The importance of accessory protein variants in the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2

Sk. Sarif Hassan, Pabitra Pal Choudhury, Guy W. Dayhoff, Alaa A.a. Aljabali, Bruce D. Uhal, Kenneth Lundstrom, Nima Rezaei, Damiano Pizzol, Parise Adadi, Amos Lal, Antonio Soares, Tarek Mohamed Abd El-aziz, Adam M. Brufsky, Gajendra Kumar Azad, Samendra P. Sherchan, Wagner Baetas-da-cruz, Kazuo Takayama, Ãngel Serrano-aroca, Gaurav Chauhan, Giorgio PaluYogendra Kumar Mishra, Debmalya Barh, Raner Jośe Santana Silva, Bruno Silva Andrade, Vasco Azevedo, Aristóteles Góes-neto, Nicolas G. Bazan, Elrashdy M. Redwan, Murtaza Tambuwala, Vladimir N. Uversky

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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS- CoV-2) with an estimated fatality rate of less than 1%. The SARS-CoV-2 accessory proteins ORF3a, ORF6, ORF7a, ORF7b, ORF8, and ORF10 possess putative functions to manipulate host immune mechanisms. These involve interferons, which appear as a consensus function, immune signaling receptor NLRP3 (NLR family pyrin domain-containing 3) inflammasome, and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and are critical in COVID-19 pathology. Outspread variations of each of the six accessory proteins were observed across six continents of all complete SARS-CoV-2 proteomes based on the data reported before November 2020. A decreasing order of percentage of unique variations in the accessory proteins was determined as ORF3a > ORF8 > ORF7a > ORF6 > ORF10 > ORF7b across all continents. The highest and lowest unique variations of ORF3a were observed in South America and Oceania, respectively. These findings suggest that the wide variations in accessory proteins seem to affect the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2.
Original languageEnglish
Article number109124
Pages (from-to)1-16
Number of pages16
JournalArchives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Early online date24 Jan 2022
Publication statusPublished (in print/issue) - 15 Mar 2022

Bibliographical note

Copyright © 2022 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


  • ORF10
  • ORF3a
  • ORF6
  • ORF7a
  • ORF7b
  • ORF8
  • Pathogenicity
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Orf7b
  • Orf7a
  • Humans
  • Viral Proteins
  • Phylogeny
  • Viroporin Proteins
  • Orf10
  • Orf8
  • Sars-cov-2
  • Genetic Variation
  • COVID-19
  • Orf6
  • Orf3a


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