The implications of contemporary cultural diversity for the hospitality curriculum

Niamh Hearns, Frances Devine, Tom Baum

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose This viewpoint paper aims to assess a curriculum response within a specific vocational sector, hospitality, driven by the recent surge in intra EU labour migration and the ensuing increase in workplace cultural diversity.Approach The paper aims to identify an appropriate curriculum response by assessing the industry implications and proffering a conceptual model of curriculum response.Findings The experience across business sectors, such as hospitality, emphasises the need for training that is geared to meet the needs of both international and indigenous employees and that, critically, intercultural issues represent a significant training gap. It is posited that the curriculum response is multifaceted embracing the need to address course content, learning outcomes, assessment methods and the training needs of educators.Originality/value The paper is targeted at academics within applied business education, specifically in those areas of the services sector that have experienced significant labour migration in recent years. It is also of wider value to those involved in curricula design in a vocational context.
LanguageEnglish
Pages350-363
JournalEducation + Training
Volume49
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 29 Aug 2007

Fingerprint

cultural diversity
curriculum
labor migration
business education
tertiary sector
Values
workplace
EU
employee
educator
industry
learning
experience

Keywords

  • Migrant workers
  • labour mobility
  • Hospitality services
  • cross-cultural management
  • multicultural management
  • curriculum development

Cite this

@article{a42557fd70894ea29b2faa8a09c7297a,
title = "The implications of contemporary cultural diversity for the hospitality curriculum",
abstract = "Purpose This viewpoint paper aims to assess a curriculum response within a specific vocational sector, hospitality, driven by the recent surge in intra EU labour migration and the ensuing increase in workplace cultural diversity.Approach The paper aims to identify an appropriate curriculum response by assessing the industry implications and proffering a conceptual model of curriculum response.Findings The experience across business sectors, such as hospitality, emphasises the need for training that is geared to meet the needs of both international and indigenous employees and that, critically, intercultural issues represent a significant training gap. It is posited that the curriculum response is multifaceted embracing the need to address course content, learning outcomes, assessment methods and the training needs of educators.Originality/value The paper is targeted at academics within applied business education, specifically in those areas of the services sector that have experienced significant labour migration in recent years. It is also of wider value to those involved in curricula design in a vocational context.",
keywords = "Migrant workers, labour mobility, Hospitality services, cross-cultural management, multicultural management, curriculum development",
author = "Niamh Hearns and Frances Devine and Tom Baum",
note = "Reference text: Adler, P.A. and Adler, P. (2004), Paradise Laborers: Hotel Work in the Global Economy, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 2. Barron, P. (2004), “The learning style preferences of international students studying hospitality and tourism management in Australia: a focus on Confucian heritage students”, paper presented at the CAUTHE 2004: Creating Knowledge, Brisbane. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 3. Baum, T. (1991), “Management trainees in the hotel industry; what do managers expect?”, Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 3‐8. [Link]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 4. Baum, T. (2006), Human Resource Management for Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure: An International Perspective, Thomson, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 5. Baum, T. (2007), “Human resources in tourism: still waiting for change”, Tourism Management (forthcoming). OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 6. Breitborde, M. (1993), “Multicultural education in the classroom (teacher education)”, Childhood Education, Vol. 69 No. 4, p. 224. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 7. Brewster, C. and Harris, S. (1999), International Human Resource Management: Contemporary Issues in Europe, Routledge, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 8. Brislin, R.W., Cushner, K., Cherrie, C. and Yong, M. (1986), Inter‐cultural Interactions: A Practical Guide, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 9. Caball, K. (2005), Managing director of the Restaurant Association of Ireland Placement Services Ltd, in Saavedra, J. (2005), “Culture club”, Hotel and Catering Review, September, pp. 12‐14. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 10. Chan, C.S. and Treacy, M.J. (1996), “Resistance in multicultural courses: student, faculty, and classroom dynamics”, American Behavioural Scientist, Vol. 40 No. 2, pp. 212‐22. [CrossRef], [ISI]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 11. DAWN (2004), Managing Diversity in the Workplace Handbook: Focusing on the Employment of Migrant Workers, NCCRI, Dublin. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 12. Devine, F., Baum, T., Hearns, N. and Devine, A. (2006), “Cultural diversity in hospitality work: the Northern Ireland experience”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 18 No. 2, pp. 333‐49. [CrossRef], [ISI]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 13. D'Netto, B. and Sohal, A. (1999), “Human resource practices and workforce diversity: an empirical assessment”, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 20 No. 8, pp. 530‐47. [Link], [ISI]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 14. Ehrich, L. (2003), “Phenomenology: the quest for meaning”, in O'Donoghue, T. and Punch, K. (Eds), Qualitative Educational Research in Action, Routledge Falmer, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 15. F{\'a}ilte Ireland (2005), Cultural Diversity Strategy and Implementation Plan, F{\'a}ilte Ireland, Dublin. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 16. F{\'a}s (2005), National Skills Bulletin 2005, F{\'a}s, Dublin. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 17. Gabriel, Y. (1988), Working Lives in Catering, Routledge and Keegan Paul, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 18. Gannon, J. (2006), “Guilty of the same mistakes? The absence of intercultural skills in international management programmes”, Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Network, Oxford, available at: www.hlst.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/publications.html (accessed 7 February 2007). OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 19. Gannon, M. (2000), Understanding Global Cultures: Metaphorical Journeys Through 23 Nations, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 20. Getz, D., Carlsen, J. and Morrison, A. (2004), The Family Business in Tourism and Hospitality, CABI, Wallingford. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 21. Gr{\"o}schl, S. and Doherty, L. (1999), “Managing diversity in practice”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 11 No. 6, pp. 193‐8. [Link]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 22. Gudykunst, W.B. and Kim, Y.Y. (1992), Communicating with Strangers: An Approach to Intercultural Communication, 2nd ed., McGraw‐Hill, New York, NY. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 23. Hofstede, G. (1980), “Motivation, leadership and organisation: do American theories apply abroad?”, Organisational Dynamics, Vol. 9 No. 1, pp. 55‐6. [CrossRef], [ISI]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 24. Hofstede, G. (1983), “The cultural relativity of organisational practices and theories”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 75‐89. [CrossRef], [ISI]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 25. Hofstede, G. (1997), Cultures and Organisations: Software of the Mind, McGraw Hill, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 26. Hofstede, G. (2001), Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions, and Organisations across Nations, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 27. Holland, K. (2005), “Report calls for acceptance of immigration”, The Irish Times, 12 August, p. 7. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 28. Hoque, K. (2000), Human Resource Management in the Hotel Industry: Strategy, Innovation and Performance, Routledge, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 29. IEBE (2004), Survey of International Students in Recognised HEIs in Ireland, The International Education Board Ireland, Dublin. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 30. Ibarra, H. (1992), “Homophily and differential returns: sex differences in network structure and access in an advertising firm”, In Tayeb, M.H. (1996), The Management of a Multicultural Workforce, Wiley, Chichester. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 31. Jarman, N. (2004), “Migrant workers in Northern Ireland”, Labour Market Bulletin, Vol. 18, pp. 51‐9. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 32. Kandola, R. and Fullerton, J. (1998), Diversity in Action, 2nd ed., CIPD, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 33. Kato, K. (2001), “Exploring ‘Cultures of learning’: a case of Japanese and Australian classrooms”, Journal of Intercultural Studies, Vol. 22 No. 1, p. 51. [CrossRef]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 34. Kreitner, R. (2004), Management, 9th ed., Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 35. Lashley, C. and Morrison, A. (Eds) (2000), In Search of Hospitality, Butterworth‐Heinemann, Oxford. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 36. Mars, G. and Nicod, M. (1984), The World of Waiters, Allen and Unwin, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 37. Meddenhall, M. and Oddou, G. (1985), “The dimensions of expatriate acculturation: a review”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 10 No. 1, pp. 39‐47. [ISI]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 38. Melia, D.M. and Kennedy, E. (2005), Cultural Diversity: A Management Perspective, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 39. O'Connell, S. (2005), “How to make foreign staff feel at home”, The Sunday Times, 10 March, p. 9. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 40. OFMDFM (2005), A Racial Equality Strategy for Northern Ireland, Office of the First Minister and Deputy First Minister, Belfast. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 41. Paton, N. (2005), “Sourcing labour from Eastern Europe”, Personnel Today, 8 March, available at: www.personneltoday.com/Articles/2005/03/08/28389/sourcing‐labour‐from‐eastern‐europe.html (accessed 18 March 2005). OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 42. Powell, G.N. and Butterfield, D.A. (1994), “Race, gender and the glass ceiling: an empirical study of actual promotions to top management”, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Dallas, TX. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 43. Raybould, M. and Wilkins, H. (2005), “Over qualified and under experienced turning graduates into hospitality managers”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 17 No. 3, pp. 203‐16. [Link]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 44. Saavedra, J. (2005), “Culture club”, Hotel and Catering Review, September, pp. 12‐14. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 45. Seymour, D. and Constanti, P. (2002), “University hospitality education for international management: a case of wasted opportunities?”, Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, Vol. 1 No. 2, pp. 3‐13. [CrossRef]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 46. Tayeb, M.H. (1996), The Management of a Multicultural Workforce, Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 47. Torrington, D. and Hall, L. (2002), Human Resource Management Practice, 9th ed., Pearson Education, Harlow. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 48. Tung, R.L. (1984), “Strategic management of human resources in the multinational enterprise”, Human Resource Management, Vol. 23 No. 2, pp. 129‐43. [CrossRef]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 49. Tung, R. (1988), The New Expatriates, Ballinger, Cambridge, MA. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 50. Tung, R. (1993), “Managing cross‐national and intra‐national diversity”, Human Resource Management Journal, Vol. 23 No. 4, pp. 461‐77. [CrossRef], [ISI]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 51. Wood, R. (1997), Working in Hotels and Catering, 2nd ed., International Thomson Business Press, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 52. Woods, R. (1992), Managing Hospitality Human Resources, Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Motel Association, East Lansing, MI. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER Further Reading 1. Baum, T. and Devine, F. (2005), “Skills and the service sector: the case of hotel front office employment in Northern Ireland”, paper presented at the Tourism and Hospitality Research in Ireland: Exploring the Issues Conference, Portrush, 14‐15 June. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 2. Christensen‐Hughes, J. (1992), “Cultural diversity; the lesson of Toronto's hotels”, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Vol. 33 No. 2, pp. 78‐87. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 3. Cockburn, C. (1989), “Equal opportunities: the long and short agenda”, Industrial Relations Journal, Vol. 20, Autumn, pp. 213‐25. [CrossRef]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 4. Dooley, C. (2005), “Exploitation in land of opportunity”, The Irish Times, Vol. 22, available at: www.ireland.com (accessed 22 June 2005). OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 5. Ellis, C. and Sonnenfield, J.A. (1994), “Diverse approaches to managing diversity”, Human Resource Management, Vol. 33 No. 1, pp. 79‐109. [CrossRef], [ISI]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 6. Holmquist, K. (2005), “Eastern promise”, The Irish Times, 4 April, available at: www.ireland.com (accessed 29 June 2005). OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 7. Jackson, S., May, K. and Whitney, K. (1995), “Understanding the dynamics of diversity in decision‐making teams”, in Guzzo, R. and Salas, E. and Associates (Eds), Team Effectiveness in Decision Making in Organizations, Jossey‐Bass, San Francisco, CA, pp. 204‐61. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 8. Jenner, L. (1994), “Diversity management: what does it mean?”, Industrial Management, Vol. 36 No. 1, p. 11. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 9. Kirton, G. and Greene, A. (2000), The Dynamics of Managing Diversity, Butterworth Heinemann. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 10. Lee, C. and Chon, K.S. (2000), “An investigation of multicultural training practices in the restaurant industry: the training cycle approach”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 12 No. 2, pp. 126‐34. [Link]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 11. Lucas, R. and Deery, M. (2004), “Significant developments and emerging issues in human resource management”, International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 23 No. 5, pp. 459‐72. [CrossRef]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 12. Maxwell, G., McDougall, M. and Blair, S. (2000), “Managing diversity in the hotel sector: the emergence of a service quality opportunity”, Managing Service Quality, Vol. 10 No. 6, pp. 367‐73. [Link]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 13. Roosevelt, T. (1990), “Affirmative action or affirming diversity”, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 90 No. 2, pp. 107‐17. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 14. Ross, R. and Schneider, R. (1992), From Diversity to Equality: a Business Case for Equal Opportunities, Pitman Publishing, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 15. Shaw, J. and Barrett‐Power, E. (1998), “The effects of diversity on small work group processes and performance”, Human Relations, Vol. 51 No. 10, pp. 1307‐25. [ISI]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 16. Thomas, R.R. and Gregory, T.A. (1994), “A diversity perspective on the language challenge”, Employment Relations Today, Vol. 20 No. 4, pp. 363‐76. [CrossRef]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 17. Victor, D.A. (1992), International Business Communication, HarperCollins, New York, NY. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 18. Williams, A. (2005), “Tourism, migration and human capital: knowledge and skills at the intersection of flows”, paper presented at the 9th Bi‐annual Meeting of the International Academy for the Study of Tourism, Beijing. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER",
year = "2007",
month = "8",
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The implications of contemporary cultural diversity for the hospitality curriculum. / Hearns, Niamh; Devine, Frances; Baum, Tom.

In: Education + Training, Vol. 49, No. 5, 29.08.2007, p. 350-363.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - The implications of contemporary cultural diversity for the hospitality curriculum

AU - Hearns, Niamh

AU - Devine, Frances

AU - Baum, Tom

N1 - Reference text: Adler, P.A. and Adler, P. (2004), Paradise Laborers: Hotel Work in the Global Economy, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 2. Barron, P. (2004), “The learning style preferences of international students studying hospitality and tourism management in Australia: a focus on Confucian heritage students”, paper presented at the CAUTHE 2004: Creating Knowledge, Brisbane. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 3. Baum, T. (1991), “Management trainees in the hotel industry; what do managers expect?”, Journal of European Industrial Training, Vol. 15 No. 2, pp. 3‐8. [Link]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 4. Baum, T. (2006), Human Resource Management for Tourism, Hospitality and Leisure: An International Perspective, Thomson, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 5. Baum, T. (2007), “Human resources in tourism: still waiting for change”, Tourism Management (forthcoming). OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 6. Breitborde, M. (1993), “Multicultural education in the classroom (teacher education)”, Childhood Education, Vol. 69 No. 4, p. 224. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 7. Brewster, C. and Harris, S. (1999), International Human Resource Management: Contemporary Issues in Europe, Routledge, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 8. Brislin, R.W., Cushner, K., Cherrie, C. and Yong, M. (1986), Inter‐cultural Interactions: A Practical Guide, Sage, Beverly Hills, CA. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 9. Caball, K. (2005), Managing director of the Restaurant Association of Ireland Placement Services Ltd, in Saavedra, J. (2005), “Culture club”, Hotel and Catering Review, September, pp. 12‐14. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 10. Chan, C.S. and Treacy, M.J. (1996), “Resistance in multicultural courses: student, faculty, and classroom dynamics”, American Behavioural Scientist, Vol. 40 No. 2, pp. 212‐22. [CrossRef], [ISI]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 11. DAWN (2004), Managing Diversity in the Workplace Handbook: Focusing on the Employment of Migrant Workers, NCCRI, Dublin. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 12. Devine, F., Baum, T., Hearns, N. and Devine, A. (2006), “Cultural diversity in hospitality work: the Northern Ireland experience”, International Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol. 18 No. 2, pp. 333‐49. [CrossRef], [ISI]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 13. D'Netto, B. and Sohal, A. (1999), “Human resource practices and workforce diversity: an empirical assessment”, International Journal of Manpower, Vol. 20 No. 8, pp. 530‐47. [Link], [ISI]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 14. Ehrich, L. (2003), “Phenomenology: the quest for meaning”, in O'Donoghue, T. and Punch, K. (Eds), Qualitative Educational Research in Action, Routledge Falmer, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 15. Fáilte Ireland (2005), Cultural Diversity Strategy and Implementation Plan, Fáilte Ireland, Dublin. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 16. Fás (2005), National Skills Bulletin 2005, Fás, Dublin. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 17. Gabriel, Y. (1988), Working Lives in Catering, Routledge and Keegan Paul, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 18. Gannon, J. (2006), “Guilty of the same mistakes? The absence of intercultural skills in international management programmes”, Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Network, Oxford, available at: www.hlst.heacademy.ac.uk/resources/publications.html (accessed 7 February 2007). OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 19. Gannon, M. (2000), Understanding Global Cultures: Metaphorical Journeys Through 23 Nations, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 20. Getz, D., Carlsen, J. and Morrison, A. (2004), The Family Business in Tourism and Hospitality, CABI, Wallingford. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 21. Gröschl, S. and Doherty, L. (1999), “Managing diversity in practice”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 11 No. 6, pp. 193‐8. [Link]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 22. Gudykunst, W.B. and Kim, Y.Y. (1992), Communicating with Strangers: An Approach to Intercultural Communication, 2nd ed., McGraw‐Hill, New York, NY. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 23. Hofstede, G. (1980), “Motivation, leadership and organisation: do American theories apply abroad?”, Organisational Dynamics, Vol. 9 No. 1, pp. 55‐6. [CrossRef], [ISI]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 24. Hofstede, G. (1983), “The cultural relativity of organisational practices and theories”, Journal of International Business Studies, Vol. 14 No. 2, pp. 75‐89. [CrossRef], [ISI]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 25. Hofstede, G. (1997), Cultures and Organisations: Software of the Mind, McGraw Hill, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 26. Hofstede, G. (2001), Culture's Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviours, Institutions, and Organisations across Nations, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 27. Holland, K. (2005), “Report calls for acceptance of immigration”, The Irish Times, 12 August, p. 7. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 28. Hoque, K. (2000), Human Resource Management in the Hotel Industry: Strategy, Innovation and Performance, Routledge, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 29. IEBE (2004), Survey of International Students in Recognised HEIs in Ireland, The International Education Board Ireland, Dublin. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 30. Ibarra, H. (1992), “Homophily and differential returns: sex differences in network structure and access in an advertising firm”, In Tayeb, M.H. (1996), The Management of a Multicultural Workforce, Wiley, Chichester. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 31. Jarman, N. (2004), “Migrant workers in Northern Ireland”, Labour Market Bulletin, Vol. 18, pp. 51‐9. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 32. Kandola, R. and Fullerton, J. (1998), Diversity in Action, 2nd ed., CIPD, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 33. Kato, K. (2001), “Exploring ‘Cultures of learning’: a case of Japanese and Australian classrooms”, Journal of Intercultural Studies, Vol. 22 No. 1, p. 51. [CrossRef]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 34. Kreitner, R. (2004), Management, 9th ed., Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 35. Lashley, C. and Morrison, A. (Eds) (2000), In Search of Hospitality, Butterworth‐Heinemann, Oxford. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 36. Mars, G. and Nicod, M. (1984), The World of Waiters, Allen and Unwin, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 37. Meddenhall, M. and Oddou, G. (1985), “The dimensions of expatriate acculturation: a review”, Academy of Management Review, Vol. 10 No. 1, pp. 39‐47. [ISI]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 38. Melia, D.M. and Kennedy, E. (2005), Cultural Diversity: A Management Perspective, Dublin Institute of Technology, Dublin. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 39. O'Connell, S. (2005), “How to make foreign staff feel at home”, The Sunday Times, 10 March, p. 9. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 40. OFMDFM (2005), A Racial Equality Strategy for Northern Ireland, Office of the First Minister and Deputy First Minister, Belfast. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 41. Paton, N. (2005), “Sourcing labour from Eastern Europe”, Personnel Today, 8 March, available at: www.personneltoday.com/Articles/2005/03/08/28389/sourcing‐labour‐from‐eastern‐europe.html (accessed 18 March 2005). OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 42. Powell, G.N. and Butterfield, D.A. (1994), “Race, gender and the glass ceiling: an empirical study of actual promotions to top management”, paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, Dallas, TX. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 43. Raybould, M. and Wilkins, H. (2005), “Over qualified and under experienced turning graduates into hospitality managers”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 17 No. 3, pp. 203‐16. [Link]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 44. Saavedra, J. (2005), “Culture club”, Hotel and Catering Review, September, pp. 12‐14. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 45. Seymour, D. and Constanti, P. (2002), “University hospitality education for international management: a case of wasted opportunities?”, Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport and Tourism Education, Vol. 1 No. 2, pp. 3‐13. [CrossRef]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 46. Tayeb, M.H. (1996), The Management of a Multicultural Workforce, Wiley & Sons Ltd, Chichester. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 47. Torrington, D. and Hall, L. (2002), Human Resource Management Practice, 9th ed., Pearson Education, Harlow. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 48. Tung, R.L. (1984), “Strategic management of human resources in the multinational enterprise”, Human Resource Management, Vol. 23 No. 2, pp. 129‐43. [CrossRef]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 49. Tung, R. (1988), The New Expatriates, Ballinger, Cambridge, MA. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 50. Tung, R. (1993), “Managing cross‐national and intra‐national diversity”, Human Resource Management Journal, Vol. 23 No. 4, pp. 461‐77. [CrossRef], [ISI]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 51. Wood, R. (1997), Working in Hotels and Catering, 2nd ed., International Thomson Business Press, London. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 52. Woods, R. (1992), Managing Hospitality Human Resources, Educational Institute of the American Hotel and Motel Association, East Lansing, MI. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER Further Reading 1. Baum, T. and Devine, F. (2005), “Skills and the service sector: the case of hotel front office employment in Northern Ireland”, paper presented at the Tourism and Hospitality Research in Ireland: Exploring the Issues Conference, Portrush, 14‐15 June. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 2. Christensen‐Hughes, J. (1992), “Cultural diversity; the lesson of Toronto's hotels”, Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Vol. 33 No. 2, pp. 78‐87. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 3. Cockburn, C. (1989), “Equal opportunities: the long and short agenda”, Industrial Relations Journal, Vol. 20, Autumn, pp. 213‐25. [CrossRef]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 4. Dooley, C. (2005), “Exploitation in land of opportunity”, The Irish Times, Vol. 22, available at: www.ireland.com (accessed 22 June 2005). OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 5. Ellis, C. and Sonnenfield, J.A. (1994), “Diverse approaches to managing diversity”, Human Resource Management, Vol. 33 No. 1, pp. 79‐109. [CrossRef], [ISI]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 6. Holmquist, K. (2005), “Eastern promise”, The Irish Times, 4 April, available at: www.ireland.com (accessed 29 June 2005). OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 7. Jackson, S., May, K. and Whitney, K. (1995), “Understanding the dynamics of diversity in decision‐making teams”, in Guzzo, R. and Salas, E. and Associates (Eds), Team Effectiveness in Decision Making in Organizations, Jossey‐Bass, San Francisco, CA, pp. 204‐61. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 8. Jenner, L. (1994), “Diversity management: what does it mean?”, Industrial Management, Vol. 36 No. 1, p. 11. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 9. Kirton, G. and Greene, A. (2000), The Dynamics of Managing Diversity, Butterworth Heinemann. OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER 10. Lee, C. and Chon, K.S. (2000), “An investigation of multicultural training practices in the restaurant industry: the training cycle approach”, International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, Vol. 12 No. 2, pp. 126‐34. [Link]OpenURL UNIVERSITY OF ULSTER [Infotrieve] 11. Lucas, R. and Deery, M. 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PY - 2007/8/29

Y1 - 2007/8/29

N2 - Purpose This viewpoint paper aims to assess a curriculum response within a specific vocational sector, hospitality, driven by the recent surge in intra EU labour migration and the ensuing increase in workplace cultural diversity.Approach The paper aims to identify an appropriate curriculum response by assessing the industry implications and proffering a conceptual model of curriculum response.Findings The experience across business sectors, such as hospitality, emphasises the need for training that is geared to meet the needs of both international and indigenous employees and that, critically, intercultural issues represent a significant training gap. It is posited that the curriculum response is multifaceted embracing the need to address course content, learning outcomes, assessment methods and the training needs of educators.Originality/value The paper is targeted at academics within applied business education, specifically in those areas of the services sector that have experienced significant labour migration in recent years. It is also of wider value to those involved in curricula design in a vocational context.

AB - Purpose This viewpoint paper aims to assess a curriculum response within a specific vocational sector, hospitality, driven by the recent surge in intra EU labour migration and the ensuing increase in workplace cultural diversity.Approach The paper aims to identify an appropriate curriculum response by assessing the industry implications and proffering a conceptual model of curriculum response.Findings The experience across business sectors, such as hospitality, emphasises the need for training that is geared to meet the needs of both international and indigenous employees and that, critically, intercultural issues represent a significant training gap. It is posited that the curriculum response is multifaceted embracing the need to address course content, learning outcomes, assessment methods and the training needs of educators.Originality/value The paper is targeted at academics within applied business education, specifically in those areas of the services sector that have experienced significant labour migration in recent years. It is also of wider value to those involved in curricula design in a vocational context.

KW - Migrant workers

KW - labour mobility

KW - Hospitality services

KW - cross-cultural management

KW - multicultural management

KW - curriculum development

U2 - 10.1108/00400910710762922

DO - 10.1108/00400910710762922

M3 - Article

VL - 49

SP - 350

EP - 363

JO - Education and Training

T2 - Education and Training

JF - Education and Training

SN - 0040-0912

IS - 5

ER -