissions and national curriculum: The case of the Record{\'a}ndonos resource in Peru, In Parmar, S., Roseman, M.J.; Siegrist, S. and Sowa, T. (Eds) Children and Transitional Justice. Truth-Telling,Accountability and Reconciliation, Human Rights Program at Harvard Law School. Paulson, J., and Rappleye, J. (2007) Bridging the theory-policy gap? A review of three recent publications in ‘education and conflict.’ International Journal of Educational Development, 27(4), 340-347. Pigozzi, M. J. (1999) Education in emergencies and reconstruction: A developmental approach. New York: UNICEF. Ben-Porath, S.R. (2006) Citizenship Under Fire. Democratic Education in Times of Conflict, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. R{\"o}sel, Jakob (2009) ‘Mass-education in a vast, in a dangerous and a fragmented state – education policy in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka’, Paper presented at Conference on Education in Fragile Contexts, Arnold-Bergstraesser-Institut, Freiburg: Germany. Save The Children (2007) The 'Education and Fragility Barometer’: An early warning tool to aid conflict prevention. London: Save The Children UK. Schuller, T. (2001) ‘The Complementary Roles of Human and Social Capital’, Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2 (1): 18-24. Shabad, G. and Gunther, R. (1982) Language, Nationalism, and Political Conflict in Spain, Comparative Politics, Vol. 14, No. 4 (Jul., 1982), pp. 443-477. Short, G. (2002) Faith-Based Schools: A Threat To Social Cohesion? Journal of Philosophy of Education, 36(4): 559-572. Sinclair, M. (2002) Planning education in and after emergencies. Paris: UNESCO. Slaymaker, T., Christiansen, K., & Hemming, I. (2005) Community-based approaches and service delivery: Issues and options in difficult environments and partnerships. London: Overseas Development Institute. Smith, A. (2001) Religious Segregation and the Emergence of Integrated Schools in Northern Ireland, Oxford Review of Education, 27(4): 559-75. Smith, A. (2003) Citizenship Education in Northern Ireland: beyond national identity? Cambridge Journal of Education, 33(1):15-31. Smith, A. Fountain, S. & McLean, H. (2002) Civic Education in Primary and Secondary Schools in the Republic of Serbia. Belgrade: UNICEF, UNESCO and Open Society Institute. Smith, A., and Vaux, T. (2003) Education, conflict, and international development. London: Department of International Development. Smith, A. and O Maol{\'a}in, C. (2004) Challenging Intolerance. New Directions for Youth Development. Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Jossey-Bass, Summer: 95-108. Smith, A. (2005) Investing in Systemic Change through Curriculum, Textbooks and Teachers, In: Education, Social Cohesion and Diversity, Washington, DC: World Bank. Smith, A. (2005) Education in the Twenty-First Century: Conflict, Reconstruction and Reconciliation, Compare, 35(4): 373-391. Smith, A. and Magill, C. (2009) Reconciliation. Does Education have a role? Shared Space: A research journal on peace, conflict and community relations, 8(1): 5-15. Smith, H. and Stares, P. (eds) (2007) Diasporas in Conflict: Peacemakers or Peace Wreckers? Tokyo: United Nations University Press. Stewart, F. (2000). Crisis prevention: Tackling horizontal inequalities. Oxford Development Studies, 32(3), 245-262. Stewart, F. (2009) Religion versus Ethnicity as a Source of Mobilisation: Are There Differences? MICROCON Research Working Paper 18, Brighton: MICROCON. Tawil, S. and Harley, A. (eds) (2004) Education, Conflict and Social Cohesion, UNESCO-IBE, Geneva. Tebbe, K. (2007). ‘Peacebuilding Methods for the Post-Conflict Education System’, M.A. in International Peace and Conflict Resolution, American University. https://new.american.edu/sis/ipcr/upload/KTebbeSRPwDistinction2007S.pdf Triplehorn, C. (2001). Education: Care and protection of children in emergencies - A field guide. Westport, CT: Save the Children. UNESCO (1999) UNESCO Guidebook on Textbook Research and Textbook Revision, UNESCO, Paris. UNESCO (2003) Education in a Multilingual World. UNESCO Education Position Paper, Paris: UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001297/129728e.pdf UNICEF (2009) Machel Study 10-year Strategic Review. Children and Conflict in a Changing World. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Machel_Study_10_Year_Strategic_Review_EN_030909.pdf The United Nations Commission on Human Rights Report (1995) Implementation of the declaration on the eliminations of all forms of intolerance and of discrimination based on religion or belief, article 66 (E/CN.4/1996/95) Vallings, C., & Torrres M.M. (2005). Drivers of fragility: What makes states fragile? London, UK: DFID, Pride Working Paper No. 7. Vaux, T., Smith, A., & Subba, S. (2006). Education for All – Nepal: Review from a conflict perspective. International Alert. Wedge, J. (2008).Where peace begins: Education’s role in conflict prevention and peacebuilding. London: Save the Children UK.",
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N1 - Reference text: Aragon, J. and Vegas, M. (2009) Governance Evidence In Peru: Production and Use in the Education Sector, UNDP, Oslo Governance Centre, Discussion Paper 19. Alexander, H., Pinson, H. Yonah, Y. (2010) Citizenship, Education and Social Conflict, Routledge. Amara, M., Azaiza, F., Hertz-Lazarowitz, R. and Mor-Sommerfeld, A. (2009) A New Bilingual Education in the Conflict-Ridden Israeli Reality, Language and Education, 23 (1): 15–35. Barakat, B., Karpinska, Z., and Paulson, J. (2008) INEE Desk study: Education and fragility. Oxford, UK: Conflict and Education Research Group (CERG). Vargas-Barón, E. and Alarcón, H.B. (Eds) (2005) From Bullets to Blackboards. Education for Peace in Latin America and Asia, Washington, DC: Inter-American Development Bank and the Johns Hopkins University Press Bekerman, Z. (2005) Complex contexts and ideologies: bilingual education in conflict-ridden areas. Journal of Language, Identity and Education, 4(1): 1–20. Bender, P. et al, (2005) In Their Own Language: Education For All. Education Notes Series, Washington, DC: The World Bank. Ben-Porath, S.R. (2006) Citizenship Under Fire. Democratic Education in Times of Conflict, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Bird, L. (2007) Learning about war and peace in the Great Lakes Region of Africa. Research in Comparative and International Education, 2(3), 176-190. Boutros-Ghali, B. (1992) An Agenda for Peace: Preventive Diplomacy, Peacemaking and Peace-keeping Document A/47/277 - S/241111, 17 June 1992, New York: Department of Public Information, United Nations. http://www.un.org/Docs/SG/agpeace.html Buckland, P. (2005) Reshaping the future: Education and postconflict reconstruction. Washington, DC: The World Bank. Buckley-Zistel, S. (2006) Dividing and uniting: The use of citizenship discourses in conflict and reconciliation in Rwanda, Global Society, 20(1): 101-113. Buckley-Zistel, S. (2009) 'Nation, narration, unification? The politics of history teaching after the Rwandan genocide', Journal of Genocide Research, 11(1): 31-53. Burde, D. (2004) Weak state, strong community? Promoting community participation in postconflict countries. Current Issues in Comparative Education, 6(2), 73-87. Bush, K., and Salterelli, D. (Eds.). (2000). The two faces of education in ethnic conflict. Florence: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. Cole, E.A. (2007) Teaching the Violent Past. History Education and Reconciliation, Plymouth, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. Colenso, P. (2005) Achieving the education Millennium Development Goals in fragie states – what is the role of aid? Brighton, UK: University of Sussex. Coletta, N.J. & Cullen, M.L. (2000) Violent Conflict and the Transformation of Social Capital: Lessons from Cambodia, Rwanda, Guatemala and Somalia, World Bank, Washington D.C. Connolly, P., Smith, A. and Kells, B. (2002) Too Young to Notice? The Cultural and Political Awareness of 3-6 Year Olds in Northern Ireland, Belfast: Community Relations Council. Davies, L. (2004) Education and conflict: Complexity and chaos. New York, NY: Routledge. Davies, L. (2005) Teaching about Conflict through Citizenship Education, International Journal of Citizenship and Teacher Education, 1(2): 17-34. Davies, L. (2008) Educating Against Extremism. Stoke on Trent: Trentham Demmers, J. (2002) Diaspora and Conflict: Locality, Long-Distance Nationalism, and Delocalisation of Conflict Dynamics, The Public, Vol.9 (1): 85-96. De Ruyter, D. (2001) Fundamentalist Education: A Critical Analysis, Religious Education, 96(2): 193-210. Dwyer, A.M. (2005) Policy Studies 15. The Xinjiang Conflict: Uyghur Identity, Language Policy, and Political Discourse, Washington DC: East-West Center. Gallagher, T. (2005). Faith schools and Northern Ireland: A review of research. In R. Gardner, J. Cairns, and D. Lawton, D. (Eds.), Faith schools: Consensus or conflict? (pp. 156-165). London: RoutledgeFalmer. Gallagher, T. (2010) Key Issues in Coexistence and Education, Coexistence International, Brandeis University. Galtung, J. (1996) Peace by Peaceful Means: Peace and Conflict, Development and Civilization. London: Sage. Gorard, S. and Smith, E. (2004) An International Comparison of Equity in Education Systems, Comparative Education, 40(1): 15-28. Grare, F. (2007) The Evolution of Sectarian Conflicts in Pakistan and the Ever-Changing Face of Islamic Violence, South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies, 30(1): 127-143. Green, A., Preston, J. and Sabates, R. (2003) ‘Education, Equality and Social Cohesion: a distributional approach’, Compare, 33 (4): 451-68 Green, A., Preston, J. and Janmaat, J.G. (2006) Education, Equality and Social Cohesion: A Comparative Analysis, Palgrave MacMillan. Gulalp, H. (2006) Citizenship and Ethnic Conflict: Challenging the Nation-State, Routledge Research in Comparative Politics. Golubeva, M. (2009) Divided Education, Divided Citizens? A comparative study of the effects of separate schooling on civil enculturation, Network of Policy Centres that aimed to assess the impact of ethnically segregated schooling on civic education and civic attitudes among students and teachers of segregated schools. The study covered 8 countries: Estonia, Latvia, Romania, Slovakia, Bosnia, Kosovo, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan. Halstead, M., and McLaughlin, T. (2005). Are faith schools divisive? In R. Gardner, J. Cairns, and D. Lawton (Eds.), Faith schools: Consensus or conflict? (pp. 61-73). London: RoutledgeFalmer. Hanf, T. and Bauerle, P. (2009) Factors Determining Democratic Attitudes in Deeply Divided Societies, Beirut: American University Beirut. Hughes, J. and Donnelly, C. (2006) Contact as a policy mechanism for promoting better relations in integrated schools in Northern Ireland and bilingual/bi-national schools in Israel, Journal of Peace Education, 3(1): 79 – 97. Ichilov, Orit (2004) Political Learning and Citizenship Education Under Conflict: The Political Socialization of Israeli and Palestinian Youngsters, Routledge Advances in International Relations and Politics). INEE (2008) Guidance Notes on Teacher Compensation in Fragile States, Situations of Displacement and Post-Crisis Recovery. International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP). (2006). Guidebook for planning education in emergencies and reconstruction. Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning. International Save the Children Alliance. (2007) Last in line, last in school: How donors are failing children in conflict-affected fragile states. Lederach, J.P. (1995) Preparing for Peace: Conflict Transformation Across Cultures, New York: Syracuse. University Press. Lockheed, M. E and Lewis, M. A., (2007) Inexcusable Absence: Why 60 Million Girls Still Aren't In School and What to do About It, Washington: Center for Global Development. Miall, H. (2004) Conflict Transformation: A Multi-Dimensional Task, Berghof Handbook for Conflict Transformation. http://www.berghof-handbook.net/ Manby, Bronwen (2009) Struggles for Citizenship in Africa, Zed Books. McGlynn, C. (2005) Integrated and Faith-Based Schooling in Northern Ireland, The Irish Journal of Education / Iris Eireannach an Oideachais, xxxvi: 49-62. Montgomery, A. and McGlynn, C. (2009) New peace, new teachers: Student teachers’ perspectives of diversity and community relations in Northern Ireland, Teaching and Teacher Education, 25: 391–399. Obura, A. (2003) Never Again: Educational reconstruction in Rwanda. Paris: UNESCO, IIEP. Obura, A. (2008) Staying power: Struggling to reconstruct education in Burundi since 1993. Paris: International Institute for Educational Planning-UNESCO. O’Connor, U. (2008) Evaluation of the Pilot Introduction of Education for Local and Global Citizenship into the revised Northern Ireland Curriculum, Coleraine: University of Ulster. OECD (2001). DAC Guidelines – Helping Prevent Violent Conflict. http://ineesite.org/uploads/documents/store/doc_1_The_DAC_Guidelineshelping_prevent_violent_conflict.pdf OECD Fragile States Group. (2007). Policy brief: State building in fragile states. http://www.ineesite.org/page.asp?pid=1428 OECD-DAC (2005).Mainstreaming conflict prevention - reconciliation. http://ineesite.org/uploads/documents/store/doc_1_OECDMainstreaming_Conflict_Prevention.pdf OECD-DAC. (2007) Principles for good international engagement in fragile states & situations.http://www.oecd.org/document/12/0,3343,en_2649_33693550_42113676_1_1_1_1,00.html OECD-DAC. (2008) Service delivery in fragile situations: Key concepts, findings, and lessons. www.oecd.org/dataoecd/17/54/40886707.pdf Oglesby (2007) Historical memory and the Limits of Peace Education: Examining Guatamal’a Memory of Silence and the Politics of Curriculum Design, In Cole, E.A. (2007) Teaching the Violent Past. History Education and Reconciliation, Plymouth, Rowman and Littlefield Publishers. Open Society (2009) Citizenship Law in Africa, Open Society Justice Initiative & AfriMAP. Paulson, J. (2006) The Educational Recommendations of Truth and Reconciliation Commissions: potential and practice in Sierra Leone, Research in Comparative and International Education, 1(4): 335-350. Paulson, J. (2010) Truth commissions and national curriculum: The case of the Recordándonos resource in Peru, In Parmar, S., Roseman, M.J.; Siegrist, S. and Sowa, T. (Eds) Children and Transitional Justice. Truth-Telling,Accountability and Reconciliation, Human Rights Program at Harvard Law School. Paulson, J., and Rappleye, J. (2007) Bridging the theory-policy gap? A review of three recent publications in ‘education and conflict.’ International Journal of Educational Development, 27(4), 340-347. Pigozzi, M. J. (1999) Education in emergencies and reconstruction: A developmental approach. New York: UNICEF. Ben-Porath, S.R. (2006) Citizenship Under Fire. Democratic Education in Times of Conflict, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. Rösel, Jakob (2009) ‘Mass-education in a vast, in a dangerous and a fragmented state – education policy in India, Pakistan and Sri Lanka’, Paper presented at Conference on Education in Fragile Contexts, Arnold-Bergstraesser-Institut, Freiburg: Germany. Save The Children (2007) The 'Education and Fragility Barometer’: An early warning tool to aid conflict prevention. London: Save The Children UK. Schuller, T. (2001) ‘The Complementary Roles of Human and Social Capital’, Canadian Journal of Policy Research, 2 (1): 18-24. Shabad, G. and Gunther, R. (1982) Language, Nationalism, and Political Conflict in Spain, Comparative Politics, Vol. 14, No. 4 (Jul., 1982), pp. 443-477. Short, G. (2002) Faith-Based Schools: A Threat To Social Cohesion? Journal of Philosophy of Education, 36(4): 559-572. Sinclair, M. (2002) Planning education in and after emergencies. Paris: UNESCO. Slaymaker, T., Christiansen, K., & Hemming, I. (2005) Community-based approaches and service delivery: Issues and options in difficult environments and partnerships. London: Overseas Development Institute. Smith, A. (2001) Religious Segregation and the Emergence of Integrated Schools in Northern Ireland, Oxford Review of Education, 27(4): 559-75. Smith, A. (2003) Citizenship Education in Northern Ireland: beyond national identity? Cambridge Journal of Education, 33(1):15-31. Smith, A. Fountain, S. & McLean, H. (2002) Civic Education in Primary and Secondary Schools in the Republic of Serbia. Belgrade: UNICEF, UNESCO and Open Society Institute. Smith, A., and Vaux, T. (2003) Education, conflict, and international development. London: Department of International Development. Smith, A. and O Maoláin, C. (2004) Challenging Intolerance. New Directions for Youth Development. Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Jossey-Bass, Summer: 95-108. Smith, A. (2005) Investing in Systemic Change through Curriculum, Textbooks and Teachers, In: Education, Social Cohesion and Diversity, Washington, DC: World Bank. Smith, A. (2005) Education in the Twenty-First Century: Conflict, Reconstruction and Reconciliation, Compare, 35(4): 373-391. Smith, A. and Magill, C. (2009) Reconciliation. Does Education have a role? Shared Space: A research journal on peace, conflict and community relations, 8(1): 5-15. Smith, H. and Stares, P. (eds) (2007) Diasporas in Conflict: Peacemakers or Peace Wreckers? Tokyo: United Nations University Press. Stewart, F. (2000). Crisis prevention: Tackling horizontal inequalities. Oxford Development Studies, 32(3), 245-262. Stewart, F. (2009) Religion versus Ethnicity as a Source of Mobilisation: Are There Differences? MICROCON Research Working Paper 18, Brighton: MICROCON. Tawil, S. and Harley, A. (eds) (2004) Education, Conflict and Social Cohesion, UNESCO-IBE, Geneva. Tebbe, K. (2007). ‘Peacebuilding Methods for the Post-Conflict Education System’, M.A. in International Peace and Conflict Resolution, American University. https://new.american.edu/sis/ipcr/upload/KTebbeSRPwDistinction2007S.pdf Triplehorn, C. (2001). Education: Care and protection of children in emergencies - A field guide. Westport, CT: Save the Children. UNESCO (1999) UNESCO Guidebook on Textbook Research and Textbook Revision, UNESCO, Paris. UNESCO (2003) Education in a Multilingual World. UNESCO Education Position Paper, Paris: UNESCO. http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001297/129728e.pdf UNICEF (2009) Machel Study 10-year Strategic Review. 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PY - 2010/11

Y1 - 2010/11

N2 - The purpose of this paper is to identify aspects of education that may have a positive influence on the dynamics of conflict or make a contribution to peacebuilding. The UN Secretary-General’s (2009) report on peacebuilding identifies a number of recurring priorities in conflict-affected situations, ‘establishing security, building confidence in a political process, delivering initial peace dividends and expanding core national capacity’. These priorities include ‘the provision of basic services, such as water and sanitation, health and primary education’. However, in conflict-affected situations education is also about more than service delivery because it is a means of socialization and identity development through the transmission of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes across generations. Education may therefore be a driver of conflict (fuelling grievances, stereotypes, xenophobia and other antagonisms), but can also be a way of contributing to ‘conflict transformation’ and ‘peacebuilding’.

AB - The purpose of this paper is to identify aspects of education that may have a positive influence on the dynamics of conflict or make a contribution to peacebuilding. The UN Secretary-General’s (2009) report on peacebuilding identifies a number of recurring priorities in conflict-affected situations, ‘establishing security, building confidence in a political process, delivering initial peace dividends and expanding core national capacity’. These priorities include ‘the provision of basic services, such as water and sanitation, health and primary education’. However, in conflict-affected situations education is also about more than service delivery because it is a means of socialization and identity development through the transmission of knowledge, skills, values and attitudes across generations. Education may therefore be a driver of conflict (fuelling grievances, stereotypes, xenophobia and other antagonisms), but can also be a way of contributing to ‘conflict transformation’ and ‘peacebuilding’.

KW - EFA

KW - education

KW - conflict

KW - peacebuilding

KW - United Nations

KW - PBF

M3 - Commissioned report

BT - The influence of education on conflict and peace building, Background paper prepared for the Education for All Global Monitoring Report 2011 The Hidden Crisis: Armed conflict and education, Paris: UNESCO.

ER -